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Патент USA US2129097

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‘Sept; 6, 1938.
D. w. R. MORGAN I COOLING APPARATUS
2,129,097 '
‘
Original Filed Oct. 20, 1935
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Sept. 6, 1938.‘
D. w. R. MORGAN
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Original‘ Filed Oct. 20, 1955
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INVENTOR
BY m‘ 0791 W
ATTORNEY
2,129,097
Patented Sept‘. 6, 1938
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,129,097
COOLING APPARATUS
David ‘W. R. ‘Morgan, Swarthmore, Pa., assignor
to Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing
Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation
of Pennsylvania
Application October 20, 1933, Serial No. 694,510‘
Renewed February "I, 1935
22 Claims. (C1. 62-152)
My invention relates to cooling apparatus of tem used in connection with the apparatus shown
the type known as steam compressor or vaporjet in Fig. 1; and
Fig. 3 is a wiring diagram of a further feature
refrigerating apparatus, and it has for an object
which may be applied to the control system of
to provide mechanism for controlling the opera
5
tion thereof.
Fig. 2.
>
,
Referring to the drawings more in detail, I
show, in Fig. 1, an evaporating chamber In of
any suitable construction, adapted to receive
cooled is admitted, and one or more ejectors con
nected to the chamber for withdrawing vapor water or liquid or other combinations of liquid
10 therefrom, thereby effecting a vacuum or reduced and solids to be cooled. A conduit H is connect 10
pressure in the chamber and consequent partial ' ed to the bottom of the chamber Ill for convey
ing the cooled water to the point of use. Three
evaporation and cooling of the liquid therein. In
Steam jet refrigerating apparatus comprises an
evaporating chamber into which liquid to be
ejectors, designated A, B and C, have their vapor
asmuch as an ejector is not well adapted for op
eration at partial load, a plurality of ejectors may
15 be provided, which together provide the full re
frigerating capacity, so that a smaller number
of ejectors may be operated at partial load. A
valve for each ejector may be provided, prefer
ably between the evaporating chamber and the
20 inlet of the ejector, which valve is closed when
the ejector is shut down to prevent reverse How
of vapor therethrough to the evaporating cham
ber, which reverse flow of vapor would destroy
the vacuum therein.
In accordance with my invention, I provide
control mechanism which, in initiating operation
of an ejector, ‘?rst admits motive ?uid to the
ejector to establish the suction or ejecting action
of the ejector, the vapor valve between the evapo
30 rating chamber and the ‘ejector inlet being closed
to‘ prevent reverse ?ow of vapor into the evapo
or suction inlets connected to the chamber l0.
They are connected at their discharge ends to a 15
condenser I! provided with an air ejector l3,
condensate outlet ‘I, cooling water inlet 8 and
cooling water outlet 9.
'
Each ejector includes a nozzle chamber l4 and
a converging-diverging conduit portion 15.
Steam for motivating each ejector is suppl‘ed to
the nozzles in the nozzle chamber thereof through
a branch conduit l6, avvalve I‘! being provided _
to control the flow of the motive ?uid. The sev
eral branch conduits l6 are connected to a source 25
of steam through a main conduit I 8. A vapor
valve I9 is provided in the connection between
the evaporator chamber l0 and the suction or
vapor inlet of each ejector. A shut-oil’ valve 2|
is provided between the discharge end of each 30
ejector and the condenser II.
The ejectors A, B and C together provide the
full refrigerating capacity of the apparatus when
operating at full load. .For example, if the ap
opened, and the ejector is then eifective to with- ‘ paratus is designed for 300 tons capacity, each
draw vapor from the evaporating chamber to ejector may be designed to provide 100 tons of
refrigeration. Obviously, the refrigerating ca
effect refrigeration therein. In terminating op
pacity may be divided among the ejectors in any
eration of the ejector, the control mechanism ef
desired proportions. The purpose of dividing the
fects closing of the vapor valve prior to or con
refrigerating capacity among a plurality of ejec
40 currently with shutting off of the motive ?uid tors is to enable eilicient operation at partialload
‘ to the ejector, so that the passage through the by operating only a portion of the total number
ejector is open only when the ejecting action of of ejectors. For example, 200 tons of refrigera
the ejector is established, thereby preventing re
tion may be effected by operating 2 ejectors,
rating chamber. After an interval‘ot time sui'_
?cient to assure that the ejecting action of the
ejector has been established, the vapor valve is
verse flow of vapor therethrough into. the evapo
‘15 rating chamber.
which, operating at full capacity, provide maxi 45
,
mum e?iciency.
The above and other objects are effected by my
invention as will be apparent from the following
description and claims taken in connection with
the accompanying drawings forming a part of
50
this application, in which:
,
'
'
' Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view of steam jet re
55
when the motive steam to one ejector is shut
off, the steam jets which normally‘ e?'ect ?ow
fromvthe inlet to the outlet end of the ejector
are discontinued, so that vapor may ?ow through
the ejector in the opposite direction, that is, from
the condenser to the evaporating chamber, due
frigerating apparatus to which my novel control
to diiference in pressure that exists between the
mechanism is applied;
evaporator and condenser. In order to prevent
5H0]: reverse ?ow of vapor through any ejector
'
Fig. 2 is a .wiring diagram of
‘
c0ntro1_sys—
2
2,129,097
which is shut down, the vapor valve I9 is closed.
The shut-off valves 2| are provided so that any
one ejector may be isolated for repair by closing
both its valves I9 and 2|.
The control mechanism for operating the ejec
a predetermined interval of time thereafter.
This predetermined interval of time is measured
by the time required for-movement of the drum,
tor valves includes reversible split-?eld motors
22°, 22°, and 22° for operating the valves H of
the ejectors A, B and C respectively, and similar
reversible motors 23“, 23b, and 23° for operating
which moves at a constant rate of speed, between
the positions at which the segment 41 engages
the contact ?ngers 43 and 44. A third‘ contact
segment 48 is located between the “on" and “off”
positions of the drum, formed as shown on the
the vapor valves l9 of the respective ejectors.
The control mechanism ‘further includes a ther
45 immediately after the drum leaves the “on” -
mostat 24 responsiveto the temperature of the
position, and to connect the contact ?ngers_42
water cooled in the chamber l0. Referring to
Fig. 2, this thermostat preferably includes a ther
and 45 at the end of a predetermined interval
of time thereafter.
The drum controller 33b for operating the 15
valves 22b and 23b of the ejector B and the
drum controller 33° for operating the valves 22°
and 23° of the ejector C are identical with the
drum controller 33‘1 described above.
15 mostatic bulb 25 placed in the conduit I |, an ex
pansible bellows 26 and a tube 21 connecting the
same to the bulb 25. The bellows 26 is arranged
to operate switches 28“, 28b and 28c which are
adapted to control the ejectors A, B and C, re
20
nect_the contact ?ngers 42 and 44 at the end of
spectively.
'
Each switch includes a contact 29 connected
drawings to connect the contact ?ngers Y42 and 10
The remaining terminal of each valve operat
20
ing motor is connected, as shown on the draw
to one line conductor, L1, and contacts 3| and 32
for initiating and terminating operation of the
ings, to the line conductor L2. Each of the ?eld
windings is provided with a limit switch 49 for
ejector, respectively. These switches may be of
terminating operation of the motor upon com
pletion of the valve movement. Cut-out switches 25
5|, 52 and 53 are provided in the conductors be
tween the contacts 3| and 41 of the respective
25 the mercury type, in which the mercury is adapt
ed to connect the contacts 29 and 3| when tilted
to the left for initiating operation of the con
trol ejector, and to connect contacts 29 and 32
when tilted to the right for terminating action
30 of the control ‘ejector. The three switches 28°
28°, and 28° are arranged at varying angles so
as to successively close the contacts for initiat
ing operation of the respective ejectors upon ex
pansion of the bellows 26 in response to succes
35 sive increases inv temperature of the water being
cooled, and to close the contacts for successively
terminating operation of the several ejectors
ejectors. Each switch is operated by the shut
off valve 2| 0! the ejector, being opened when
ever the shut-o? valve is closed.
In this man
30
ner, whenever the valve 2| is closed for isolating
an ejector, the control mechanism for initiating
operation of that ejector is rendered inoperative.
The operation of the above described apparatus
is as follows: In the position shown on the draw
ings, the thermostat 24 is subjected to a tem
35
upon contraction of the bellows 26 in response
to successive‘ decreases in temperature or the
perature below the temperature at which the
?rst ejector is placed in operation, and all of the
ejectors are shut down. Assume now that, due
water being cooled.
to refrigerating load, the temperature increases 40
I preferably provide a drum controller for ef
fecting operationof the valves l1 and I9 in the
desired sequence and also for effecting the de
sired time delay between operation of the valves.
su?iciently to call for operation of one ejector.
45 Preferably, an individual drum controller is pro
vided for each ejector, the ejectors A, B and C
being provided with drum controllers 33*, 33b
and 33°, respectively. Each drum controller in
cludes a drum 30 driven by a motor 34 through
50 reduction gearing 35. The drum 3D is illustrated
The expansion of the_bellows 2B tilts the thermo
static switches to the left, the switch 28“ being
tilted su?iciently that the mercury therein ?ows
to the left and connects the contacts 29 and 3|. 45
The circuit is now completed for effecting opera
tion of the drum‘controller 33° from the “off”
to the “on” position, the circuit extending from
line conductor L1, through contacts 29 and 3|
of the thermostatic switch, through the cut-out 50
switch 5|, contacts 31 and 39 and segment 4|,
and motor 34 to the line conductor L2. The
in. conventional developed view.
The drum controller 338* for the ejector A in
movement 01' the drum 30, as seen on the draw
cludes contact ?ngers 31, 38 and 39 and a seg
ment 4| for controlling operation of the drum ings, is'upwardly. Immediately after movement
55 controller. The contact ?ngers 31 and 38- are _ of the drum has begun, the bridging of the con
tacts 42 and 43 closes the circuit to the valve
connected to the contacts 3| and 32, respec
opening ?eld winding and the armature of the
tively, of the thermostatic switch 28". The con
tact ?nger 39 is connected to one terminal of steam valve motor 22“, which opens the steam
the motor 34, the other terminal thereof being ,valve H for supplying steam to the nozzles 01'
60 connected to the line conductor L2. The seg-' the ejector A. This circuit is traced as follows:
ment 4| is formed to connect the contact ?ngers From the line conductor L1 through the contacts
42 and 43 and the segment 41, and the valve
31 and 39 while the drum moves from “off” to
“on” position, and to connect the contact ?ngers opening ?eld winding and armature of the motor
38 and 39 from “on” to “off” position. The drum 22a to the line conductor L2.
The drum 30 continues to rotate at a constant
controller
further includes a contact ?nger 42
65
connected to the line conductor L1, and contact rate of speed, and at the end of a predetermined
?ngers 43 and 44 connected to the valve opening period of time, during which the ejecting action
?eld windings of the valve operating motors 22° or suction of the ejector A is established, the
segment 41 engages the contact member 44. A
and 23", respectively, and contacts 45 and 45 con
circuit through the valve opening ?eld winding
70 nected to the valve closing ?eld windings of said
and armature of the vapor valve motor 23‘ is
respective motors. A segment 41, located be
tween the “o?” and “on” positions of the drum, thus completed, the motor then operating to open
is formed as shown on the drawings to connect. the valve | 9. At the end of a further period of
the contact ?ngers 42 and 43 immediately after _. time which is su?icient to permit opening of the
valve I9 to be completed, the segment 4| disen75 the drum leaves the “off” position, and to con
55
65
70
75
2,129,097
6
gages the contact ?nger 31, terminating ‘further
effect further increase in temperature, in re
movement of the drum controller. At the same
sponse to which the thermostat 24 will tilt the
switch 28° to ‘initiate operation of the ejector C‘.
time, the segment 4! engages the'contact 38,
thereby placing the drum controller in condition
to be operated from “on” to “off” position when
the thermostatic switch 28° is tilted in the oppo
site direction to bridge the contacts 25 and 32.
The ejector. A now operates to withdraw vapor
from the evaporating chamber iii and to dis
10 charge the same into the condenser i2, thereby
cooling the remaining water in the chamber iii,
in the usual manner of steam jet refrigerating
apparatus.
The apparatus is now operating to provide 100
tons of refrigeration for cooling. If a greater
amount of cooling is required, the temperature of
the water will again increase to a higher tempera
ture, in response to which the thermostat 24 will
tilt the thermostatic switch 38” to the left and
20 initiate operation of the ejector E in the same
In this way, isolation of one ejector will auto
matically cause the next ejector in series to be
operated to supply the required refrigeration load,
although, in this case, a slightly higher tempera
ture ‘will be obtained.
In Fig. 3, I show a modi?ed switch arrange
ment which may be used in place of the cut-out
switches 5!, 52 and 53, whereby, when any one
ejector is isolated, the operation of the succeed
ing ejectors is advanced one step. The relation
of Fig. 3 to the remainder of the control mecha
nism may be readily seen by placing Fig. 3 over 15
the thermostatic and cut-out switches of Fig. 2.
The switches 51! ', 52', and 53’ are operated by the
valves 2i of the ejectors A, B, and C, respectively,
each being moved to its upper position when the
valve is opened and downwardly when the valve 20
manner set forth above. Likewise, a still further’ is closed. The switch 5i’ includes contacts 54
and 55 adapted to connect the contacts 3! and
increase in temperature will result in the ther
mostatic switch 28° effecting operation of the 32 of the thermostatic switch 28°, to the contact
?ngers 3i and 38 of the controller 33'1 in their
ejector C.
25
When the refrigerating load again decreases,
the thermostatic switches 28°, 28“, and 28a oper
ate in response to successively lower predeter
mined minimum temperatures to terminate oper
ation of the ejectors C, B, and A. Operation of
30 each ejector is terminated in the following man
ner:
.
,
Assume that the ejector A is in operation and
that the temperature of the water decreases be
low a predetermined minimum temperature, in
35 dicating that further cooling- action is not pres
ently required. The thermostat 24 then tilts the
switch 288 to the right, causing the mercury to
.bridge the contacts 29 and 32. A circuit to the
motor 34 is then completed, extending from line
40 conductor L1 through contacts 29 and 32 of the
switch 28“, contact 38, segment 4i, contact 39,
‘and motor 34 to line conductor L2. The drum
30 now moves from its "on” position to the "off”
position. Immediately after leaving the “on"
45 position, the segment 48 bridges the contacts 42
and 46, thereby completing a circuit to the valve
closing ?eld winding of the vapor valve motor
23°, effecting operationpf the motor to close the
valve l5. At the end of a predetermined interval
50 of time thereafter, su?icient to assure complete
closing of the valve. IS,‘ the segment 48 connects
upper position and to conductors 56 and 51 in 25
their lower position. It further includes similar
movable contacts 58 and 59 adapted to connect
the contacts of the switch 28b to the conductors
55 and 51! in their upper position and to con
ductors 6i and 62 in their lower position. It also 30
includes contacts 63 and 64 adapted to connect
the switch 28° to the conductors 6i and 52 in
the upper position.
The switch 52’ includes contacts 55 and 65
adapted to connect the conductors 58 and 51 35
to the controller 35b in the upper position and
to the controller 33° in their lower position. It
further includes contacts 61 and 68 adapted to
connect the conductors 6i and 62 to the con
troller 33° in their upper position. The switch 40
53' merely open-circuits the conductor connected
to the contact 31 of the controller 33° to prevent
operation of the ejector C from being initiated,
there being no further ejectors to be operated
when ejector C is isolated.
45
The operation of the arrangement shown in
Fig. 3 is as follows: When all of the ejectors are
in operation and the valves 2i are opened, the
switches 5|’, 52', and 53' are in their upper posi
tions. The thermostat 28“ controls the ejector
A, since the contacts 54 and 55 connect the switch
the contact ?ngers 42 and 45, completing a cir- . 28° to the controller 33“.
wit to the valve closing ?eld winding of the
steam valve motor 22°, whereupon the motor 22'1
55 operates to close the steam valve i‘! of the ejector
A. Closing movement of the valves l9 and I1
is completed by the time that the drum 30 reaches
the "off" position, at which the segment 4i dis
engages the contact 38 to discontinue movement
60 of the drum and engaging the contact 31 to render
the drum controller operable for againinitiating
operation of the ejector.
If it is desired to isolate one of the ejectors for
service or repair, the valve 2| of that ejector is
65 closed. For example, assume that it is desired
to isolate the ejector B. Closing the valve 2i 01"
that ejector automatically opens the cut-off
switch 52, thereby rendering the drum controller
33 for that ejector inoperable.
In this case, if
70 the temperature of the water discharged through
the conduit ll rises to call for operation of a
second ejector, the thermostat 24 will tilt the
switch 28b to connect the contacts 29 and 3|.
Upon failure of the ejector B to start, the con
75 tinued refrigeration load not provided for will
The switch 2817 con
trols the ejector B, the contacts 58 and 59 con
necting the switch to the conductors 58 and 51
which are, in turn, connected through the con 55
tacts 65 and 56 to the controller 33‘). The
switch 28° controls the ejector C, since the mov
able contacts 63 and 64 connect the switch to the
conductors (if and 62, which are in turn connected
through the movable contacts 61 and 68 to the 60
controller 33°, the switch 53' being closed to per
mit operation of the ejector C.
If, now, the ejector A is isolated, the movable
contacts of the switch 5| " are moved to their low
er positions. The operation of the ejectors B and
C is now advanced one step, these ejectors re
sponding to switches 28a and 28'’, respectively, in
stead of switches 28b and 28°, respectively. This
is due to the fact that the movable contacts 54
and 55 connected to the switch 28° now engage 70'
the conductors 56 and 51, which connect with the
controller 33b through the movable contacts 65
and 8B, and to the fact that the movable contacts
58 and 59 connect the switch 28” to the conduc- .
tors 6| and 62 which control the controller 33°
4
Cl
. 2,129,097
through the movable contacts 61 and 68. Assume
now that the ejector B is also isolated by closing
its valve 2|, causing the switch 52' to be moved
said condition responsive means being effective to
operate the motive ?uid controlling means and
the vapor ?ow controlling means, the latter at
downwardly.
least as early as the former, when terminating
operation 01' the ?uid translating means.
'
3. In cooling apparatus, the combination of an
In this case, the switch 18’‘ controls
the ejector C, being connected to the controller
33° through the movable contacts 54 and 55, the
conductors 56 and 51, and the movable contacts
65 and 66.
~
Assume that the ejectors A and C are operable
10 but that the ejector B is isolated, the switch 52'
being in its lower position.
In this case, the
switch 28a controls the ejector A, but the switch
28b controls the ejector C, the thermostat 28b be
ing connected through the movable contacts 58
15 and 59, the conductors 56 and 51, and the mov
able contacts 65 and 65 to the controller 33°.
When the ejector C is isolated, the switch 53'
merely prevents operation of the ejector C, there
being no further ejectors to be placed in operation.
In the arrangement shown in Fig. 8, it will be
20
noted that, when any one ejector is isolated, the
operationof all the succeeding ejectors in opera
tion is advanced one step, while any preceding
ejector not isolated is not affected thereby. With
25 this arrangement, when the refrigerating load re
quires operation of say two ejectors, operation of
that number of ejectors, if available, is effected
without waiting for a higher temperature than is
otherwise required to effect operation of the first
30 two ejectors.
evaporating chamber adapted to receive liquid to
be partially evaporated and cooled, ?uid trans
lating means for withdrawing vapor from said
chamber, means for controlling the admission of 10
motive ?uid to said translating means, means for
controlling the ?ow of vapor from the chamber to
the ?uid translating means, and means responsive
to-a condition of the cooled liquid for operating
the motive ?uid controlling means first and the 15
vapor ?ow controlling means last when initiating
operation of the ?uid translating means and the
vapor ?ow controlling means first and the motive
?uid controlling means last when terminating op
20
eration of the ?uid translating means.
4. In cooling apparatus, the combination of an
evaporating chamber adapted to receive liquid to
be partially evaporated and cooled, an ejector for
withdrawing vapor from said chamber, means for
controlling the admission of motive ?uid to said 25
ejector, means for controlling the ?ow of vapor
from the chamber to the ejector, and means for
operating the motive ?uid controlling means ?rst
and the vapor ?ow controlling means last when
initiating operation of the ejector and the vapor 30
From the above description, it will be seen that
I have provided control mechanism whereby op
?ow controlling means and the motive ?uid con
trolling means, the former at least as early as the
eration of one or more ejectors may be controlled
in such a way that reverse flow through any
latter, when terminating operation of the ejector.
35 ejectors not in operation is prevented.
This is
effected by closing the vapor valve, that is, the
valve between the evaporating chamber and the
ejector, at all times that the ejecting action or
suction of the jets in the ejector is not estab
lished.
While I have shown my invention in but one
form, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art
that it is not so obvious but is susceptible of vari
ous changes and modi?cations, without departing
from the spirit thereof, and I desire, therefore,
that only such limitations shall be placed there
upon as are imposed by the prior art or as are
speci?cally set forth in the appended claims.
What I claim is:
1. In cooling apparatus, the combination of an
50
evaporating chamber adapted to receive liquid to
, be partially evaporated and cooled, ?uid trans
lating means for withdrawing vapor from said
chamber, means for controlling the‘ admission of
55 motive ?uid to said translating means, means for
controlling the ?ow of vapor from the chamber to
the ?uid translating means, and means for oper
ating the motive ?uid controlling means ?rst and
the vapor ?ow controlling means last when initi
60 ating operation of the ?uid translating means'and
the vapor ?ow controlling means ?rst and the
motive ?uid controlling means last when termi
nating operation of the ?uid translating means.
2. In cooling apparatus, the combination or an
65 evaporating chamber adapted to receive liquid to
- be partially evaporated and cooled, ?uid translat
ing means for withdrawing vapor from said
chamber, means for controlling the admission of
motive ?uid to said translating means, means for
70 controlling the ?ow of vapor Irom,the chamber
to the ?uid translating means, and means respon
sive to a condition of the cooled liquid for operat
ing the motive ?uid controlling means ?rst and
the vapor ?ow controlling means last when initi
75 ating operation of the ?uid translating means,
5. In cooling apparatus, the combination of an
evaporating chamber adapted to receive liquid to 35
be partially evaporated and cooled, an ejector for
withdrawing vapor from the chamber, means for
controlling the admission oi’ motive ?uid to the
ejector, ‘means for controlling the ?ow of vapor
from the chamber to the ejector, and means for 40
automatically operating the motive ?uid con
trolling means ?rst and the ?ow controlling means
second when initiating operation of the ejector
and the ?ow controlling means ?rst and the mo
tive ?uid controlling means second when termi
45
nating operation of the ejector.
6. In cooling apparatus, the combination of an
evaporating chamber adapted to receive liquid to
be partially evaporated and cooled, an ejector for
withdrawing vapor from the chamber, means for 50
controlling the admission of motive ?uid to the
ejector, means for controlling the ?ow of vapor
from the chamber to the ejector, means respon
sive to a condition of the cooled liquid for operat
ing the motive‘?uid controlling means ?rst and 55
the vapor ?ow controlling means second when
initiating operation of the» ejector and the ?ow
controlling means and the motive ?uid controlling
means, the former at least as early as the latter,
when terminating operation 0! the ejector.
60
7. In cooling apparatus, the combination of an
evaporating chamber adapted to receive liquid to
be partially evaporated and cooled, an ejector for
withdrawing vapor from the chamber, means for
controlling the admission of motive ?uid to the 65
ejector, means for controlling the ?ow of vapor
from the chamber to the ejector, and means re
sponsive to a condition of the cooled liquid for
operating the motive ?uid controlling means ?rst
and the vapor ?ow controlling means second when 70
initiating operation of the ejector and the ?ow
controlling means ?rst and the motive ?uid con
trolling means second when terminating opera
tion of the ejector.
‘ 3. In cooling apparatus, the cornbinationoLan/? V I
2,129,097
evaporator chamber adapted to receive liquid to
be partially evaporated and cooled, an ejector for
withdrawing vapor from the chamber, a valve for
controlling the admission of motive ?uid to the
of the cooled liquid for controlling the operation
of the ejectors and including means for opening
the ?rst-mentioned valve of each ejector before
opening the second-mentioned valve thereof when
ejector, a valve for controlling the flow of vapor - initiating operation of the ejector, and closing the
between the chamber and the ejector, andmeans
second-mentioned valve of the ejector before clos
responsive to a predetermined maximum tem
perature of the cooled liquid for opening said
valves and including time delay means for delay
10' ing opening of the vapor valve for a predeter
mined period of time after opening of the motive
?uid valve and responsive to. a predetermined
ing the ?rst-mentioned valve thereof when ter
minimum temperature for closing said valves.
9. In cooling apparatus, the combination of an
15" evaporator chamber adapted to receive liquid to
be partially evaporated and cooled, an ejector for
withdrawing vapor from the chamber, a valve for
controlling the admission of motive ?uid to the
, ejector, a valve for controlling the ?ow of vapor
20 between the chamber and the ejector, and means
minating operation of the ejector.
13. In cooling apparatus, the combination of
aneva'porating chamber adapted to receive liq
uid to be partially evaporated and cooled, a plu
rality of ejectors for withdrawing vapor from said
chamber, a condenser for condensing vapor dis
charged by said ejectors, a plurality of valves
associated with each of said ejectors and includ
ing one valve for controlling the admission of
motive ?uid to the ejector and a second valve for
controlling the ?ow of vapor from said chamber
to the ejector, and means for initiating and ter
minating operation of the ejectors in sequence, 20
and including means for opening the ?rst men
tioned valve of each ejector before opening the
valves and including time delay means for delay- _ second mentioned valve thereof when initiating
operation of the ejector, and closing the second
ing opening of the vapor valve for a predeter
mined period of time after opening of the motive mentioned valve of the ejector before closing the 25
?uid valve, and responsive to a predetermined ?rst mentioned valve thereof when terminating
minimum temperature for closing said valves and operation of the ejector.
it. In cooling apparatus, the combination of
including time delay means for delaying closing
of the motive ?uid valve for a predetermined an evaporating chamber adapted to receive liquid
to be partially evaporated and .cooled, a plural 30
period of time after closing the vapor valve.
10. In cooling apparatus, the combination of an ity of ejectors for withdrawing vapor from said
evaporating chamber adapted to receive liquid to chamber, a condenser for condensing vapor dis
be partially evaporated and cooled, a plurality of charged by said. ejectors, a plurality of valves
movable to closed positions for respectively iso
ejectors for withdrawing vapor from said cham
ber, a condenser for condensing vapor discharged lating the ejectors from the condenser, means
responsive to the temperature of the cooled water
by said ejectors, at least one of said ejectors hav
for automatically initiating and terminating op
ing a pair of valves associated therewith and in
cluding one valve for controlling the admission of eration of the ejectorsin sequence, and means
motive ?uid to the ejector, and a second valve for operated by the valves when closed for discon
controlling the ?ow of vapor from the chamber to tinuing the control of their respective ejectors by 40
the ejector, and means for opening the ?rst and said temperature responsive means.
15. In cooling apparatus, the combination of
second-mentioned valves sequentially in the order
named when initiating'operation of the ejector, an evaporating chamber adapted to receive liquid
and for closing said ?rst and second-mentioned to be partially evaporated and cooled, a plural
ity of ejectors for withdrawing vapor from said
valves sequentially in the reverse order when ter
minating operation of the ejector.
. chamber, a condenser for condensing vapor dis
11. In cooling apparatus, the combination of charged by said ejectors, a plurality of valves
an evaporating chamber adapted to receive liquid movable to closed positions for respectively iso
to be partially evaporated and cooled, a plurality lating the ejectors from the condenser, means
of ejectors for withdrawing vapor from said responsive to the temperature of the cooled water 50
for initiating and terminating operation of tlie
chamber, a condenser for condensing vapor dis
charged by said ejectors, a plurality of valves. ejectors step by step, and means for advancing
by one step the operation of succeeding ejectors
associated with each of said ejectors ‘and includ
ing one valve for controlling the admission of when a preceding ejector is isolated from the
motive ?uid to each ejector and a second valve condenser by the closing of its associated valve. 55
v16. In cooling apparatus, the combination of
for controlling the ?ow of vapor from said cham
ber to each ejector, and means for controlling the an evaporating chamber adapted to receive liquid
operation of the ejectors and including means for to be partially evaporated and cooled, a plural
‘responsive to a predetermined maximum tem
perature of the cooled liquid for opening said
30
40
-
50
55
-
opening the ?rst-mentioned valve of each ejector
60 ~ before opening the second-mentioned valve there
65
of when initiating operation of the ejector, and
closing the second-mentioned valve of the ejector
before closing the ?rst-mentioned valve thereof
when terminating operation of the ejector.
12. In cooling apparatus, the combination, of
.,
an evaporating chamber'adapted to receive liquid
to be partially evaporated and cooled, a plural
ity of ejectors for withdrawing vapor from said
chamber, a condenser for condensing vapor dis
70 charged by said ejectorspa plurality of valves as
sociated with each of said ejectors and including
ity of ejectors arranged in parallel for withdraw
ing vapor from the chamber, a condenser for con-_ 60
densing vapor discharged by said ejectors, a plu
rality of valves associated with each ejector in
cluding a valve for controlling the flow of motive
?uid to the ejector, a second valve for controlling
the flow of vapor from the chamber to the ejector 65
and a third valve for isolating the ejector from
the condenser, means responsive to the tempera
ture of the cooled liquid for initiating and termi
nating operation of the ejectors, step by step, and
including .means for sequentially opening the
one valve for controlling the admission of motive
fluid to each ejector and a second valve for con
trolling the ?ow of vapor from said chamber to
?rst and second-mentioned valves in the order
named when initiating the operation of an ejector
and for closing said ?rst and second valves in
a reverse order when terminating operation of
each ejector, and means responsive to a condition
an ejector and means for advancing by one step, 4
6
2,129,091
the operation of succeeding ejectors when a pre
ceding ejector is isolated from the condenser by
the closing of its associated valve.
17. Apparatus for supplying a refrigerating
demand comprising evaporator means adapted
to contain liquid to be evaporated, a plurality of
ejectors for withdrawing vapor from said means
to e?ect cooling by evaporation of liquid therein,
and means for automatically e?ecting successive
10 increases in total ejector capacity in operation in
response to successively higher temperatures of
liquid in said evaporator means, respectively.‘
18. In cooling apparatus, the combination of
evaporator means, a plurality of compressor ele
15 ments for removing vapor from said evaporator
means to effect cooling by evaporation of liquid
therein, said evaporator means and said com
pressors supplying a common cooling demand, a
thermostatic element responsive to a tempera
20 ture maintained at a low value by the cooling
apparatus, and means controlled by said thermo
static element and operating ‘automatically to
initiate operation of said compressors succes- ‘
sively as said temperature attains successively
higher values.
19. In cooling apparatus, the combination of
evaporator means, a plurality of compressor ele
ments for removing vapor from said evaporator
means to effect cooling by evaporation of liquid
30 therein, said evaporator means and said com
said evaporator means to e?'ect cooling by evap
oration of liquid therein, and means for con
trolling said ejectors including a thermostatic
element responsive to the temperature of cooled
liquid in said evaporator means and means con
trolled by said thermostatic element for increas
ing the number of ejectors in operation as said
thermostatic element responds to increase in said
temperature and vice versa.
21. Cooling apparatus for supplying a refriger
ating demand comprising evaporator means
adapted to contain liquid to be evaporated, a
plurality of ejectors for withdrawing vapor from
said evaporator means to effect cooling by evap
oration of liquid therein, and means for con
element responsive to the temperature of cooled
liquid in said evaporator means and a plurality
of electric switches actuated by said thermostatic
element for controlling said ejectors, respec 20
tively, said switches being arranged to be closed
in sequence by said thermostatic element as the
latter responds to successively higher values of
said temperature.
22. In cooling apparatus of the vapor jet type, 25
the combination of an evaporator chamber,
means for delivering liquid to be cooled to said
chamber, means for removing cooled liquid from
said chamber, a plurality of ejectors for remov
ing vapor from said chamber to eifect cooling of 30
pressor elements supplying a common cooling
the liquid therein by partial evaporation thereof,
demand, and means for controlling said com
pressor elements including a thermostatic ele
ment responsive to a temperature maintained at
35 a low value by the cooling apparatus, and a plu
one of said ejectors having a motive ?uid admis
sion valve and a vapor valve controlling ?ow of
rality of electric switches actuated by said ther
mostatic element for controlling said compressor
elements, respectively, said switches being ar
ranged to be closed in sequence by said thermo
40 static element as the latter responds to succes
sively higher values of said temperature.
20. Cooling apparatus for supplying a refrig
‘erating demand comprising evaporator means
adapted to contain liquid to be evaporated, a plu
45 rality of ejectors for withdrawing vapor from
15
trolling said ejectors including a thermostatic
vapor from said chamber to said ejector, and
means for controlling said valves of said one
ejector in response to a load condition of the
apparatus, said last-named means being oper
able, upon initiating operation of the ejector, to
open said vapor valve only when said admission
valve is open and the ejecting action of the 40
ejector is established, and being operable, upon
terminating operation of the ejector, to close said
admission valve only when the vapor valve is
closed.
DAVID W. R. MORGAN. 45
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