close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2128898

код для вставки
Sept. 6, 1938,
'
c. H. ANGELL
7.
'
2,128,898
CONVERSION OF HYDROCARBON OILS
FiledOct. 50, 1957
DISTILLING AND
FRACTIONATING
COLUMN
ABSORBER
HEAT
EXCHANGER
96
FURNACE
CO-OLER
I07
'nm“
I
05
‘
llO Ill
RACTIQNATOR I
57
'24
VAPORIZING
‘
AND
SEPARATING
CHAMBER
FURNACE 4
72 73
RECEIVE
HE AT
EX
INVENTOR
CHARLES H. ANGE LL
BY
'
ATTORNEY
Patented Sept. 6, 1938
L
2,128,898
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
_
2,128,898
CONVERSION OF HYDROC‘ARBON OILS ‘
Charles H. Angell, Chicago, Ill., assignorto Uni
versal Oil Products Company, Chicago, 111., a
corporation of Delaware
Application October 30, 1937, Serial No.,171,871
13 Claims. '(01. 196-9)
products resulting from their treatment. in the
co-pending applications, Serial No. 661,242, ?led reforming coil with the distillate supplied to this ‘
This is a. continuation-in-part of two of my
March 17, 1933, and Serial No. 43,299. ?led Octo
ber 3, 1935.
zone and/or products resulting from thereform
ing treatment to which the distillate is subjected,‘
The invention particularly relates to an im
proved process for the fractional distillation of
hydrocarbon oils of relatively wide boiling range
or it may be due to a combination of both types
of reaction. No experimental evidence su?icient
ly conclusive to form the basis for a scienti?c ex
accompanied by the pyrolytic conversion of se
lected relatively high-boiling fractions of the
charging stock together with a selected portion
or all of the intermediate liquid conversion prod
ucts of the cracking operations and accompanied
‘by the reforming of all or selected high-boiling
fractions of the gasoline components of the
15 charging stock together, when desired, with se-.
lected relatively low-boiling intermediate liquid
conversion products of the process.
The term “reforming” as herein used is intend
ed to designate‘ that type of cracking operation
2 O wherein light distillate, such as gasoline or gaso
line fractions or distillates, such as naphtha, for
2
example, which contain a substantial quantity of.
fractions boiling within the range of gasoline, are
treated under conditions of high cracking tem
perature, superatmospheric pressure and con-,
trolled conversion time, regulated to effect a ma
terial improvement in the antiknock value of said
gasoline fractions and simultaneously convert any
higher boiling fractions of the distillate supplied
30 to the reforming step into substantial additional
yields of good antiknock gasoline.
As a feature of the invention, selected high
boiling fractions of the normally gaseous prod
ucts of the process, which selected fractions con
3Ol sist principally of gases-containing'more than 2
carbon atoms to the molecule and including sub
stantial quantities of readily polymerizable ole
?nic gases, such as propene and butenes, are sep
arated ‘from the lower boiling gases by absorption
planation of the type of reaction involved is yet
available, but the lack of such scienti?c explana
tion does not detract from the practical value of
this feature of the invention.
0
,
Another feature of the invention resides in the
provision for controlling the time factor in the
reforming step of the process by cooling the heat
ed products discharged from the reforming coil 1,5
by their indirect heat exchange with hydrocarbon
oil charging stock for the process, whereby to sup
ply the latter with at least a substantial portion
of the heat required for its fractional distillation.
One speci?c embodiment of the process of the 2
invention comprises heating a hydrocarbon oil of
relatively wide boiling range, such as crude petro
leum, for example, to distillation temperature and
separating the heated charging stock by frac
tional distillation into selected relatively low- 25
boiling and higher boiling components, cracking
resultant selected high-boiling components of the
charging stock at elevated temperature and su
peratmospheric pressure, simultaneously reform
ing selected relatively low-boiling components of 30
the charging stock resulting from said fractional
distillation thereof and containing a substantial
quantity of gasoline fractions of inferior anti
knock value, effecting said reforming under con
version conditions of cracking temperature and 35
superatmospheric pressure controlled independ
ently of the cracking conditio'ns to which said
high-boiling components of the charging stock
are subjected, passing the highly'heated products
40 in all or a portion of the distillate .to be subjected v of the reforming step in indirect heat exchange 40
to reforming and the resulting enriched absorber
oil,,containing said high-boiling gases, is supplied
directly to the heating coil of the reforming step
of the system wherein theabsorbed gases are sub
‘45 jected to treatment under the conditions main
with said chargingstock, whereby to cooljsaid
products su?iciently to prevent any substantial
further cracking thereof and whereby to supply
heat to the charging stock for said fractional dis
tillation thereof, separating the products‘ of the. 45
tainedin thisheating coil and'inthe ‘presence of
cracking step and the partially cooled products of
l the [normally liquid hydrocarbons’ undergoing. re- '
the reforming step'into vaporous and nonevapor
ous components‘, fractionating the vapors to form
- "forming, therein and the products of‘v the reform
, ing‘ operation.‘ This feature of the process results ‘a light re?ux condensate and a heavy‘ re?ux con
50 pm a‘mat‘erial improvement in the antiknock'value ‘l‘densa'te‘, returningsaid heavy re?ux condensate 50
and/or ‘yield of‘the ‘gasolifnepr'oduct vrecovered
' "from the reforming stage 'of the process.
This
improved result may be due to polymerization-‘of
‘to furthercra‘ckin'ggin ‘the ?rst mentioned crack
ing step,~-returning said» light re?ux: condensate
toi'further crackingiin the‘ reforming step,“ sub
) theole?nic gases supplied-to the reforming coil - 1 .jectingifractionatedvapors of- the desired end
Z*65*cir*to some‘ interaction between the gases or boilingpoint, which consist principallyhof good-'55
2,199,898
2
anti-knock gasoline and normally gaseous prod
ucts, to condensation, stabilizing the resulting
distillate to reduce its vapor pressure by liberat
ing dissolved normally gaseous products there
from, subjecting the resulting liberated gases, to
gether with normally gaseous products previously
sired; Line l2 and valve I3 are provided, in the
case here illustrated, to serve as an illustration
of suitable means whereby selected intermediate
fractions of the charging stock may be recovered
from column II to be removed from the system
without subjecting the same to cracking treat
separated from the distillate following said con
densation step, to absorption by contacting the
same with at least a portion of the oil subse
quently supplied, as previously described, to the
reforming step, thereby separating desirable high
boiling components, including a substantial quan
tity of readily polymerizable oleflns, from the low
er boiling components of said gases by absorption
of the former and supplying the resulting en
riched absorber oil, ‘containing said desirable
high-boiling components of the gases. to the
aforementioned reforming step.
It will be apparent from the foregoing speci?c
ment.
All or selected fractions of the charging stock
boiling above the range of gasoline may be re
riiii?ed from column I I and directed, for example, 10
through line It and valve i5'to pump i6 by means
of which they may be supplied, all or in part,
through line l1, valve 18 and line 9! to conver
sion, as will be later described, in heating coil 43
or this material may be directed, all or in part, 15
from line H through line I9 and valve 26 into
fractionator 56 to serve as a cooling and reflux,
embodiment of the process that the invention
does not reside in any single step or feature
thereof but in the cooperative and interdepend
ent combination of features provided. Many of
the individual features of ‘the process are dis
closed in my two co-pending applications above
25
referred to and the process provided by the pres
ent invention may be considered a novel and
advantageous combination of the processes pro
vided in ‘these two parent applications.
30
_
The accompanying diagrammatic drawing illus
trates one speci?c form of apparatus embodying
the various cooperative features of the invention
and in which the process of the invention may
be conducted.
Referring to the drawing, charging stock for
the process, which preferably comprises crude
petroleum or other oil of relatively wide boiling
range and contains a substantial quantity of gaso
line or gasoline fractions of unsatisfactory anti
knock value, is supplied through line i and valve 2
40
to pump 3 wherefrom it is fed through line I and
may be thence directed through line I, valve 6
and line 9 into distilling and fractionating column
ing medium in this vzone.
Selected low-boiling fractions of the charging
stock, which are of controlled composition and
may consist predominantly of gasoline or selected
low-boiling gasoline fractions, or which may, _
when desired, include materials such as naphtha,
kerosene, kerosene distillate and the like, boiling
above the range of gasoline, are directed from i,
the upper portion of column H through line 21
and valve 22 to condenser 23 wherefrom the re
sulting distillate and any uncondensed gases are
directed through‘line 24 and valve 25 to collec
tion and separation in receiver 26. The uncon
densed gases may be released from receiver 23
and from the system through line 21 and valve
23 to' storage or elsewhere, as desired, or they
may, when desired, be directed by well known
means, not illustrated, to absorption in absorber
ill. All or a portion of the distillate collected
in receiver 26 may, when desired, be directed
therefrom through line 29 and valve 30 to stor
age or to any desired further treatment.
,
In case the charging stock does not contain any
substantial quantity of good antiknock gasoline
fractions, the total components of the charging
stock boiling within the range of gasoline, plus
l;l. Preferably, the charging stock is heated to any desired higher boiling fractions of the char
distillation temperature prior to its introduction ‘ acter above mentioned, are collected, in the man
45 into distilling and fractionating column or. when ner previously described, in receiver 26 and di
desired, a portion or all of the heat required to rected therefrom through line 3i and valve 32 to
33 wherefrom this material may be supplied
effect fractional distillation of the charging stock. pump
Heating of the charging stock may be supplied through line 34, valve 35 and line 36 to reforming
thereto in column II in any well known manner. ' treatment, as will be later more fully described,
50 not illustrated, but, in the preferred embodiment ‘in heating coil 31.
In case the charging stock contains a sub
of the invention, at least a substantial portion of
the heat required for fractional distillation of the stantial quantity of low-boiling gasoline fractions
charging stock is supplied thereto by its indirect
heat exchange with highly heated products dis
55 charged from the reforming coil of the system.
This is accomplished in the case here illustrated
by directing the‘ charging stock through valve I
in line 4 into and through heat exchanger 3,
wherein said heat exchange is accomplished. as
.60 will be later described, and wherefrom the heated
charging stock is directed through line 3 and
valve l0 into distilling and fractionating col-,
umn ll.
of satisfactory antiknock‘value, they are pref
erably collected, in the manner previously de 55
scribed, in receiver‘ 26 and recovered therefrom
as a ?nal product of the process. In the latter
case, higher boiling gasoline fractions of in
ferior antiknock value are removed as a side
stream from column ii, together with any de
sired higher boiling components of the charging
stock, such as previously mentioned, which may
be advantageously cracked to produce additional
yields of good quality gasoline under the reform
The charging stock is separated by fractional ' ing conditions employed in heating coil 31. Pro 65
distillation in column ll into any desired number vision is made, in the case here illustrated, for
of selected relatively low-boiling and high-boiling removing a selected side-stream of the nature
fractions. In case the charging stock contains above mentioned from column H and directing
appreciable quantities of components which are the same through line 38 and valve 39 to pump
33 wherefrom it may be directed, all or in part, 70
70 desirable as one or more ?nal products of the through line 3|, valve 35 and line' 36 to treat
process, such as, for example, Diesel fuel, lubri
cating stock, or the like, the same are preferably ment, as will be later described, in heating coil
65
removed as selected fractions from one or more
suitable points in the fractionator and supplied
76 thence to cooling and storage elsewhere. as de
31.
-
,
The relatively high-boiling components of the
charging stock supplied, as previously described, 75
"3
2,128,898 '
to heating coil 40, as well as the re?ux conden
and valve 58 to condensation and‘ cooling in con- ,
sate supplied, ‘as will be later described, to heat
ing coil 40 from fractionator 56," are subjected
denser 59. The resulting distillate and uncon
densed gases are directed from condenser 59
through line 60 and vale, 6| to collection and
to cracking at the desired temperature and super
atmospheric pressure as it passes through heat
ing coil 40, by means of heat supplied from fur
nace 4|. The resulting heated products are dis
charged -from heating coil 40 through line 42
and may be directed through line 43, valve 44
10 and line 45 into vaporizing and separating cham
ber 46, or, when desired, these heated products
may be afforded additional cracking time, at
substantial superatmospheric pressure in re
action chamber 49, to which they may be supplied
from coil 40 through line 41 and valve 48.
Chamber 49, when employed, may be operated
at substantially the same or somewhat lower
superatmospheric pressure than that employed
at the outlet of heating coil 40 and, although
20 not indicated in the drawing, chamber 49 is
preferably insulated to conserve heat. In the
particular case here illustrated, the vaporous and
liquid conversion products'are withdawn in com
mingled state from the lower portion of chamber
separation in receiver 62. )The uncondensed gases
separated from the distillate in receiver 62 may
be released therefrom and from the system
through line 63 and valve 64 or they may, when
desired, be directed, all or in part, from line 63
through line 65. and valve 66 to absorber N10.
The distillate collected in receiver 62 may be re
moved, all or in part, from the system through
line 6'l and valve 68 to cooling and storage or
to any desired further treatment or it may be
?rst subjected to stabilization, as will be‘ later 15
described.
When desired, regulated quantities of the dis
tillate collected in receiver 62 may be returned
therefrom by well known means, not illustrated,
to the upper portion of fractionator‘ 56 to serve
as a cooling and refluxing‘ medium in this zone.
20
49 and directed therefrom through line 50, valve
The invention also contemplates the return of
regulated quantities of the distillate collected in
receiver 26 to the upper portion of column ll
by well known means, not illustrated, to serve 25
5|, line 43 and line 45 into chamber 46.
as a cooling and re?uxing medium.
In the particularcase here illustrated, prod
. Under the operating conditions which will ordi- c
ucts from heating coil 5i‘!v are also supplied, as
will be later described, to chamber 46 and the
narily be employed in a system such as illustrated,
the distillate collected in receiver 62 will contain{
commingled materials in this zone are separated
substantial quantities of dissolved normally gase- 3o
into vaporous and non-vaporous components.
ous products in excess of ‘those. required for a
‘Chamber 46] is preferably operated at substan
gasoline of the desired vapor pressure. The in
tially reduced pressure relative to the pressures vention therefore provides for stabilization of the
employed in heating coils 31 and 40, as well as distillate to reduce its vapor pressure to the de
35. relative to the pressure employed in chamber sired degree by liberating regulated quantities of 35
‘49,lwhen the latter zone is utilized. The reduc
the dissolved normally gaseous products""there
tion in pressure serves to effect appreciable
from.
further vaporization of the liquid products sup
plied to chamber 46 and the ‘operating condi
40 tions of the process may be controlled to‘ effect
the production of either liquid residue or sub
stantially dry cokev in chamber 46._ When the
non-vaporous product remaining in chamber 46
is liquid residue, it may be removed from the
45 lower portion of this zone through line 52 and
- valve 53 to cooling and storage or elsewhere, as
desired.
When the non-vaporous residue pro-.
duced in chamber 36 is substantially dry coke,
This is accomplished, in the case here il
lustrated, by directing distillate from receiver 62
through line 69 and valve 10 to pump ‘H. where
from it is directed through line ‘I2, valve 13, heat
exchanger 14, line 15 and valve 16 into stabilizer -
TI. The purpose of heat exchanger 14 is to re
heat the distillate supplied to stabilizer 11 su?i
ciently to effect appreciable vaporization there
of in the stabilizer.
This is accomplished in' 45
the present instance ‘by passing the distillate
through heat exchanger 14 in indirect heat ex
change with relatively hot reboiled bottoms from
it may be allowed to accumulate within this zone
the stabilizer, the latter, being directed to heat
exchanger 14' through line 18 and valve 19 and 50
50 until the chamber is substantially ?lled or until
its operation is completed for ‘any other reason, . discharged from the heat exchanger through line
following which the coke may be removed in any 80 and valve 8| to further cooling and storage
well known manner, not illustrated, and the or elsewhere, as desired. Any other well known
chamber cleaned and prepared for further opera
means of reheating the distillate to the desired
temperature, within or prior to its introduction 55
55 tion. Preferably, when the‘process is conducted
for‘ the production of coke as a ?nal residual into stabilizer 11, may be employed within the
product in chamber 46, a plurality of coking scope of the invention.
}
cham/bers similar to chamber 46 is employed and,
Any desired conventional form of stabilizer
in such cases; two or more coking chambers pref
erably are alternately operated, cleaned and
prepared for further operation in order that the
coking stage, in common with the rest of the
system, may be operated continuously.
The vaporous products are directed from the
65 upper portion of chamber 46-through line 54
and valve 55 and‘are introduced into fractiona-l
tor 56 wherein their relatively high-boiling com
ponents are ‘condensed as re?ux condensate,
which is returned to further cracking within the
70 system, as will be later described. '
‘Fractionated vapors of the desired end-boil
ing point, which consist predominantly of good
antiknock gasoline or gasoline fractions and nor
mally gaseous ‘products, are directed from the
‘upper portion offfractionator 66 through line 61
may be employed within the scope of the inven
tion and, in the particular case here illustrated, 60
in order to establish equilibrium conditions in
this zone, additional heat is supplied to the
stabilizer ‘bottoms to reboil the same, and cooling
is provided in the upper portion of the stabilizer.
Reboiling of the stabilizer bottoms is accom 65
plished, in the case here illustrated, by passing a
suitable ‘heating medium through close coil 82
in the lower portion of the stabilizer. The de
sired degree of coolingrmay be accomplished in
the upper portion of the stabilizer by passing a 70
suitable cooling medium through, a closed coil 83
in this zone and/or by the introduction of a suit
able cooling medium through line 84. and valve
85 into direct contact with the gases in the upper
portion of the stabilizer. \
'
4
2,128,898
comprises the desired ?nal gasoline product of
the cracking and reforming steps, is removed‘
cooled to a relatively low temperature prior to
its introduction into the absorber. This cooling
may be accomplished in any desired manner and,
from the lower portion of the stabilizer and from
the system, in the manner previously described.
in the particular case here illustrated, cooler I81
is provided, through which the absorber oil pass
The rebolled and stabilized distillate, which
The normally gaseous products liberated from
the distillate by stabilization thereof in stabilizer
11 will contain a substantial quantity of desir
ing through line 98 may be diverted by. means
of lines I88 and H8 controlled, respectively, by
valves I89 and III.
able high-boiling components, such as gases con
The enriched absorber oil recovered from the
taining 3-carbon atoms, and more, to the mole
lower portion of absorber I88, which preferably 10
contains substantially all of the readily poly
cule and, more particularly, readily ‘polymeriz
able ole?nic gases such as propene and butenes.
' These liberated gases are directed from the upper
portion of the stabilizer through line 88, valve
81 and line 85 and are introduced, either alone
or together with the normally gaseous products
recovered from receiver 82, into absorber I88.
The total re?ux condensate formed in frac
tionator 58 may, when desired, be removed from
the lower portion of this zone and directed
through line 88 and valve 89 to pump 98 by means
of which it is supplied through line 9I and valve
92 to further cracking in heating coil 48, in the
manner previously described. Preferably, how
ever, the re?ux condensate formed in fractionator
58 is separated by fractional condensation of the
vapors in this zone into selected relatively low
boiling and high-boiling fractions, in which case,
only thehigh-boiling fractions are supplied, as
previously described, to further cracking in heat
ingjcoil 48, while the selected lower boiling frac
tions are removed from one or a plurality of suit
able intermediate points in the fractionator and
directed therefrom to further cracking in heat
ing coil 31. Provision is made, in the case here
merizable ole?nic gases, such as propene and
butenes, supplied to the absorber, as well as cor
responding paraf?nic compounds and any higher
boiling components of the gases, is directed
through line “,2 and valve II3 to pump H4 by
means of which it is supplied through line I I5,
valve H8 and line 38 to treatment in heating
coil 31.
A furnace I28, of any suitable form, supplies
the required heat to the relatively low-boiling
oils and high-boiling-gases passing through heat
ing coil 31 to effect the desired treatment of the
mixture, preferably at a substantial superatmos
pheric pressure. Although heating coil 31 and
furnace
I28 are illustrated in a conventional
manner'in the drawing, this equipment prefer
ably comprises one of , the well known forms of
heater commonly used for reforming service, by
means of which the materials passing there
through are quickly heated to the desired rela
30
tively high temperature and then maintained for
a predetermined time at a substantial constant
temperature relatively close to the maximum
temperature previously attained. The preferred 35
illustrated, for directing light re?ux condensate ‘conditions of operation maintained in heating
from fractionator 58 through line 93 and valve
"94 to pump 95 by means of which it is fed through
line 98 and may be thence supplied, all or in part,
40 through line 91, valve 98 and line 38 to heating
coil 31.
”
~
The function of absorber I88, which may be
any conventional form of absorption or scrub
bing apparatus, .is to separate the desired high
45 boiling components of the gases, such as above
mentioned, from their lower boiling components.
This is\ac_complished by the use of an absorber
oil of selected characteristics which will recover,
by selective absorption, a substantial portion of
coil 31, which will be later specified, are regulated
to effect reforming treatment of the gasoline or
gasoline fractions supplied to this zone, whereby
to materially improve their antiknock value, and 40
at the same time effect cpnversion of any higher
boiling oils supplied thereto to produce addi
ti'onal yields of good antiknock gasoline there-‘
from and, further, effect conversion of the gases
to produce additional yields of good antiknock 45
compounds boiling 'within the range of gasoline.
The highly heated products resulting from the
treatment afforded the mixture in heating coil
31 are discharged from this zone through line
the gases containing more than 2-carbon atoms - I2I and may be directed therefrom, all or in 50
of the propane and but'ene fractions. The un
absorbed low-boiling gases are released from the
part, through line 'I22, valve I23, valve I24 and
line 45 into chamber 48-, wherein they commingle
with the ‘conversion products supplied to this
upper portion of absorber I88 through line IM
zone fromlheating coil 48 or from reaction cham
to the molecule and including substantially all
55 and valve I82 to storage or elsewhere, as desired.
,- In accordance with the provisions of this in:
vention, the absorber oil supplied to absorber
I88 comprises a portion or all of the light oil
cracking stock for heating coil .31. In accord
60 ancerwith this provision of the invention, reg
ulated quantities of the selected low-boiling com
ponents ‘of the charging stock supplied, as pre
viously described, to pump 33, may be diverted
from line 34 through line I83 and valve I84 into
65 line 98 and thence directed through valve I85
- in this line into the upper portion of absorber
I88, or regulated quantities of the selected low
boiling. fractions of the re?ux condensate from
fractionator 58 may be directed through valve
I88 in line 98 and thence through valve I85 in
this line to the upper portion of absorber I88,
or a mixture of the low-boiling components of
the charging stock and the low-boiling re?ux
‘ condensate from fractionator 58 may ,jbe utilized‘
ber 49, the resultant mixture being subjected 55
ini-chamber l8 and the subsequent equipment)
to the treatment previously described.
Preferably, in order to de?nitely control the
conversion time afforded the mixture supplied to
heating coil 31, the products discharged from
this 'zone are cooled to a sufficiently low tem
perature to prevent any excessive further con
version following their discharge from the heat
ing coil. Two methods of accomplishing this
cooling are illustrated in the drawing, either or 65
both of which may be utilized within the scope
of .the invention. One method of cooling the
heated products discharged from heating coil 31
comprises directing, the same, all or in part,
through valve I25 in line I2I into heat exchanger 70
8 wherein they .pass in indirect heat ‘exchange
with the charging stock supplied to this zone,
as previously described, and wherefrom the par
tially cooled products are directed through line
76 as absorber oil. Preferably, the ‘absorberoil is , I28 and valve I21 into line I22 and thence, as 75
2, 198,898
previously described, to chamber 46. The other
method of cooling illustrated comprises diverting
regulated quantities of the light re?ux conden
‘sate from fractionator 56 from line 91 through
5 line I28 and valve I29 into line I22, wherein this
5 .
tially atmospheric to 350 pounds or more, super
‘atmospheric, may be utilized in the stabilizing
and absorption equipment, the preferred range
being from_1‘25 to 350 pounds in the stabilizer
material commingles with the conversion prod
and from 100 to 225 pounds in the absorber.
As a speci?c example of an‘ operation of the
ucts from heating coil 31, the resulting mix
ture being directed, in the manner previously
described, to chamber 46. Preferably, in con
character illustrated and above described, the
charging stock is a mixed-base crude of approxi
10 junction with the use of either or both of the
methods of cooling above described, cooling of
the products discharged from heating coil 31 is
further assisted by a substantial reduction in the
pressure employed in chamber 46 relative to that
15 maintained at the outlet of heating coil 31 and,‘ to
accomplish this, one or any desired combination
of valves I23, I24, I25 and I2'l may be utilized
for effecting the desired pressure reduction.
process as conducted in an apparatus of the
_ tely 36° A. ‘P. I. gravity which contains. ap
fractions boiling up to approximately 290° F.,
approximately 30% of the materials boiling up
to 420° F. and approximately 25% of good quality
asphaltic residue.
_
15
~
' This charging stock is heated by indirect heat
exchange with the products discharged from the
heating coil 2? to a temperature of approximately
The preferred range of operating conditions 560° F., at a superatmospheric pressure of ap
20 which may be employed tojsuccessfully conduct proximately 35 pounds per square inch, and
the process, in an apparatus such as illustrated thence introduced into the distilling and- frac
and above described, may be approximately. as tionating column which is maintained at sub
follows:
E
stantiaiiy the same pressure. Steam is vintro
The temperature to which the charging stock duced into the lower portion of the distilling
25 is heated to effect its fractional distillation will, column to assist the distillation and approxi
of course, vary depending upon the type of mately 25% of good quality asphaltic residue
chargingstock employed and upon the pressure based on the charging stock is recovered as
conditions utilized in the distilling zone. When bottoms from the distilling zone. Approximately
distillation is accomplished at atmospheric or 10%, based on the charging stock of low-boiling
30 substantially superatmospheric pressure, ‘the gasoline fractions having a satisfactory anti
temperature to which the .charging stock-v is knock value, is recovered as overhead distillate
heated may range, for example, from 350 to 650° from the distilling and fractionating column. A
F., or thereabouts. With substantial superat
side-stream consisting of the remainder of the
Jnospheric pressures in the distilling zone, the straight-run gasoline and additional fractions
;, temperature will be correspondingly higher.
of the crude boiling up to approximately 500° F.
The temperature employed at the outlet-of the
heavy oil cracking coil may range, for example.
from 850 to 975° F.', and preferably aysuperat
mospheric pressure of the order of 100 to 500
40 pounds per- square inch is maintained at this
point in the system. When a high pressure re
action chamber succeeding the heavy oil heat
ing coil is employed, the pressure maintained in
this zone may be substantially the same or some
what lower than that employed at the outlet of
the heavy oil heating coil and, as previously men
tioned, the reaction chamber is preferably insu
' lated to conserve heat and maintain an active
” cracking temperature in this zone.
is removed from the distilling and fractionating
55 F. preferably with ya superatmospheric pressure
of the order of 200 to 1000 pounds, or there
abouts, per square inch, at this point in the
system. The highly heated products discharged
from this heatingcoil are preferably cooled to
60' altemperature of thevorder of. 600 to 750° F.
prior to their introduction into the vaporizing
proximately 350 pounds persquare inch is main
tained ‘at the outlet of the heavy oil cracking 50
coil and the heated products from this zone are
supplied directly to the vaporizing and separat
ing chamber, which is maintained at a super
atmospheric pressure of approximately 90 pounds 55
per square inch. The high pressurereaction
chamber is not utilized in this operation.
‘ ‘
~'I‘i'ie gasoline product collected in the receiver
of the cracking system‘has an end-boiling‘ point
of approximately 400° F. and is stabilized in the 80
manner illustrated and above described, to reduce
' ' A side-stream of light re?ux condensate, hav
65‘ porizingj and ‘separating chamber ‘is ‘operated ‘as
‘
v
35
umn and supplied to the, relatively heavy oil
cracking coil together with high-boiling frac 45
tions of the re?ux condensate formed in the
fractionator of the cracking system.
A conversion temperature of approximately
for example,'from.800 to‘ 850° F., when the va
“
30
str'eam from the distilling and fractionating col
_ its vapor pressure to approximately 8 pounds‘ per
zone:
25
column for use as absorber oil and reforming
stock. The additional fractions of the crude
having a'boiiing range intermediate that of the
light side-stream and the asphaltic bottoms and 40
amounting to approximately 35% of the crude, '
by volume, are withdrawn as a. separate side
and separating chamber, although the tempera
ture of these products ‘may be somewhat higher,
a'coking
20
970° F. and a superatmospheric pressure of ap
’
The temperature employed at the outlet of
the heating coil to which the high-boiling gases
and the selected low-boiling fractions of. the re
?ux condensate and/or charging stock are sup
plied, may range, for example, from 925 to 1050"
I
10
proximately 10% of good ant'iknock. gasoline
'
The vaporizing and‘ separatingor coking ‘zone
may be operated at any desired; pressure ranging“
from 1'001pounds; orftheréaboutsl’per‘I square inch,
70 superatmospheric,uowntq subs'tantiallyv atmos
pheric" pressure" and» the succeeding“ ‘fractionat
ingjJbQnde‘n'sing: andi' conecting ' equipment ‘may
be operated‘: at substantially‘ ‘the: same or some
_ what‘lowe’r
“any desired
pressureuf'
pressures "ranging
"
‘from, substan-v
‘
square inch, as determined by the Reid method.
ing a boiling range of approximately 385 to 600°
F., is removed from the fractionator of the crack
65
ing system and su'pplied‘directly to thereform~
inscoil.-'Y'
I"
‘
‘'
*~
"I The gases liberated from the distillate by stable
lization and the gases previously separated there 70
from in the receiver ‘oflthe cracking system. are
supplied to'the absorber'and therein ‘contacted
with’i'egiilated quantities of theiightv side-stream
recovered‘ {from vthe distilling" ‘and fractionating
column‘. " The‘absorber-oil-iscooled to a‘ tempera
2,128,898
6
ture of approximately 70° F. prior to its introduc
tion into the absorber.
nantly of materials boiling within the rangeof
The unabsorbed gases,
gasoline and normally gaseous products, to con
which consists principally of fractions having 2
and less carbon atoms to the molecule are re
leased from the upper portion of the absorber.
The enriched absorber oil, which contains sub—
stantially all of the gases having 3 and more car
bon atoms to the molecule, is supplied directly
from the absorber to the reforming coil.
10. The temperature employed at the outlet of the
reforming coil is approximately 995° F. and the
pressure employed at this point in the system is
approximately ‘750 pounds per square inch, su
densation, separating the resulting distillate and.
uncondensed gases, stabilizing the distillate to
reduce its vapor pressure to the desired degree by
liberating regulated quantities of dissolved nor
mally gaseous products therefrom, recovering the
stabilized distillate, intimately contacting the
gasesliberated from the distillate by said stabi
lization with at least a portion of the oil subse
peratmospheric. The highly heated products
15 discharged from the reforming coil are cooled,
partially ,by indirect heat exchange with the
charging stock, partially by directly commingling
the same with regulated quantities of the light
re?ux condensate from the fractionator of the
20 cracking system and partially by pressure reduc
tion, to a temperature of about 610° F. and are
thence introduced into the vaporizing and sepa
rating chamber.
‘
>
In addition to the 25%, or thereabouts, of as
phaltic residue recovered as a ?nal product of
the process from the distilling and fractionating
column, the above described operation will yield
per barrel of charging stock approximately 56%
of gasoline which consists of a blend of the light
30 straight-run gasoline fractions and gasoline pro
duced in the cracking and reforming steps. The
remaining 19% or thereabouts, based in charg
ing stock, is accounted for as residual liquid, suit
able as fuel oil, which is recovered from the va
porizing and separating chamber, and the small
amount of gas and loss. The blended gasoline
product has an end-boiling point of approxi
mately 400° F., an antiknock value, as determined
by the motor method, of approximately '72 and a
40 vapor pressure (Reid) of approximately 8 pounds
per square inch.
I claim as my invention:
1. A process for the treatment of hydrocarbon
oils which comprises fractionally distilling a hy
45 drocarbon charging oil of relatively wide boiling
range and therebyseparating thesame into se
lected relatively . low-boiling and‘ high-boiling
fractions, cracking resultant selected high-boil
10
quently supplied, as previously described, to said
reforming step and thereby absorbing in the lat
ter desirable high-boiling components of said
gases including readily polymerizable ole?ns, re
moving the unabsorbed low-boiling gases from 15
the system and supplying the resulting enriched
absorber oil to said reforming step.
2. A process for the treatment of hydrocarbon
oils which comprises fractionally distilling a hy
drocarbon charging oil of relatively wide boiling 20
range and thereby separating'the same into se
lected relatively low-boiling and high-boiling,
fractions, cracking resultant selected high-boil
ing fractions of the charging oil and reforming
resultant selected low-boiling fractions of the 25
charging oil, which comprise at least a substan
tial quantity of gasoline fractions of poor anti
knock value, effecting said cracking and said’ re
forming under independently controlled condi
tions of cracking temperature and superatmos 30
pheric pressure, partially cooling the heated prod
ucts of said reforming step su?iciently to prevent
an excessive continued cracking thereof and ac
complishing said cooling, at least in part, by in
direct heat exchange between the charging oil 35
and hot reformed products, whereby to supply
heat to the charging oil for said fractional dis
tillation thereof, separating vaporous and non
vaporous components of the resultant cracked
and. partially cooled reformed products, frac 40
tionating the vapors to formv light and heavy re
flux condensates, returning heavy re?ux con
densate formed by said fractionation to the
cracking step for further cracking treatment, re
turning light re?ux condensate formed by said 45
fractionation to the reforming step for further
cracking treatment, subjecting the fractionated
vapors of the desired end-boiling point, which
ing fractions of the charging oil and reforming - consists predominantly of materials boiling with
50 resultant selected low-boiling fractions of the
charging oil, which comprise at least a substan
tial quantity of gasoline fractions of poor anti
knock value, effecting said cracking and said re
forming under independently controlled condi
55 tions‘ of cracking temperature and superatmos
pheric pressure, partially cooling the heated
products of the reforming step and accomplish
ing said cooling, at least‘ in part, by passing heat
ed products of said reforming step in indirect
60 heat exchange with the charging’ oil, whereby to
~ prevent any excessive continued cracking of the
reformed products and whereby to supply heat to
the charging oil for saidfractional distillation
thereof, separating vaporous and non-vaporous
65 components of the resultant cracked and par
in the range of gasoline and normally gaseous 50
products, to condensation, separating the result
ing distillate and uncondensed gases, stabilizing
the distillate to reduce its vapor pressure to the
desired degree by liberating regulated quantities
of dissolved normally gaseous products therefrom, 55
recovering the stabilized distillate, intimately
contacting the gases liberated from the distillate
by said stabilization and gases previously sepa
rated from the distillate following'said condensa
tion with at least a portion of the oil subsequently
supplied, as previously described, to said reform
ing step,‘thereby absorbing in the latter desirable
high-boiling components of said gases, including
readily polymerizable ole?ns, removing the un 65
absorbed low-boiling gases from the system and
tially cooled reformed products, fractionating the ' supplying the resulting enriched absorber oil to
said reforming step.
vapors to form light and heavy re?ux conden
3. A process for the treatment of hydrocarbon
sates, returning heavy re?ux condensate formed
by said fractionation to the cracking step for oils which comprises fractionally distilling a hy 70
drocarbon charging oil of relatively wide boiling
70 further cracking treatment, returning light re_
?ux condensate formed by said fractionation to
the reforming step for further cracking treat
ment, subjecting the fractionated vapors of the
75
desired end-boiling point, which consist predomi
range and thereby separating the same intovse
lected relatively low-boiling and high-boiling
fractions, cracking resultant selected high-boiling
fractions of the charging oil and reforming re
I
2,128,898
sultant selected low-boiling fractions of‘ the
charging oil, which comprise at least a substan
tial quantity of gasoline fractions of poor anti
knock value, effecting said cracking and said re
forming under independently controlled condi
tions of cracking temperature and super-atmos
pheric pressure, passing heated products of said
reforming step in indirect heat exchange with
the charging oil to supply ‘heat to the charging
10 oil for said fractional distillation thereof, sepa
rating vaporous and non-vaporous components
of the resultant cracked and partially cooled re
formed products, fractionating the vapors to form
7.
distillate by said stabilization and gases previous
ly separated from the distillate with an absorber
oil comprising selected low-boiling fractions of
the charging oil subsequently supplied, as pre-‘
viously described, to the reforming step, ‘thereby
separating desirable high-boiling components of
the gases, including readily polymerizable ole?ns,
from low-boiling components thereof, by ab
sorption of the former, and supplying the re
sulting enriched absorber oil to the reforming 10
step.
5. A process for the treatment of hydrocarbon
oils which comprises fractionally distilling a hy
light and heavy re?ux condensates, returning ydrocarbon charging oil of relatively. wide boiling
15 heavy re?ux condensate‘ formed by said frac
tionation to the cracking step for further crack
ing treatment, returning light re?ux condensate
formed by said fractionation to the reforming
step for further cracking treatment, subjecting
20 the fractionated vapors of the desired end-boil
ing point, which consist predominantly of ma
terials boiling within the range of gasoline and
normally gaseous products, to condensation, sep
arating the resulting distillate and uncondensed
25 gases, stabilizing the distillate to reduce its vapor
pressure to the desired degree by liberating regu~
lated quantities of dissolved normally gaseous
products therefrom, recovering the stabilized dis
tillate, intimately contacting the ‘gases liberated
30 from the distillate by said stabilization with an
absorber oil comprising selected low-boiling frac
tions of the charging oil subsequently supplied, as
previously described, to the reforming step, there
‘range and thereby separating the same *i-nto se
lected relatively low-boiling and high-boiling
fractions, cracking resultant selected high-boil
15
ing fractions of the charging oil and reforming
resultant selected low-boiling fractions ‘of the
charging oil, which comprise at least a substan 20
tial quantity of gasoline fractions of poor anti
knock value, effecting said cracking and said re
forming under independently controlled condi
tions of cracking temperature and superatmos
pheric pressure, passing heated products'of said 25
reforming step in indirect heat exchange with
the charging oil to supply heat to the charging
oil for said fractional distillation thereof,'sepa
rating vaporous and non-vaporous components of
the resultant cracked and partially cooled re 30
formed products, fractionating the vapors to form
light and heavy re?ux condensates, returning I
heavy re?ux’ condensate formed by said’frac
tionation to the cracking step for further crack
by separating desirable high-boiling components
of the gases, including readily polymerizable . ing treatment, returning light re?ux condensate 35
ole?ns, from low-boiling components" thereof by formed‘ by said fractionation to the reforming
,step for further cracking treatment, subjecting
absorption of the former and supplying the re
sulting enriched absorber‘ oil to the reforming
step.
40
,
d
“
"
4.~ A process for the treatment of hydrocarbon
oils which comprises fractionally distilling a hy
drocarbon charging oil of relatively wide boiling
range and thereby separating the'same into se
lected relatively low-boiling and high-boiling
45 fractions, cracking resultant selected high-boih'
the fractionated vapors of the desired endI-boiling
point, which consist predominantly of materials
boiling within the range of gasoline and normally 40
gaseous products, to condensation, separating the
resulting distillate and uncondenser gases, sta
bilizing the distillate to reduce its vapor pressure
to. the desired degree by liberating regulated
quantities o'f'dissolved normally gaseous products 45
therefrom, recovering the stabilized distillate, in
timately contacting the gases liberated from the
distillate by said stabilization with absorber oil
comprising selected low-boiling fractions of the
ing fractions of the charging oil and_reforming
resultant selected low-boiling fractions-of the
charging oil, which comprise at least a substan
tial quantity of gasoline fractions of poor anti
50 knock value, effecting said cracking and "said re ' re?ux' condensate formediby said fractionation, 50
thereby separating desirable high-boiling com
forming under independently controlled condi
ponents of the gases, including readily polymeriz#
‘tions of cracking temperature and superatmos
pheric pressure, passing heated products of said able ole?ns,.from low-boiling components there
reforming step in indirect heat exchange with the of, by absorption of the former, and supplying the
charging oil to supply heat to the charging oil ' resulting enriched absorber oil to the reforming 55
for said fractional distillation thereof, separat
ing vaporous and non-vaporous components of
resultant cracked and partially cooled reformed
products, fractionating the vapors to form light
60 and heavy re?ux condensates, returning heavy
re?ux condensate formed by said fractionation
to the cracking step for further cracking treat
ment, returning light re?ux condensate formed
by said fractionation to the reforming step for
65 further cracking treatment, subjecting the frac
tionatedvapors of the desired end-boiling point,
which consist predominantly of materials boiling
within the range of gasoline and normally gas
eous products, to condensation, separating the re
70 sulting distillatev and uncondensed gases, stabiliz
6. A process for the treatment of hydrocarbon
oils which comprises fractionally distilling a hy
drocarbon charging oil of relatively wide boiling
range and thereby separating the same into se-‘
lected relatively low-boiling and high-boiling
fractions, cracking resultant selected high-boil
ing fractions of the charging oil and reforming
resultant selected low-boiling fractions of the
charging oil, which comprise at least a substantial
quantity of gasoline fractions of poor antiknock 65
value, effecting said cracking and said reforming
under independently controlled conditions of
cracking temperature and superatmospheric pres
sure, passing heated products of said reforming 70
ing the distillate to reduce its vapor'pressure to ‘ step in indirect heat exchange with the charging
voil to supply heat to the charging oil for said ,
the desired degree by liberating'regulated quan
tities of dissolved normallyi- gaseous products fractional distillation thereof, separating ‘vapor- I
therefrom, recovering the stabilized idijstillate, in
75 timately contacting the gases liberated-from the
ions and non-vaporous components of the result
‘ant cracked and partially cooled reformed prod
2,128,898
8
ucts, fractionating the vapors to form light and
heavy re?ux condensates, returning heavy re
. ?ux condensate formed by said fractionation to
the cracking step for further cracking treatment,
returning light re?ux condensate formed by said
fractionation to the reforming step for further
cracking treatment, subjecting the fractionated
_vapors of the desired end-boiling point, which
consist predominantly of materials boiling with
10 in the range of gasoline and normally gaseous
products, to condensation, separating the result
ing distillate and uncondensed gases, stabilizing
the distillate to reduce its vapor pressure to the
desired degree by liberating regulated quantities
15 of dissolved normally gaseous products there
from, recovering the stabilized distillate, in
timately contacting the gases liberated from the
distillate by said stabilization and gases pre
viously separated from the distillate with absorber
20 oil comprising selected low-boiling fractions of
the re?ux condensate formed by said fractiona
tion, thereby separating desirable high-boiling
components of the gases, including readily poly
merizable ole?ns, from low-boiling components
25 thereof, by absorption of the former, and supply
ing the resulting enriched absorber oil to the re
forming step.
‘
v
7. A process for the treatment of hydrocar
bon oils which comprises fractionally distilling
30 a hydrocarbon charging oil of relatively wide
boiling range and thereby separating the same
into selected relatively low-boiling and high-boil
ing fractions, cracking resultant selected high
boiling fractions of the charging oil and re
35 forming resultant selected low-boiling fractions
of the charging oil, which comprise at least a
substantial ‘quantity of gasoline fractions of poor
antiknock value, effecting said cracking and said
reforming under independently controlled con
40 ditions of cracking temperature and superatmos
pherlc pressure, passing heated products of said
reforming step in indirect heat exchange with.
the charging oil, whereby, to partially cool the
formerand supply heat to the charging oil for
45 said fractional distillation thereof, separating
vaporous and non-vaporous components of the,
. resultant cracked and partially cooled reformed
resultant selected low-boiling fractions of the
charging oil, which comprise at least a substantial
quantity of gasoline fractions of poor antiknock
value, effecting said cracking and said reforming
under independently controlled conditions of
cracking temperature‘ and superatmospherlc
pressure, passing heated products of said reform
ing step in indirect heat exchange with the charg
ing oil, whereby to partially cool the former and
supply heat to the charging oil for said fractional 10
distillation thereof, separating vaporous and non
vaporous components of the resultant cracked
and partially cooled reformed products, frac
tionating said vapors to form re?ux condensate,
returning said re?ux condensate to further crack 15
ing treatment within the system, subjecting the
fractionated vapors of the desired end-boiling
point, which consist predominantly of materials
boiling within the range of gasoline and normally
gaseous products, to condensation, separating the 20
resulting distillate and uncondensed gases stabiliz
ing the distillate to reduce its vapor pressure to
the desired degree by liberating regulated quanti
ties of dissolved normally gaseous products there
from,‘ recovering the stabilized distillate, in
timately contacting the gases liberated from the
distillate by said stabilization and gases previ
ously separated from the distillate with a light
distillate subsequently supplied to said reforming
step and thereby absorbing in the latter desirable
high-boiling components of said gases including
readily polymerizable ole?ns, removing the un
absorbed low-boiling gases from the system and
supplying the resulting enriched absorber oil to
‘ said reforming step.
'
9. A process for the treatment of hydrocarbon
oils which comprises fractionally distilling a hy
drocarbon-charging oil of relatively wide boiling
range and thereby separating the same into se
lected relatively low-boiling and high-boiling
fractions, cracking resultant selected high-boiling ,
fractions of the charging oil and reforming re
sultant selected low-boiling fractions of the
charging oil, which comprise at least‘ a substan
tial quantity of gasoline fractions of poor anti 45
knock value, effecting said cracking and said re
forming under independently controlled condi
tions of cracking temperature and superatmos»
products, fractionating said vapors to form re
?ux condensate, returning said re?ux condensate
to further cracking treatment within the system,
Ipheric pressure, passing heated products of said
end-boiling point, which consist predominantly
former and supply heat to the charging oil and
of material boiling within the range of gasoline
and normally gaseous products, to condensation,
separating the resulting distillate and uncon
55 densed gases, stabilizing the distillate to reduce
its vapor pressure to the desired degree by liber
said fractional distillation thereof, separating
50 subjecting the fractionated vapors of the desired
ating regulated quantities of dissolved normally
gaseous products therefrom, recovering the sta
bilized distillate, intimately contacting the gases
60
liberated from the distillate by said stabilization
with a light distillate subsequently supplied to
said reforming step and thereby absorbing in the
latter desirable high-boiling components of said
gases including readily polymerizable OIG?DSyI'G
65
moving the unabsorbed low-boiling gases from
the system and supplying the resulting enriched
absorber oil to said reforming step.v
8. A process for the treatment of hydrocarbon
70 oils which comprises fractionally distilling a hy
drocarbon charging oil of relatively wide boiling
range and thereby separating the same into se
lected relatively low-boiling and high-boiling
fractions, cracking resultant selected high-boil
75
ing fractions of the charging oil and reforming
reforming step in indirect heat exchange with
the charging oil, whereby to partially cool the
vaporous and non-vaporous components of the
resultant cracked and partially cooled reformed 55
products, fractionating said vapors toform re?ux
condensate, returning said re?ux condensate to
further cracking treatment within the system,
subjecting the fractionated vapors of the desired
end-boiling point, which consist predominantly of
materials boiling within the range of gasoline and
normally gaseous products, to condensation, sepa
rating the resulting distillate and uncondensed
gases, stabilizing the distillate to reduce its vapor 65
pressure to the desired degree by liberating regu
lated‘ quantities of dissolved normally gaseous
products therefrom, recovering the stabilized dis
tillate, intimately contacting the gases liberated
from the distillate by said stabilization with an
absorber oil comprising selected low-boiling frac
tions of the charging oil, whereby to separate de
sirable high-boiling components of the gases, in
cluding readily polymerizable ole?ns, from lower
boiling components thereof, by absorption of the
P,
G
2,128,898
former, and supplying the resulting enriched ab
sorber oil to the reforming step.’ ,
10; A process for the treatment of hydrocarbon
oils which comprises fractionally distilling hy
drocarbon charging oil of relatively wide boiling
tionation to the ?rst mentioned heating coil for
further cracking, subjecting the fractionated va-,
pors of the desired end-boiling point to condensa
tion, separating the resulting distillate and un-_
range and thereby separating the same into se
condensed gases, stabilizing the distillate to re-‘
duce its vapor pressure to the desired degree by
lected relatively low-boiling and high-boiling frac
tions, cracking resultant selected high-boiling
mally gaseous products therefrom, supplying
fractions of the charging oil and reforming re
10 sultant selected low-boiling fractions of the charg
ing oil, which comprise at leastv a‘ substantial
quantity of gasoline fractions of poor antiknock
value, effecting said cracking and said reforming
under independently controlled conditions of
15 cracking
temperature
and
liberating regulated quantities of dissolved nor
gases liberated from the distillate by saidstabi
lization to an absorber, therein contacting the 10
same with an absorber oil comprising selected
low-boiling fractions of the charging oil and
thereby separating desirable high-boiling com
ponents of the gases, including readily polymer
superatmospheric 'izable ole?ns, from lower boiling components
pressure, passing heated products of said reform
ing step in indirect heat exchange with the charg
ing oil whereby to partially cool the former and
to supply heat to the charging oil and said frac
20 tional distillation thereof, separating vaporous
and non-vaporous components of the resultant
cracked and partially cooled reformed products,
fractionating said vapors to form re?ux con
thereof, by absorption 'of the former, and sup- _
plying the resulting enriched absorber oil to the
.second mentioned heating coil. _
12. In a process for the treatment of hydrocar
bon oils which comprises fractionally distilling an 20
oil of relatively wide boiling range and thereby
separating the same into selected relatively low
boiling and high-boiling fractions, supplying'se
of materials boiling within the range of gasoline
lected high-boiling fractions to a heating coil
and therein cracking the same at elevated tem
perature and superatmospheric pressure, sup
plying selected low-boiling fractions of the charg
ing oil, which comprise at least a substantial
and normally gaseous products, to condensation,
quantity of poor antiknock gasoline fractions, to
densate, returning said re?ux condensate to fur
25 ther cracking treatment within the system, su‘b
jecting the fractionated vapors of the desired
end-boiling point, which consist predominantly
30 separating the resulting distillate and uncon
densed gases, stabilizing the distillate to reduce
its vapor pressure to the desired degree by liberat
ing regulated quantities of dissolved normally
gaseous products therefrom, recovering the sta
35 bilized distillate, intimately contacting the gases‘
a separate heating coil and therein heating the
same under cracking conditions of elevated tem
perature and» superatmospheric pressure regu
lated to effect a material improvement in the an
tiknock value of said gasoline fractions,‘ dis
charging resultant highly heated productsfrom
liberated from the distillate by said stabiliza - the last mentioned heating coil, cooling the same
tion and gases previously separated from the sufficiently to prevent any excessive further
distillate with an absorber oil comprising selected
low-boiling fractions of the charging oil, where
vcracking thereof, introducing the resulting par
tially cooled products and products resulting from
40 by to separate desirable high-boiling components
the ?rst mentioned cracking operation into a re
resulting enriched absorber oil to the reforming
vapors from said separating chamber to a frac
of the gases, including readily polymerizable duced pressure separating chamber and therein
ole?ns, from lower boiling components thereof, separating vaporous arid non-vaporous compo
by absorption of the former, and supplying the . nents of the commingled products, supplying the
40'
_tionator and therein condensing as, reflux con 45
45 step.
densate substantially all of their components with
11, A process for the treatment of hydrocarJ the exception of good antiknock gasoline and
bon oils which comprises fractionally distilling normally gaseous products, separating the re?ux
an oil of relatively wide boiling range and there
condensate formed by said fractionation into se
by separating the same into selected relatively lected low-boiling and high-boiling fractions, re
50 low-boiling and high-boiling fractions, supplying - turning the latter to the ?rst mentioned heating
selected high-boiling fractions to ya heating coil
and therein cracking the-same at elevated tem
perature and superatmospheric pressure, sup
plying selected low-boiling fractions of the charg
ing oil, which comprise at least a substantial
quantity of poor antiknock gasoline fractions, to
coil for further cracking treatment, returning said
selected low-boiling fractions of the re?ux con
densate to the second mentioned heating coil
for further cracking treatment, subjecting ‘the 55
fractionated vapors of the desired end-boiling
point to condensation, separating the resulting
a separate heating coil and therein heating the distillate and uncondensed gases, stabilizing the
same under cracking conditions of elevated tem
distillate to reduce its vapor pressure to the de
perature and superatmospheric pressure regu
sired degree by liberating regulated quantities of
no lated to effect a material improvement ‘in the‘ dissolved normally gaseous products therefrom, 60
antiknock value of said gasoline fractions, dis
supplying gases liberated from the distillate by
charging resultant highly heated products from said stabilization to an absorber, therein con
the last mentioned heating coil, cooling the same tacting the same with at least a portion of the
sufficiently to prevent any excessive further oil subsequently supplied, as previously described,
65
65 cracking thereof, introducing the resulting par
to the second mentioned~ heating coil and there
tially cooled products and products resulting from
by separating desirable high-boiling components
the ?rst mentioned cracking operation into a ' of the gases, including readily polymerizable ole
reduced pressure separating chamber‘ and there
?ns, from lower boiling components thereof. by
in separating vaporous and non-vaporous com
ponents of the commingled products, supplying absorption of the former, and supplying the re 70
the vapors from said separating chamber to a, sulting enriched absorber oil to the second men
fractionator and therein condensing their com
ponents boiling above the range of the desired
?nal gasoline product as re?ux condensate, re
75 turning re?ux condensate formedbysaid frac
tioned heating ‘coil.
‘
-
13. A process for the treatment of hydrocar
bon oils which comprises fractionally distilling
an oil of relatively Wide boiling range and there
y
a
10
2,128,898
by separating the same into selected relatively
low-boiling and high-boiling fractions, supplying
selected high-boiling fractions to a heating coil
and therein cracking the same at elevated tem
perature and superatmospheric pressure, sup
plying selected low-boiling fractions of the
charging oil, which comprise at least a substan
tial quantity of poor antiknock gasoline frac
tions, to a separate heating coil and therein
10 heating the same under cracking conditions of
elevated
temperature
and
superatmospheric
pressure regulated to effect a material improve
ment in the antiknock value of said gasoline
fractions, discharging resultant highly heated
products from the last mentioned heating coil,
re?ux condensate formed by said fractionation
into selected low-boiling and high-boiling, frac
tions, returning the latter to the ?rst mentioned
heating coil for further cracking treatment,‘re
turning said selected low-boiling, fractions of the
re?ux condensate to the second mentioned heat- '
ing coil for further cracking treatment, sub
jecting the fractionated vapors of the desired
end-boiling point to condensation, separating the
resulting distillate and uncondensed gases, sta 10
bilizing the distillate to reduce its vapor pressure
to the desired degree by liberating regulated
quantities of dissolved normally gaseous prod
ucts therefrom, supplying gases liberated 'from‘
the distillate by said stabilization and gases pre 15
viously separated from the distillate to an ab
cessive further cracking thereof, introducing the sorber, therein contacting the same with at
resulting partially cooled products and products " least a portion of the oil'subsequently supplied,
from the ?rst mentioned cracking operation into as previously described, to the second mentioned
20 a reduced pressure separating chamber and
heating coil and. thereby separating desirable
therein separating vaporous and non-vaporous high-boiling components of the gases, including 20
cooling the same su?iciently to prevent any ex
components of the commingled products, supply
ing the vapors from said separating chamber to
a fractionator and therein condensing as re?ux
25 condensate substantially all of their components
with the exception of good antiknock gasoline
and normally gaseous products, separating the
readily polymerizable ole?ns, from lower boiling
components thereof, by absorption of the former,
and supplying the resulting enriched absorber
oil to the second mentioned heating coil.
CHARLES H. ANGELL. j_
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
2
Размер файла
1 824 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа