Патент USA US2129098код для вставки
Sept. 6, -1938. 21,129,098 P. L. FETZER STEAM JET REFRIGERATION APPARATUS Filed MaKrch 2 , 1935 2 sheéts-sheet 1 Fla l 34 |NvEN-roR . PAUL. L_.F'ETZER BY a, ATTORNEY fs Sept. 6, 1938. P. L. FETZER 2,129,098 STEAM' JET REFRIGERAT‘IO'N APPARATUS , _Filed Maron 2, 19:55 2 sheets-sheet 2 _ f. / ll." / g » 22 i I ' ‘ " l/l 13, 'IZ 'l .fl K 15 ._ fr ® | ' l I4 ~ " ß l"| FIG. Z. INVENTOR ' WITNEssl-:s: PAUL L. F'ETzL-:R BY @Jaw ATTOR N EY Patented Sept. 6, 1938 2,129,098 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,129,098 STEAM JET REFRIGERATION APPARATUS Paul L. Fetzer, Ridley Park, Pa., assignor to West inghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Pennsyl Vania Application March 2, 1933, Serial No. 659,403 4 Claims. My invention relates to refrigerating appa ratus, more particularly to apparatus of the type known as steam jet refrigerating apparatus, and it has for an object to provide improved appa 5 ratus of this type which is adapted for operation at partial load. Apparatus of this type includes a chamber in which a vacuous or reduced pressured condition is maintained by an ejector or compressor, ex 10 hausting usually to a condenser. Liquid to be cooled, usually water, is circulated or conveyed through the chamber, the reduced pressure there in effecting evaporation of a portion of the liquid and consequent cooling of the remaining liquid, which then provides the supply of refrigerated liquid and which may be used as refrigerating medium. A steam ejector is not always sum ciently adaptable to change in load, and is usu ally operatedat full load, that is, with full ad 20 mission of motivating steam or other fluid. In order to provide economy of operation at partial load, it has been proposed to provide a plurality of ejectors in parallel and to operate only some of them at partial load. It is neces 25 sary With this arrangement, however, to provide a shut-off valve for each ejector which may be shut oli' at partial load, in order to prevent re (Cl. 62--152) ance with the accompanying drawings, forming a part of this application, in which: I Fig. l is a diagrammatic elevation view of the refrigerating apparatus; and, Fig. 2 is a plan view of the apparatus showing G the ejectors and the common condenser. Referring now to the drawings more in detail, A I show steam jet refrigerating apparatus for sup plying cooled liquid, such as water, to any appa ratus in which it may be required.> Such appa 10 ratus may be, for example, the air cooler and Washer of air conditioning apparatus, shown on the drawings at 9. The refrigerating apparatus mary evaporating chamber I0 evaporating >chamber tI. In bodiment, these chambers are rate tanks. Steam ejectors I2 comprises a pri and a secondary the present ern formed by_sepa~ and I3, shown in Fig.,2, have their suction inlets I2’ and I3' con nected to the chambers I0 and Il, respectively, and effect a vacuous or reduced pressure condi tion in the respective chambers by withdrawing vapor therefrom. The ejectors I2 and I3 are motivated by steam from a supply conduit I4, the admission thereof being controlled by valves I5 and I6, respectively, the operation of which verse llow therethrough from the condenser to is described later. The ejectors exhaust into a common condenser I‘I, which is provided with a the evaporating chamber, which would destroy condensate outlet i8, and air outlet I9 connected 30 the vacuous condition therein. Due to the large to an air ejector 20, a cooling water inlet 2| and .size 0f the vapor connection, such a valve and ` a cooling water outlet 22. its operating mechanism represents a consider For full load operation, both ejectors are op able item of expense. Such a valve has other erate-d. For partial load operation, only the ejec objections, such as air leakage into the vacuum tor I2 is operated, the ejector I3 being shut down system. It is a particular object of my invention to provide apparatus in which saidvalve ls not required. ' , In accordance with my invention, I provide a plurality of evaporating chambers or compart by closing the valve I6. The condenser pressure is then admitted into the chamber I" through the ejector i3. The water to be cooled is -conveyed, in this case from the air cooler, by a conduit 23 to the evaporating chamber orchambers. The water ments into which liquid to be cooled is admitted. ' is divided, one portion being admitted always to A separate ejector is pro-vided for'l each cham spray nozzles 24 in the chamber Ill. The re ber and a common condenser is provided for the maining portion is admitted by a valveA 25 either to a second group of spray nozzles 26 in the - ejectors; I‘provide conduit means for removing 45 cooled liquid from the chambers, and I arrange chamber IIl, for partial load operation, or to spray nozzles 2l in the chamber II, for full load the conduit means with a manometric connec operation. Upon being subjected to the vacuum tion or loop seal between the chambers, the manometric connection providing a column of or decreased pressure in the evaporating cham ber, the water is partially evaporated, which ac liquid whose pressure head opposes the increased pressure, during partialy load operating, in that tion effects cooling of the remaining water, as is well known inthe art.` ,_ „ ` ' chamber whose ejector is shut down. The water cooledA ineach evaporating cham The above and other objects are effected by ’ 'ber is discharged therefrom through an outlet 'my invention as will be apparent from the f_ol ~in the bottom, lthe bottom preferably converg lowing description and claims taken in accord~- ing toward the outlet. The outlets are connect 55 2 2, 129,098 ed to a system of conduits, which is, in accord ance with the present invention, arranged to ejectors operative, and adjusting the valve 25 to provide a manometric connection or loop seal between the chambers to seal the chamber I0 ' against the higher absolute pressure in the cham one-half oi the water, or any other desired por tion, is admitted to the chamber II, and the re ber II at partial load operation. This conduit system includes separate branch discharge con duits 28 and -29 communicating with the cham is cooled or refrigerated in the respective cham ' bers I0 and II, respectively, and with a common 10 discharge conduit 3|. The conduit 29 is 0I smaller diameter than the conduits 28 and 3|, as it never conveys more than a portion of the admit water to the chamber II. Approximately maining portion to the chamber I0. The water bers as above described, substantially the same degree of vacuum or pressure being maintained therein. The water is discharged in parallel through the conduits_28 and 29 to the conduit 3I , and supplied to the air cooler. As the requirementfor refrigeration decreases, l water, while~the conduit 28 conveys the full the temperature of the water decreases. quantity of water at partial load. The conduits ever, the contacts 38 will be kept closed and the 28 and 29 extend iirst downwardly and then com apparatus maintained at full load operation until the temperature drops below 41° F., indicating municate at a low level through horizontally ex tending portions, thereby providing the mano metric connection or loop seal between the cham bers I0 and II. The conduit 28 is of suil‘icient 20 height to provide a head of liquid “a” which op poses the increase in pressurel in the chamber `|I at partial load. The water is then conveyed by the conduit 3|, to a pump 32, by which it is How that half load operation will supply the needed refrigeration, at least temporarily. The contacts 38 are then opened, deenergizing the solenoids 35 and 36. The ejector I3 is shut down and the valve 25 diverts the water from the chamber II to the chamber I0. Due to the shutting down of the ejector I3, the pressure in the chamber Il will rise to that in the condenser I1, lowering the _ forced through a conduit 33 to the air cooler 25 or other refrigerating load. In the latter, the l level of the Water in the conduit 29, until the cooled water is used as refrigerating medium'for any desired purpose, such as air cooling. Its temperature havingA been increased, it is dis charged from the air cooler to the conduit 23 30 and recirculated. Y Control mechanism for vregulating the opera tion of the refrigerating apparatus is provided. It includes solenoids 34 and 35 for opening valves I5 and I6, respectively, the latter being biased to . closed position by the weight of the core. A solenoid 36 controls the valve 25, which is biased to the position in which it admits water to the difference in head between the column of water in the conduit 28 and the bottom of the chamber I0 and the water inthe conduit 29, indicated by the reference character “a”, balances the dif ference between the absolute pressures in the two evaporating chambers. The i'ull quantity of water then il‘ows through the chamber I0, the branch discharge conduit 28 and the common conduit 3|, while the water in the branch dis charge conduit 29 remains stationary. It is to be 35. noted that the higher pressure in the chamber II tends to heat the Water, but as the level of nozzles 26 in the chamber I0, and is operated to » the water is down in the conduit 29, the amount of surface of water subject to heating will ybe admit water to the nozzles 21 in the chamber I I negligible. 40 when the solenoid 36 is energized. The solenoid If the refrigeration requirement is substantially 34 is controlled by contacts 31, and the solenoids 35 and 36 are controlled by contacts 38. The less >than full load, and greater than half load, contacts 31 and 38 are controlled by a thermostat there will be intermittent full load and half load 39 in response to the temperature of the liquid to operation, the temperature of the water decreas be cooled at any desired point in its circuit or ing during the full load operation and increasing path. Preferably, and as shown, the thermostat during the half load operation. If the temperature of the water drops below includes an expansible bellows 4I connected by a tube 42 to a bulb 43 disposed in the conduit 3|. 40° F., indicating that no~ further refrigeration is presently needed, the contacts 31 are also opened, The thermostat 38 -is arranged to close the con shutting down the ejector I2. The water is then tacts 31 inv response to a predetermined maximum 50 temperature, to close both contacts 31 and 38 in circulated through the chamber I8 without any cooling except for the action of the air ejector 29 response to a slightly higher predetermined max imum temperature, and to open both contacts 31 of the condenser, which effects a small amount of and 38 in response to a temperature lower than evaporation of the water and consequent cooling. the iirst-mentioned predetermined maximum Upon subsequent increase in temperature-of the temperature. For the purpose of an example, the water, the contacts 31 will reclose, and cooling at first -and second predetermined maximum tem half load is resumed. Thus, a vload less than 60 peratures will be taken as 40° -and 41° F., re half load is taken care of by intermittent hali spectively. load operation. - Make-up water to replace the water which is vaporized and removed is supplied through a conduit 44. It 'is preferably ilrst cooled in one of the evaporating chambers, and hence the con duit 44 may be connected to the conduit 23. The admission of make-up water is controlled by . From the above description, it will be seen that 60 I have provided a liquid seal between the two evaporating chambers for partial load opera tion, thereby eliminating the necessity for a valve and its operating and control mechanism, which would otherwise _berequired to prevent the con denser pressure entering the chamber I0 through a valve 45, which is controlled by a float control 46 in response to the level of water in the cham _ the ejector I3 and the chamber I I. ber I9. While I have shown my invention in one form, The operation of the above-described appa it will be obvious to those skilled in the art 70 ratus is as follows: When the air cooler or other refrigerating load that it is not so limited, but is susceptible of requires the maximum amount oi.' refrigeration, various other changes and modifications with _ this is evidenced by a temperature of the circu lating water of 41° F. or higher. The thermo 75 stat 39 closes contacts 31 and 33, rendering both out departing from the spirit thereof, and I de sire, therefore, that only such limitations shall be placed-thereupon as are imposed by the prior ß,129,098 art or as are speciñcally set forth in the ap pended claims. What I claim is: l. Refrigerating apparatus ‘for providing a ß rality of evaporator chambers, means for con veying water through said chambers in parallel to be cooled therein by partial evaporation and including a common discharge conduit, an ejec supply of cooled water comprising ñrst and sec- ' tor associated with each chamber for withdraw ond evaporator chambers, means including a dis charge conduit for effecting flow of water through said chambers to be cooled therein, for deliver ing the same to the discharge conduit and for providing a liquid seal between the chambers, ñrst and second ejectors connected to s-aid first and second chambers for withdrawing vapor therefrom, respectively, means responsive to in crease above and decrease vbelow a predeter 15 mined temperature of the water iiowing through said discharge conduit for initiating and termi nating operation of said ñrst ejector and respon sive to increase above and decrease below a slightly higher predetermined temperature of 20 said water for initiating and terminating ?low of Water through the second chamber and opera ’tion of the second ejector. 2. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a plu rality of evaporator chambers, means for con 25 veying water through said chambers in parallel to be cooled therein by partial evaporation and including a common discharge conduit, an ejec tor associated with each chamber for withdraw ing vapor therefrom, and means for initiating 30 operation of an ejector of one chamber in re sponse to a predetermined maximum tempera 'ture of the water .flowing through said common discharge conduit and of an ejector of a second chamber in response to a slightly higher prede termined temperature thereof. 3. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a plu ing vapor therefrom, and means for automati cally controlling the operation of the ejectors of ` a plurality of chambers in response to the tem perature of the water ñowing through said com mon discharge conduit to maintain said tem perature substantially constant, said last-men 10 tioned means operating in the direction to ini tiate operation of the ejectors in response to increase in said temperature and in the direc tion to terminate operation of the ejectors in» response to decrease in said temperature. 4. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a plu rality of evaporator chambers, means for con veying water through said chambers in parallel and including a common water supply conduit, 20 a common discharge conduit, and branch con duits connecting the chambers with the common discharge conduit and arranged to form a liquid seal between the chambers, an ejector connected ‘ to each chamber for withdrawing vapor there from, and means for controlling the ejectors of a plurality of said chambers in response to the temperature of the water flowing through said common discharge conduit to maintain said tem perature substantially constant, said last-men 30 tioned means operating to initiate operation of each ejector controlled thereby in response to increase in said temperature and to terminate operation thereof in response to decrease in said temperature. PAUL L. FETZER.