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Патент USA US2129098

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Sept. 6, -1938.
Filed MaKrch 2 , 1935
2 sheéts-sheet 1
Fla l
Sept. 6, 1938.
_Filed Maron 2, 19:55
2 sheets-sheet 2
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' WITNEssl-:s:
Patented Sept. 6, 1938
Paul L. Fetzer, Ridley Park, Pa., assignor to West
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company,
East Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Pennsyl
Application March 2, 1933, Serial No. 659,403
4 Claims.
My invention relates to refrigerating appa
ratus, more particularly to apparatus of the type
known as steam jet refrigerating apparatus, and
it has for an object to provide improved appa
5 ratus of this type which is adapted for operation
at partial load.
Apparatus of this type includes a chamber in
which a vacuous or reduced pressured condition
is maintained by an ejector or compressor, ex
10 hausting usually to a condenser.
Liquid to be
cooled, usually water, is circulated or conveyed
through the chamber, the reduced pressure there
in effecting evaporation of a portion of the liquid
and consequent cooling of the remaining liquid,
which then provides the supply of refrigerated
liquid and which may be used as refrigerating
medium. A steam ejector is not always sum
ciently adaptable to change in load, and is usu
ally operatedat full load, that is, with full ad
20 mission of motivating steam or other fluid.
In order to provide economy of operation at
partial load, it has been proposed to provide a
plurality of ejectors in parallel and to operate
only some of them at partial load. It is neces
25 sary With this arrangement, however, to provide
a shut-off valve for each ejector which may be
shut oli' at partial load, in order to prevent re
(Cl. 62--152)
ance with the accompanying drawings, forming
a part of this application, in which:
Fig. l is a diagrammatic elevation view of the
refrigerating apparatus; and,
Fig. 2 is a plan view of the apparatus showing G
the ejectors and the common condenser.
Referring now to the drawings more in detail, A
I show steam jet refrigerating apparatus for sup
plying cooled liquid, such as water, to any appa
ratus in which it may be required.> Such appa 10
ratus may be, for example, the air cooler and
Washer of air conditioning apparatus, shown on
the drawings at 9.
The refrigerating apparatus
mary evaporating chamber I0
evaporating >chamber tI. In
bodiment, these chambers are
rate tanks. Steam ejectors I2
comprises a pri
and a secondary
the present ern
formed by_sepa~
and I3, shown in
Fig.,2, have their suction inlets I2’ and I3' con
nected to the chambers I0 and Il, respectively,
and effect a vacuous or reduced pressure condi
tion in the respective chambers by withdrawing
vapor therefrom. The ejectors I2 and I3 are
motivated by steam from a supply conduit I4,
the admission thereof being controlled by valves
I5 and I6, respectively, the operation of which
verse llow therethrough from the condenser to
is described later. The ejectors exhaust into a
common condenser I‘I, which is provided with a
the evaporating chamber, which would destroy
condensate outlet i8, and air outlet I9 connected
30 the vacuous condition therein. Due to the large to an air ejector 20, a cooling water inlet 2| and
.size 0f the vapor connection, such a valve and ` a cooling water outlet 22.
its operating mechanism represents a consider
For full load operation, both ejectors are op
able item of expense. Such a valve has other
erate-d. For partial load operation, only the ejec
objections, such as air leakage into the vacuum tor I2 is operated, the ejector I3 being shut down
It is a particular object of my invention to
provide apparatus in which saidvalve ls not
In accordance with my invention, I provide a
plurality of evaporating chambers or compart
by closing the valve I6. The condenser pressure
is then admitted into the chamber I" through
the ejector i3.
The water to be cooled is -conveyed, in this
case from the air cooler, by a conduit 23 to the
evaporating chamber orchambers. The water
ments into which liquid to be cooled is admitted. ' is divided, one portion being admitted always to
A separate ejector is pro-vided for'l each cham
spray nozzles 24 in the chamber Ill. The re
ber and a common condenser is provided for the maining portion is admitted by a valveA 25 either
to a second group of spray nozzles 26 in the
- ejectors; I‘provide conduit means for removing
cooled liquid from the chambers, and I arrange chamber IIl, for partial load operation, or to
spray nozzles 2l in the chamber II, for full load
the conduit means with a manometric connec
Upon being subjected to the vacuum
tion or loop seal between the chambers, the
manometric connection providing a column of or decreased pressure in the evaporating cham
ber, the water is partially evaporated, which ac
liquid whose pressure head opposes the increased
pressure, during partialy load operating, in that tion effects cooling of the remaining water, as
is well known inthe art.`
„ `
chamber whose ejector is shut down.
The water cooledA ineach evaporating cham
The above and other objects are effected by ’ 'ber is discharged therefrom through an outlet
'my invention as will be apparent from the f_ol ~in the bottom, lthe bottom preferably converg
lowing description and claims taken in accord~- ing toward the outlet. The outlets are connect
2, 129,098
ed to a system of conduits, which is, in accord
ance with the present invention, arranged to
ejectors operative, and adjusting the valve 25 to
provide a manometric connection or loop seal
between the chambers to seal the chamber I0
' against the higher absolute pressure in the cham
one-half oi the water, or any other desired por
tion, is admitted to the chamber II, and the re
ber II at partial load operation. This conduit
system includes separate branch discharge con
duits 28 and -29 communicating with the cham
is cooled or refrigerated in the respective cham
' bers I0 and II, respectively, and with a common
10 discharge conduit 3|. The conduit 29 is 0I
smaller diameter than the conduits 28 and 3|,
as it never conveys more than a portion of the
admit water to the chamber II. Approximately
maining portion to the chamber I0. The water
bers as above described, substantially the same
degree of vacuum or pressure being maintained
therein. The water is discharged in parallel
through the conduits_28 and 29 to the conduit
3I , and supplied to the air cooler.
As the requirementfor refrigeration decreases, l
water, while~the conduit 28 conveys the full
the temperature of the water decreases.
quantity of water at partial load. The conduits
ever, the contacts 38 will be kept closed and the
28 and 29 extend iirst downwardly and then com
apparatus maintained at full load operation until
the temperature drops below 41° F., indicating
municate at a low level through horizontally ex
tending portions, thereby providing the mano
metric connection or loop seal between the cham
bers I0 and II. The conduit 28 is of suil‘icient
20 height to provide a head of liquid “a” which op
poses the increase in pressurel in the chamber
`|I at partial load. The water is then conveyed
by the conduit 3|, to a pump 32, by which it is
that half load operation will supply the needed
refrigeration, at least temporarily. The contacts
38 are then opened, deenergizing the solenoids
35 and 36. The ejector I3 is shut down and the
valve 25 diverts the water from the chamber II
to the chamber I0. Due to the shutting down
of the ejector I3, the pressure in the chamber Il
will rise to that in the condenser I1, lowering the
_ forced through a conduit 33 to the air cooler
25 or other refrigerating load. In the latter, the l level of the Water in the conduit 29, until the
cooled water is used as refrigerating medium'for
any desired purpose, such as air cooling. Its
temperature havingA been increased, it is dis
charged from the air cooler to the conduit 23
and recirculated.
Control mechanism for vregulating the opera
tion of the refrigerating apparatus is provided.
It includes solenoids 34 and 35 for opening valves
I5 and I6, respectively, the latter being biased to
. closed position by the weight of the core.
solenoid 36 controls the valve 25, which is biased
to the position in which it admits water to the
difference in head between the column of water
in the conduit 28 and the bottom of the chamber
I0 and the water inthe conduit 29, indicated by
the reference character “a”, balances the dif
ference between the absolute pressures in the two
evaporating chambers. The i'ull quantity of
water then il‘ows through the chamber I0, the
branch discharge conduit 28 and the common
conduit 3|, while the water in the branch dis
charge conduit 29 remains stationary. It is to be 35.
noted that the higher pressure in the chamber
II tends to heat the Water, but as the level of
nozzles 26 in the chamber I0, and is operated to » the water is down in the conduit 29, the amount
of surface of water subject to heating will ybe
admit water to the nozzles 21 in the chamber I I
40 when the solenoid 36 is energized. The solenoid
If the refrigeration requirement is substantially
34 is controlled by contacts 31, and the solenoids
35 and 36 are controlled by contacts 38. The less >than full load, and greater than half load,
contacts 31 and 38 are controlled by a thermostat there will be intermittent full load and half load
39 in response to the temperature of the liquid to operation, the temperature of the water decreas
be cooled at any desired point in its circuit or ing during the full load operation and increasing
path. Preferably, and as shown, the thermostat during the half load operation.
If the temperature of the water drops below
includes an expansible bellows 4I connected by
a tube 42 to a bulb 43 disposed in the conduit 3|. 40° F., indicating that no~ further refrigeration is
presently needed, the contacts 31 are also opened,
The thermostat 38 -is arranged to close the con
shutting down the ejector I2. The water is then
temperature, to close both contacts 31 and 38 in circulated through the chamber I8 without any
cooling except for the action of the air ejector 29
response to a slightly higher predetermined max
imum temperature, and to open both contacts 31 of the condenser, which effects a small amount of
and 38 in response to a temperature lower than evaporation of the water and consequent cooling.
the iirst-mentioned predetermined maximum Upon subsequent increase in temperature-of the
temperature. For the purpose of an example, the water, the contacts 31 will reclose, and cooling at
first -and second predetermined maximum tem
half load is resumed. Thus, a vload less than
peratures will be taken as 40° -and 41° F., re
half load is taken care of by intermittent hali
load operation.
Make-up water to replace the water which is
vaporized and removed is supplied through a
conduit 44. It 'is preferably ilrst cooled in one
of the evaporating chambers, and hence the con
duit 44 may be connected to the conduit 23.
The admission of make-up water is controlled by
From the above description, it will be seen that 60
I have provided a liquid seal between the two
evaporating chambers for partial load opera
tion, thereby eliminating the necessity for a valve
and its operating and control mechanism, which
would otherwise _berequired to prevent the con
denser pressure entering the chamber I0 through
a valve 45, which is controlled by a float control
46 in response to the level of water in the cham
_ the ejector I3 and the chamber I I.
ber I9.
While I have shown my invention in one form,
The operation of the above-described appa
it will be obvious to those skilled in the art
70 ratus is as follows:
When the air cooler or other refrigerating load that it is not so limited, but is susceptible of
requires the maximum amount oi.' refrigeration, various other changes and modifications with
_ this is evidenced by a temperature of the circu
lating water of 41° F. or higher. The thermo
75 stat 39 closes contacts 31 and 33, rendering both
out departing from the spirit thereof, and I de
sire, therefore, that only such limitations shall
be placed-thereupon as are imposed by the prior
art or as are speciñcally set forth in the ap
pended claims.
What I claim is:
l. Refrigerating apparatus ‘for providing a
rality of evaporator chambers, means for con
veying water through said chambers in parallel
to be cooled therein by partial evaporation and
including a common discharge conduit, an ejec
supply of cooled water comprising ñrst and sec- ' tor associated with each chamber for withdraw
ond evaporator chambers, means including a dis
charge conduit for effecting flow of water through
said chambers to be cooled therein, for deliver
ing the same to the discharge conduit and for
providing a liquid seal between the chambers,
ñrst and second ejectors connected to s-aid first
and second chambers for withdrawing vapor
therefrom, respectively, means responsive to in
crease above and decrease vbelow a predeter
15 mined temperature of the water iiowing through
said discharge conduit for initiating and termi
nating operation of said ñrst ejector and respon
sive to increase above and decrease below a
slightly higher predetermined temperature of
20 said water for initiating and terminating ?low of
Water through the second chamber and opera
’tion of the second ejector.
2. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a plu
rality of evaporator chambers, means for con
25 veying water through said chambers in parallel
to be cooled therein by partial evaporation and
including a common discharge conduit, an ejec
tor associated with each chamber for withdraw
ing vapor therefrom, and means for initiating
30 operation of an ejector of one chamber in re
sponse to a predetermined maximum tempera
'ture of the water .flowing through said common
discharge conduit and of an ejector of a second
chamber in response to a slightly higher prede
termined temperature thereof.
3. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a plu
ing vapor therefrom, and means for automati
cally controlling the operation of the ejectors of
` a plurality of chambers in response to the tem
perature of the water ñowing through said com
mon discharge conduit to maintain said tem
perature substantially constant, said last-men
tioned means operating in the direction to ini
tiate operation of the ejectors in response to
increase in said temperature and in the direc
tion to terminate operation of the ejectors in»
response to decrease in said temperature.
4. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a plu
rality of evaporator chambers, means for con
veying water through said chambers in parallel
and including a common water supply conduit, 20
a common discharge conduit, and branch con
duits connecting the chambers with the common
discharge conduit and arranged to form a liquid
seal between the chambers, an ejector connected ‘
to each chamber for withdrawing vapor there
from, and means for controlling the ejectors of
a plurality of said chambers in response to the
temperature of the water flowing through said
common discharge conduit to maintain said tem
perature substantially constant, said last-men 30
tioned means operating to initiate operation of
each ejector controlled thereby in response to
increase in said temperature and to terminate
operation thereof in response to decrease in said
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