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Патент USA US2129024

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Sept. 6, 1938.
R, s. REYNOLDS
2,129,024
VALVE MECHANISM FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
Filed Maren l25, 195e
9
l
-
INVENTOR
P/C'HQPD 5. PEVNOLDj-
BYGMJ
Hb _ATTORNEY '
.
2,129,024`
Patented Sept. 6, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,129,024
VALVE MECHANISM FOR INTERNAL COM
BUSTION ENGINES
Richard S. Reynolds, San Jose, Calif., assigner
of one-half to> J. & A. Sales Co., a co-partner
ship composed of John Facchino and Albert
Giannotti
Application March 25, 1936, Serial No. 70,859
'7 Claims.
(Cl. 12S-_59)
My invention relates to internal combustion
engines, and particularly to a cylinder head and
valve mechanism for introducing fuel into and
removing exhaust gases from the cylinders of an
5. engine.
It is among the objects of my invention to pro
vide a cylinder head and valve mechanism for in
ternal combustion engines having a minimum of
moving parts; and' which is simple, rugged, dur
10 able, and efficient.
Another object of my invention is to provide
a cylinder head and rotary valve mechanism
which will effectively retain. compression in the
cylinders of an engine.
A further object is to provide a rotary valve
structure for -internal combustion engines which
may be effectively lubricated.
Another object is to provide a cylinder head
and valve mechanism which may be economically
manufactured and assembled upon an engine, and
which requires. a» minimum of careY and adjust
ment.
-
.
The invention» possesses» otherV objects and fea
tures of. advantage, some of which,.with the fore
going, will- be` set forth in. the following descrip
tionof my invention. It is to be understood that.
I do not limit myseli to this disclosure oi species
of my invention, as I may adopt variant embodi
ments thereof within the scope» ofthe claims.
30
In the drawing:
'
Figure l> is a side elevation of the upper partk
of an internal combustion engine having the cyl
inder head and Valvemechanism of my invention»
applied, thereto.
35
Figure 2v is a plan View of the device shown in
Figurel, parts being broken away to better illus
trate the structure of the valve mechanism.
Figure 3 is a transverse verticalv section taken
upon the line» 3-3 of Figure l in the direction
indicated, the ñgure being drawn upon aV larger
scale.
Figure 4 is a sectional detail view taken upon
the line 4_4 of Figure l in the direction indicated.
lFigure 5 is a View of av compression retaining
45
plate.
Figure 6 is an enlarged sectional detail View
taken upon the line Iì-Iì of Figure 4.
In terms of broad inclusion, the device of my
`invention comprises a cylinder head arranged to
50 be mounted over the cylinders >of the cylinder
block of an internal combustion engine, and hav
ing a longitudinally extending bore within which
is mounted a cylindrical valve rotor having pas
sages arranged to periodically open intake and ex
55 haust ports formed in thecylinder head for in
troducing fuel into the cylinders of the engine
and for conducting exhaust gases therefrom.
The valve rotor is rotated in timed relation to
the operation of pistons within the cylinders of
the engine, and means are provided between the
Valve rotor and the adjacent surface of the cyl
inder head for retaining the compression de
veloped within the engine cylinders during the
compression strokes of the pistons. Lubricant
is delivered continuously to the wearing surfaces 10
of the compression retaining means, through fit
tings engaging the rotor between the edges of the
compression retaining elements.
In terms of greater detail, and referring to the
illustrative embodiment of my invention disclosed 15
in the drawing, the device of my invention com
prises a cylinder head designated in general by
the numeral I arranged to be bolted or otherwise
secured upon the top of the cylinder block 2 of
an internal combustion engine provided with the 20
usual cylinders 3 and pistons 4. Spark plugs 5 ex
tend into recesses 6 forming compression charn
bers 'I over the cylinders 3.
The cylinder head I preferably comprises upper
and lower sections 8 and Il having matching re 25
cesses I I cooperating to form a cylindrical bore I2
extending longitudinally of the head I. The
lower head section 9 is provided with a row of
intake ports i3 and a row of exhaust ports I4
forming communicating passages between the 30
bore I2 and the compression chambers l. The
upper head section 8 is provided with similar rows
of intake ports I6 and exhaust ports I‘I for con
nectingintake and exhaust manifolds It and IQ
35
respectively with the bore I2.
The intake ports I3 and I6 preferably open into
the bore I2 at diametrically opposite points, the
ports being alined and centered upon diameters
forming an angle of about 221/2° with a vertical
plane passing through the axis of the bore I2 40
when the engine is in the upright position illus
trated in the drawing. The exhaust ports I4 and
I1 are similarly alined and centered upon a diam
eter forming an angle of about 221/2" with the op
posite side of said plane.
The intake and exhaust ports I3, I4, I6 and I-'I
are preferably substantially rectangular in shape.
'I'he width of the ports corresponds to an angular
measurement of about 221/2o about the center of
45
the bore I2 measured along its circumference, the 50
distance between the adjacent edges of the intake
and exhaust ports of each head section being
spaced from each other a distance which also cor
responds to a similar angular measurement of
about 22’1/2". The length of the ports I3, I4, I6 55
2
s
2,129,024
and I1 is made as great as the diameter of the
compression chambers will permit.
Within the bore I2 is mounted a cylindrical
valve rotor 2 I. The ends of the rotor 2| are pref
erably mounted in suitable anti-friction bearings
22 seated in recesses 23 at the ends of the head I.
A sprocket 211, or other suitable driving member,
is secured upon one end of the rotor 2|.
'I‘he valve rotor 2l is provided with a plurality
10 of passages 26 extending diametrically through
the rotor at points corresponding to the position
of the intake and exhaust ports I3, I4, IS and I1.
The passages 26 are arranged at various angles
such that the passage 26 will be moved into aline
15 ment with the intake and exhaust ports for the
various engine cylinders in correctly timed re
lation to the operation of the pistons therein for
admitting fuel and discharging exhaust gases
during appropriate intervals of piston movement
20 in accordance with the usual four-stroke cycle
mode of operation.
The valve passages 21 are of a width sub
stantially equal to that of the intake and ex
haust ports. When alined with the correspond
ing intake ports the passages 23 provide direct
passages communicating between the cylinders
and the intake manifold I8. In like manner,
when alined with the exhaust ports, the valve
passages 23 provide direct p-assages from the
30 engine cylinders to the exhaust manifold I9.
'I‘he rotor 2l is preferably of a diameter
slightly less than the diameter of the bore I2
so as to allow a slight clearance therebetween.
In order to retain the compression developed in
35 the engine cylinders, and to prevent the passage
of fuel or exhaust gases from the ports of one
cylinder to the ports of another cylinder, suit
able compression retaining means are provided
between the rotor 2l and the bore I 2. Such
40 means preferably comprise a plurality of com
pression retaining plates 21 mounted between
the rotor 2I and bore I2 and provided with open
ings 28 over the ports I3, I4, I6, and I1.
'I‘he plates 21 are substantially semicircular
in cross section, and are of a length greater
erably extend into engagement with the surface
of the rotor 2I between the adjacent edges of
the upper and lower compression retaining plates
21, the edges of one of the plates being cut away
to accommodate the oil fitting so that rotation
of the rotor 2I will cause a constant supply of
oil to be wiped off from the inner end of the oil
ñtting.
The head sections B and 9 are provided with
suitable passages 42 for the circulation of a sup
10
ply of cooling water.
In assemblying the head and valve mechanism
the compression retaining plates 21 and baffles
32 with their springs
fittings are placed in
tions 8 and 3 which
the rotor 2| and its
are inserted, and the oil
position in the head sec 15
are then assembled over
bearings 22. A suitable
gasket 43 is applied between the head sections,
the inner edges of the gasket extending into en
gagement with the rotor to cooperate with the 20
oil fittings 33 in sealing the clearance between
the rotor and the head. The assembled head is
bolted to the cylinder block 2 in the ordinary
manner, a suitable gasket 44 being provided be
tween thefhead and the block.
In operation, the rotor 2I is driven from the
crank shaft of the engine by any suitable driv
ing means, as for example a chain and sprockets,
the rotor being turned through one complete
revolution for each four complete turns of the 30
crank shaft.
Figure 3 illustrates the rotor 2I in the posi
tion occupied immediately before the opening of
the intake ports I3 and I6 of a cylinder 3 while
all of the ports are closed. As the rotor is
35
turned in a counter-clockwise direction, the pas
sage 26 is moved into alinement with the ports
I3 and I6; and fuel is drawn into the cylinder
from the manifold I8 during the downward in
take stroke of the piston.
Since the ports I3 and I6 and the passage 26 are 40
of a width corresponding to 221/2° of Valve rotor
movement, the intake will begin to open as the pis
ton starts its down stroke and will reach its max
imum opening after 221/2° of rotor movement.
Thereafter
the opening will be gradually reduced
The plates 21 are preferably seated in recesses Vthrough the succeeding 221/¿° of rotor movement
than the length of the intake and exhaust ports.
29 formed in the wall of the bore I2, and are
pressed against the surface of the rotor 2I` by
suitable springs 3l. The plates are of a thick
ness greater than'- the clearance between the
rotor 2| and bore I 2, and ñt neatly in the re
cesses 29 so as to prevent the escape of gases
past the sides of the rotor.
In order to prevent any possible leakage of
gases between the adjacent intake and exhaust
ports in the upper head section 8 over each cyl
inder, baffles 32 may be seated in recesses 33 be
tween the ports I6 and I1, suitable springs 35
60 being mounted in the recesses 33 in back of the
baliles 32 to press the baffles against the backs
of the adjacent compression retaining plates 21
to seal the clearance between the plates and the
head section 8.
65
Y
Oil passages 34 are formed in the cylinder
head, preferably in the lower section 9.
Fit
tings 36 are set in recesses 31 formed in the
upper face of the section Il, and are pro-vided
with neck portions 38 opening into the passages
70 34. A slightly porous filling 39, such as fibre,
is provided in the fittings 3S through which oil
under pressure may bleed slowly from the pas
sages 34 through slots 4I in the inner ends of
the fittings for lubricating the wearing surfaces
75 of the plates 21 and rotor 2|. The'fittings pref
until it is fully closed as the piston reaches its
lowermost point. Y
The ports will all be closed during the return
or compression stroke of the piston, and during 50
the succeeding downward firing stroke. At the
end of the ñring stroke, the passage 26 will have
been turned through 135°, and will open the ex
haust ports during the succeeding exhaust stroke
of the piston so that exhaust gases may be ex
55
pelled through the ports I4 and I1 to the exhaust
manifold I9. The exhaust ports are then closed
and the cycle is repeated.
The operation is the same for each of the cylin
ders of a multi-cylinder engine, the passages 26 60
of the rotor being arranged to open the intake and
exhaust ports in accordance with the movements
of the pistons. The number of passages 26 in the
rotor is of course the same as the number of cyl
inders of the engine; and the angles at which the
passages are formed conforms to the ñríng order
of the several cylinders. In this manner the in
take and exhaust of any number of cylinders may
be easily and effectively controlled by means of 70
a single rotating valve member.
I claim:
1. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder
head comprising upper and lower matching sec
tions mounted upon the cylinder block of an en
75
3
2,129,024c
gine over the cylinders thereof, intake and ex
haust ports in the head, a valve rotor mounted in
the head and having transverse passages corn
municating with the intake and exhaust ports
a valve rotor within the bore and having passages
for connecting corresponding intake ports and ex
haust ports of the head sections in timed rela
tion to the operation of pistons within the corre
during predetermined intervals of engine opera
tion, means for rotating the rotor in timed rela
tion to the movement of pistons within the en
gine cylinders, and apertured compression plates
surrounding the ports, said plates being seated in
10 pairs in recesses in the head sections and engag
ing the valve rotor, and oil fittings mounted in
the head for delivering oil under pressure to the
rotor along substantially the full lengths of the
compression plates.
2. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder
15
head mounted upon the cylinder block of an en
gine over the cylinders thereof, intake and ex
haust ports in the top and bottom of the head, a
valve rotor mounted in the head and having
20 transverse passages for connecting correspond
ing top and bottom ports of the head during pre
determined intervals of engine operation, means
for rotating the rotor, substantially semicircular
compression plates mounted in pairs in recesses in
25 the head over the upper and lower ports, oil ñt
tings mounted in the head and extending into en
gagement with the rotor between the adjacent
edges of each pair of plates and having oil delivery
slots extending substantially the full length of
30 the plates.
3. A valve mechanism for internal combustion
engines comprising a longitudinally split head
having intake and exhaust ports, a valve rotor
mounted within the head and having transverse
passages therein for periodically opening the in
take and exhaust ports, substantially seinicircu
lar compression plates mounted in pairs in re
cesses in the head above and below the rotor and
thereof, and oil ñttings mounted within re
cesses in the face of one head section upon
which the other section seats for supplying 10
oil between the bearing surfaces of the rotor and
compression plates, the fittings being held in op
erative position within the recesses by the oppo
site head section when the sections are in super
imposed relation.
15
6. A cylinder head and valve mechanism for 1n
ternal combustion engines comprising upper and
lower head sections having matching recesses co
operating to form a cylindrical bore when the
upper section is superimposed upon the lower sec
tion, intake and exhaust ports in the sections for
communicating with the cylinders of an engine,
a valve rotor within the bore and having passages
for connecting corresponding intake ports and
exhaust ports of the head sections in timed rela
tion to the operation of pistons within the corre
within recesses in the head sections and having
openings registering with the ports thereof, oil
íittings mounted within recesses in the face of one 30
head section upon which the other section seats
for supplying oil betwen the bearing surfaces of
the rotor and compression plates, the ñttings be
ing held in operative position within the recesses
by the opposite head section when the sections are 35
in superimposed relation, and securing means ex
tending through both head sections and into the
top of the cylinder block for securing the head
sections to the block in assembled relation over
rotor.
4. A valve mechanism for internal combustion
internal combustion engine, with cylinders longi
tudinally arranged, comprising separable upper
having intake and exhaust ports, a valve rotor
mounted within the head and having transverse
passages therein for periodically opening the in
take and exhaust ports, substantially semicir
cular compression plates mounted in recesses in
openings registering with the ports, spring means
50 for pressing the plates against the rotor, and
means engaging the rot‘or between adjacent edges
of the compression plates for delivering oil under
pressure to the rotor along the lengths of the com
pression plates.
r
5. A cylinder head and valve mechanism for
internal combustion engines comprising upper
and lower head sections having matching recesses
cooperating to form a cylindrical bore when the
upper section is superimposed upon the lower sec
60 tion, intake and exhaust ports in the sections for
communicating with the cylinders of an engine,
25
sponding engine cylinders, compression plates set
the rotor, compression plates and oil ñttings.
the head above and below the rotor and having
55
set within recesses in the head sections and
having openings registering with the ports
having openings registering with the ports, and
Spring means for pressing the plates against the
engines comprising a longitudinally split head
45
sponding engine cylinders, compression plates
'7. A cylinder head and valve mechanism for an
and lower head sections having matching recesses
cooperating to form a cylindrical bore when the 45
upper section is superimposed upon the lower
section, intake and exhaust ports in the sections
for communicating with the cylinders of the en
gine, a rotary valve within the bore and having
passages for connecting corresponding intake 50
ports and exhaust ports of the head sections in
timed relation to the operation of pistons within
corresponding engine cylinders, compression
plates mounted in pairs for engagement with the
head sections above and below said rotary valve 55
and having openings registering with the openings
in the valve and head sections, a single set of studs
extending through both head sections and into
the top of a cylinder block for securing the head
portions in superimposed relation, and means for 60
supplying lubricant to the compression plates.
RICHARD S. REYNOLDS.
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