Патент USA US2129024код для вставки
Sept. 6, 1938. R, s. REYNOLDS 2,129,024 VALVE MECHANISM FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed Maren l25, 195e 9 l - INVENTOR P/C'HQPD 5. PEVNOLDj- BYGMJ Hb _ATTORNEY ' . 2,129,024` Patented Sept. 6, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,129,024 VALVE MECHANISM FOR INTERNAL COM BUSTION ENGINES Richard S. Reynolds, San Jose, Calif., assigner of one-half to> J. & A. Sales Co., a co-partner ship composed of John Facchino and Albert Giannotti Application March 25, 1936, Serial No. 70,859 '7 Claims. (Cl. 12S-_59) My invention relates to internal combustion engines, and particularly to a cylinder head and valve mechanism for introducing fuel into and removing exhaust gases from the cylinders of an 5. engine. It is among the objects of my invention to pro vide a cylinder head and valve mechanism for in ternal combustion engines having a minimum of moving parts; and' which is simple, rugged, dur 10 able, and efficient. Another object of my invention is to provide a cylinder head and rotary valve mechanism which will effectively retain. compression in the cylinders of an engine. A further object is to provide a rotary valve structure for -internal combustion engines which may be effectively lubricated. Another object is to provide a cylinder head and valve mechanism which may be economically manufactured and assembled upon an engine, and which requires. a» minimum of careY and adjust ment. - . The invention» possesses» otherV objects and fea tures of. advantage, some of which,.with the fore going, will- be` set forth in. the following descrip tionof my invention. It is to be understood that. I do not limit myseli to this disclosure oi species of my invention, as I may adopt variant embodi ments thereof within the scope» ofthe claims. 30 In the drawing: ' Figure l> is a side elevation of the upper partk of an internal combustion engine having the cyl inder head and Valvemechanism of my invention» applied, thereto. 35 Figure 2v is a plan View of the device shown in Figurel, parts being broken away to better illus trate the structure of the valve mechanism. Figure 3 is a transverse verticalv section taken upon the line» 3-3 of Figure l in the direction indicated, the ñgure being drawn upon aV larger scale. Figure 4 is a sectional detail view taken upon the line 4_4 of Figure l in the direction indicated. lFigure 5 is a View of av compression retaining 45 plate. Figure 6 is an enlarged sectional detail View taken upon the line Iì-Iì of Figure 4. In terms of broad inclusion, the device of my `invention comprises a cylinder head arranged to 50 be mounted over the cylinders >of the cylinder block of an internal combustion engine, and hav ing a longitudinally extending bore within which is mounted a cylindrical valve rotor having pas sages arranged to periodically open intake and ex 55 haust ports formed in thecylinder head for in troducing fuel into the cylinders of the engine and for conducting exhaust gases therefrom. The valve rotor is rotated in timed relation to the operation of pistons within the cylinders of the engine, and means are provided between the Valve rotor and the adjacent surface of the cyl inder head for retaining the compression de veloped within the engine cylinders during the compression strokes of the pistons. Lubricant is delivered continuously to the wearing surfaces 10 of the compression retaining means, through fit tings engaging the rotor between the edges of the compression retaining elements. In terms of greater detail, and referring to the illustrative embodiment of my invention disclosed 15 in the drawing, the device of my invention com prises a cylinder head designated in general by the numeral I arranged to be bolted or otherwise secured upon the top of the cylinder block 2 of an internal combustion engine provided with the 20 usual cylinders 3 and pistons 4. Spark plugs 5 ex tend into recesses 6 forming compression charn bers 'I over the cylinders 3. The cylinder head I preferably comprises upper and lower sections 8 and Il having matching re 25 cesses I I cooperating to form a cylindrical bore I2 extending longitudinally of the head I. The lower head section 9 is provided with a row of intake ports i3 and a row of exhaust ports I4 forming communicating passages between the 30 bore I2 and the compression chambers l. The upper head section 8 is provided with similar rows of intake ports I6 and exhaust ports I‘I for con nectingintake and exhaust manifolds It and IQ 35 respectively with the bore I2. The intake ports I3 and I6 preferably open into the bore I2 at diametrically opposite points, the ports being alined and centered upon diameters forming an angle of about 221/2° with a vertical plane passing through the axis of the bore I2 40 when the engine is in the upright position illus trated in the drawing. The exhaust ports I4 and I1 are similarly alined and centered upon a diam eter forming an angle of about 221/2" with the op posite side of said plane. The intake and exhaust ports I3, I4, I6 and I-'I are preferably substantially rectangular in shape. 'I'he width of the ports corresponds to an angular measurement of about 221/2o about the center of 45 the bore I2 measured along its circumference, the 50 distance between the adjacent edges of the intake and exhaust ports of each head section being spaced from each other a distance which also cor responds to a similar angular measurement of about 22’1/2". The length of the ports I3, I4, I6 55 2 s 2,129,024 and I1 is made as great as the diameter of the compression chambers will permit. Within the bore I2 is mounted a cylindrical valve rotor 2 I. The ends of the rotor 2| are pref erably mounted in suitable anti-friction bearings 22 seated in recesses 23 at the ends of the head I. A sprocket 211, or other suitable driving member, is secured upon one end of the rotor 2|. 'I‘he valve rotor 2l is provided with a plurality 10 of passages 26 extending diametrically through the rotor at points corresponding to the position of the intake and exhaust ports I3, I4, IS and I1. The passages 26 are arranged at various angles such that the passage 26 will be moved into aline 15 ment with the intake and exhaust ports for the various engine cylinders in correctly timed re lation to the operation of the pistons therein for admitting fuel and discharging exhaust gases during appropriate intervals of piston movement 20 in accordance with the usual four-stroke cycle mode of operation. The valve passages 21 are of a width sub stantially equal to that of the intake and ex haust ports. When alined with the correspond ing intake ports the passages 23 provide direct passages communicating between the cylinders and the intake manifold I8. In like manner, when alined with the exhaust ports, the valve passages 23 provide direct p-assages from the 30 engine cylinders to the exhaust manifold I9. 'I‘he rotor 2l is preferably of a diameter slightly less than the diameter of the bore I2 so as to allow a slight clearance therebetween. In order to retain the compression developed in 35 the engine cylinders, and to prevent the passage of fuel or exhaust gases from the ports of one cylinder to the ports of another cylinder, suit able compression retaining means are provided between the rotor 2l and the bore I 2. Such 40 means preferably comprise a plurality of com pression retaining plates 21 mounted between the rotor 2I and bore I2 and provided with open ings 28 over the ports I3, I4, I6, and I1. 'I‘he plates 21 are substantially semicircular in cross section, and are of a length greater erably extend into engagement with the surface of the rotor 2I between the adjacent edges of the upper and lower compression retaining plates 21, the edges of one of the plates being cut away to accommodate the oil fitting so that rotation of the rotor 2I will cause a constant supply of oil to be wiped off from the inner end of the oil ñtting. The head sections B and 9 are provided with suitable passages 42 for the circulation of a sup 10 ply of cooling water. In assemblying the head and valve mechanism the compression retaining plates 21 and baffles 32 with their springs fittings are placed in tions 8 and 3 which the rotor 2| and its are inserted, and the oil position in the head sec 15 are then assembled over bearings 22. A suitable gasket 43 is applied between the head sections, the inner edges of the gasket extending into en gagement with the rotor to cooperate with the 20 oil fittings 33 in sealing the clearance between the rotor and the head. The assembled head is bolted to the cylinder block 2 in the ordinary manner, a suitable gasket 44 being provided be tween thefhead and the block. In operation, the rotor 2I is driven from the crank shaft of the engine by any suitable driv ing means, as for example a chain and sprockets, the rotor being turned through one complete revolution for each four complete turns of the 30 crank shaft. Figure 3 illustrates the rotor 2I in the posi tion occupied immediately before the opening of the intake ports I3 and I6 of a cylinder 3 while all of the ports are closed. As the rotor is 35 turned in a counter-clockwise direction, the pas sage 26 is moved into alinement with the ports I3 and I6; and fuel is drawn into the cylinder from the manifold I8 during the downward in take stroke of the piston. Since the ports I3 and I6 and the passage 26 are 40 of a width corresponding to 221/2° of Valve rotor movement, the intake will begin to open as the pis ton starts its down stroke and will reach its max imum opening after 221/2° of rotor movement. Thereafter the opening will be gradually reduced The plates 21 are preferably seated in recesses Vthrough the succeeding 221/¿° of rotor movement than the length of the intake and exhaust ports. 29 formed in the wall of the bore I2, and are pressed against the surface of the rotor 2I` by suitable springs 3l. The plates are of a thick ness greater than'- the clearance between the rotor 2| and bore I 2, and ñt neatly in the re cesses 29 so as to prevent the escape of gases past the sides of the rotor. In order to prevent any possible leakage of gases between the adjacent intake and exhaust ports in the upper head section 8 over each cyl inder, baffles 32 may be seated in recesses 33 be tween the ports I6 and I1, suitable springs 35 60 being mounted in the recesses 33 in back of the baliles 32 to press the baffles against the backs of the adjacent compression retaining plates 21 to seal the clearance between the plates and the head section 8. 65 Y Oil passages 34 are formed in the cylinder head, preferably in the lower section 9. Fit tings 36 are set in recesses 31 formed in the upper face of the section Il, and are pro-vided with neck portions 38 opening into the passages 70 34. A slightly porous filling 39, such as fibre, is provided in the fittings 3S through which oil under pressure may bleed slowly from the pas sages 34 through slots 4I in the inner ends of the fittings for lubricating the wearing surfaces 75 of the plates 21 and rotor 2|. The'fittings pref until it is fully closed as the piston reaches its lowermost point. Y The ports will all be closed during the return or compression stroke of the piston, and during 50 the succeeding downward firing stroke. At the end of the ñring stroke, the passage 26 will have been turned through 135°, and will open the ex haust ports during the succeeding exhaust stroke of the piston so that exhaust gases may be ex 55 pelled through the ports I4 and I1 to the exhaust manifold I9. The exhaust ports are then closed and the cycle is repeated. The operation is the same for each of the cylin ders of a multi-cylinder engine, the passages 26 60 of the rotor being arranged to open the intake and exhaust ports in accordance with the movements of the pistons. The number of passages 26 in the rotor is of course the same as the number of cyl inders of the engine; and the angles at which the passages are formed conforms to the ñríng order of the several cylinders. In this manner the in take and exhaust of any number of cylinders may be easily and effectively controlled by means of 70 a single rotating valve member. I claim: 1. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder head comprising upper and lower matching sec tions mounted upon the cylinder block of an en 75 3 2,129,024c gine over the cylinders thereof, intake and ex haust ports in the head, a valve rotor mounted in the head and having transverse passages corn municating with the intake and exhaust ports a valve rotor within the bore and having passages for connecting corresponding intake ports and ex haust ports of the head sections in timed rela tion to the operation of pistons within the corre during predetermined intervals of engine opera tion, means for rotating the rotor in timed rela tion to the movement of pistons within the en gine cylinders, and apertured compression plates surrounding the ports, said plates being seated in 10 pairs in recesses in the head sections and engag ing the valve rotor, and oil fittings mounted in the head for delivering oil under pressure to the rotor along substantially the full lengths of the compression plates. 2. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder 15 head mounted upon the cylinder block of an en gine over the cylinders thereof, intake and ex haust ports in the top and bottom of the head, a valve rotor mounted in the head and having 20 transverse passages for connecting correspond ing top and bottom ports of the head during pre determined intervals of engine operation, means for rotating the rotor, substantially semicircular compression plates mounted in pairs in recesses in 25 the head over the upper and lower ports, oil ñt tings mounted in the head and extending into en gagement with the rotor between the adjacent edges of each pair of plates and having oil delivery slots extending substantially the full length of 30 the plates. 3. A valve mechanism for internal combustion engines comprising a longitudinally split head having intake and exhaust ports, a valve rotor mounted within the head and having transverse passages therein for periodically opening the in take and exhaust ports, substantially seinicircu lar compression plates mounted in pairs in re cesses in the head above and below the rotor and thereof, and oil ñttings mounted within re cesses in the face of one head section upon which the other section seats for supplying 10 oil between the bearing surfaces of the rotor and compression plates, the fittings being held in op erative position within the recesses by the oppo site head section when the sections are in super imposed relation. 15 6. A cylinder head and valve mechanism for 1n ternal combustion engines comprising upper and lower head sections having matching recesses co operating to form a cylindrical bore when the upper section is superimposed upon the lower sec tion, intake and exhaust ports in the sections for communicating with the cylinders of an engine, a valve rotor within the bore and having passages for connecting corresponding intake ports and exhaust ports of the head sections in timed rela tion to the operation of pistons within the corre within recesses in the head sections and having openings registering with the ports thereof, oil íittings mounted within recesses in the face of one 30 head section upon which the other section seats for supplying oil betwen the bearing surfaces of the rotor and compression plates, the ñttings be ing held in operative position within the recesses by the opposite head section when the sections are 35 in superimposed relation, and securing means ex tending through both head sections and into the top of the cylinder block for securing the head sections to the block in assembled relation over rotor. 4. A valve mechanism for internal combustion internal combustion engine, with cylinders longi tudinally arranged, comprising separable upper having intake and exhaust ports, a valve rotor mounted within the head and having transverse passages therein for periodically opening the in take and exhaust ports, substantially semicir cular compression plates mounted in recesses in openings registering with the ports, spring means 50 for pressing the plates against the rotor, and means engaging the rot‘or between adjacent edges of the compression plates for delivering oil under pressure to the rotor along the lengths of the com pression plates. r 5. A cylinder head and valve mechanism for internal combustion engines comprising upper and lower head sections having matching recesses cooperating to form a cylindrical bore when the upper section is superimposed upon the lower sec 60 tion, intake and exhaust ports in the sections for communicating with the cylinders of an engine, 25 sponding engine cylinders, compression plates set the rotor, compression plates and oil ñttings. the head above and below the rotor and having 55 set within recesses in the head sections and having openings registering with the ports having openings registering with the ports, and Spring means for pressing the plates against the engines comprising a longitudinally split head 45 sponding engine cylinders, compression plates '7. A cylinder head and valve mechanism for an and lower head sections having matching recesses cooperating to form a cylindrical bore when the 45 upper section is superimposed upon the lower section, intake and exhaust ports in the sections for communicating with the cylinders of the en gine, a rotary valve within the bore and having passages for connecting corresponding intake 50 ports and exhaust ports of the head sections in timed relation to the operation of pistons within corresponding engine cylinders, compression plates mounted in pairs for engagement with the head sections above and below said rotary valve 55 and having openings registering with the openings in the valve and head sections, a single set of studs extending through both head sections and into the top of a cylinder block for securing the head portions in superimposed relation, and means for 60 supplying lubricant to the compression plates. RICHARD S. REYNOLDS.