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Патент USA US2129130

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Sept. '6, 1938.
w, 0, HAMMER
2,129,130
COLLIMATING APPARATUS‘ FOR ALIGNING PRISM-TYPE BINOCULARS
Filed April 28, 1937
INVENTOR.
VV/LL/A M O. HAMMER
BY
'
W
‘ ATTORNEY.
Patented Sept. 6, 1938
2,129,130
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,139,130
COLLIMATING APPARATUS FOR ALIGNING
PRISM-TYPE BINOCULARS
William 0. Hammer, San Francisco, Calif.
Application April 28, 1937, Serial No. 139,348
11 Claims.
This invention relates to the adjustment of the
optical systems of binocular ?eld or opera glasses
of the type which are provided with a longitudi
nal pivotal or “hinged” joint between the two bar
rels for adjusting them to various eye separations,
and particularly to such binoculars which are
provided with offset barrels ?tted with sets of
prisms for giving a much larger image with a
shorter instrument.
The principal object of the invention is to pro
vide apparatus which will facilitate collimation of
the optical systems of the two barrels of such
binoculars.
A further object of the invention is to provide
(Cl. 88—1)
surface 3 of plate 2, and to which bosses 4 a per
fectly ?at parallel sided plate 5 (see Figure 5) is
adapted to be secured as by thumb screws passing
through holes 6 of plate 5 and engaging threaded
holes ‘I in the lugs.
Base plate I is preferably supported on a bench
table, or tripod not shown, so as to bring it to
convenient height for the operator to sight
through the binoculars to be adjusted, and spaced
a short distance above the upper surface 8 of 10'
the base i is a horizontally extending plate or
table 9 pivoted at ID on a horizontal axis to a pair
of lugs ll extending from the rear‘ side of plate 3,
so that table 9 may be tilted up and down with
15 such apparatus which will be adaptable for all
respect to base plate I. The amount of tilting of
sizes and types of such binoculars.
Another object is to provide such apparatus
which may be very quickly operated.
Another object is to provide a system of aligning
the lens systems of such binoculars with the piv
otal joint of the instrument without requiring
which a vise I4 is secured so as to rotate with
the removal of any of its lenses or substitution
of other lenses.
Still another object is to provide an apparatus
for the purpose set out which will dispense with
the insertion of any hair lines into the binoculars
to aid in the aligning operations.
Other features of the invention reside in the
details and construction whereby the invention is
30 carried out and made practical, all as will appear
in the following description and accompanying
drawing.
table 9 is controlled by a thumbscrew l2 threaded
through the rear margin of table 9 and impinging
upon base plate I below.
Pivoted to and rotatably mounted on tilting
table 9 is a circular plate l3 to the upper side of 20
plate l3 about a vertical axis, and the rotation of
plate l3 and its vise I4 is controlled by a thumb
screw l5 which is rotatably mounted in plate 9
and provided with a pinion gear l6 engaging the
teeth I‘! of an arcuate rack secured to or formed
on the edge of plate l3.
Vise I4 is of conventional construction and is
provided with a movable jaw l4’ operated by a
thumbscrew l8, and so positioned on plate I3 as 30
to bring the hinge joint 19 of an average pair of
In the drawing:
Figure l is a perspective View of the apparatus‘
35 shown with a pair of prism type binoculars in
binoculars about central with respect to ?ange 2
when one of the binocular barrels is gripped be
tween the vise jaws.
The jaws are preferably faced with soft rub 354
Figure 2 is an enlarged elevation of the special
centering bull's-eye and hair cross line plate of
the collimator tubes;
Figure 3 shows a modi?ed form of the bull's-eye
40
prism housing 2| of a pair of prism binoculars 22,
and with the other prism housing 2|’, object glass
end 23 and eyepiece 24 free to swing laterally
on axis 25 of hinge joint 19.
Figure 4 shows another modi?ed form of the
cover plates removed, so as to expose the two sets
position for testing and adjustment;
of Figure 2;
bull’s-eye of Figure 2;
Figure 5 is a perspective view of a pair of sepa
45
rately adjustable telescopes for positioning adja
cent the eyepiece end of the binoculars and align
ing therewith.
In further detail the apparatus comprises a
?rm base plate or pedestal I preferably of heavy
metal and provided with a vertical bolting plate
or ?ange 2 having a planed or accurately ?nished
?at outer surface 3, and at a directionally oppo
site point on the base plate are a pair of vertically
disposed bosses 4 with outer surfaces 4' also
planed or ?nished in exactparallelisn; with the
ber 20 and in Figure 1 are shown as gripping one
In Figure 1 the binoculars are shown with prism
of prisms of each barrel or housing, one set of the
prisms being indicated at 26 and the other set be
ing equally accessible through the forward open
end of the housing at 21, and which prisms are
generally movable in various directions for ad
justing to alignment under tension of a bowed
?at spring 28 which holds them to adjusted posi
tion until ?xed in place as by a drop of cement ap
plied to their margins.
50
When ‘a pair of binoculars is clamped in the
vise [4 as indicated, its free barrel is free to swing
on axis 25 so as to swing the axis of its object glass
from 29 to 30 alongthe dotted arcuate line 3 I, the 55.
2
2,129,130
limit or extent of this movement varying with the
size and make of the particular binoculars.
Two small telescopes or collimator tubes 32, 33
are provided for respectively aligning with the
axis of the free barrel at the opposite ends of its
swinging movement. The main tubes of these
telescopes are rigidly mounted, each on the upper
end of a perfectly ?at slotted bar or arm 34, 35,
so as to project at right angles therefrom, and
10 each bar is individually clamped to the planed
outer face 3 of ?ange 2 as by a large thumbscrew
36 passing through the slot 31 of the bar and into
a threaded hole 38 in ?ange 2. This permits
either arm to be raised or lowered or swiveled
15 about its thumbscrew so as to adjust the two tele
scopes to any desired distance apart or height to
exactly meet the axis of the free'barrel of the
binocular when swung on its pivot 25 from one
extreme to the other.
20
-
The outer sections 32’, 33’ of each telescope are
revolvable under gentle friction in the main tube
and each carries a diaphragm ring 39, 40 ?tted
with bull’s-eye and cross line to be later described,
and also provided with a level or bubble glass 4|,
25 4|’, for accurately determining when the'cross
lines of the diaphragm or bull’s-eye are horizontal
and vertical.
'
The bull’s-eye diaphragms may be engraved on
a sheet of optical glass centrally ?tted within the
30 rings 39, 40, and preferably take the form shown
in Figure 2, wherein a plurality of concentric
circles 42 are shown, each numbered at four points
of the circle and crossed by a vertical 43 and hori
zontal 44 line or “hair line”. While Figure 2
35 shows the‘preferred form of the bull’s-eye dia
phragm and its cross hair lines, other forms may
be used, as the bull’s-eye lines instead of being
circular may be hexagonal as shown'in Figure 3‘
at 42', or mere spaced dots may be used on the
40 cross hair lines 43 and 44 as shown at 42" in Fig
ure 4, in all cases the lines or dots of the four or
several radii being equidistant from the crossing
of the hair lines and preferably consecutively
numbered as shown in‘ all three ?gures to facili
45 tate centering of the bull’s-eye in the ?eld. The
reason for the bull’s-eye arrangement of lines or
shifted, or gotten slightly twisted, though other
Wise centered, or in binoculars where the prisms
are rigidly ?xed there is an eccentric adjustment
of the objective lens which may have become dis
placed, and any of which errors must be corrected
to bring both eye images into coincidence and
obtain the stereoscopic effect. The shifting of
either prism will cause lateral or vertical relative
displacement of the images, while a slight twist
ing will cause the vertical lines as of a building,
and the horizontal lines, as of a roof, to vary so
much in the two barrels as to prevent their joining
in the eyes as a single image.
To correct the trouble, the prism covers are re
moved, the binoculars clamped in the vise as
shown in Figure 1, the forward telescopes 32, 33
spaced to be in line with the free barrel of the
binoculars when swung back and forth on its pivot
joint l9, their bull's-eye cross lines are accurately
leveled with the bubble glass mounts, then with 20
the free barrel of the binoculars aligned as accu
rately as possible with one of the telescopes—say
32'-by looking through the eyepiece of the free
barrel (with telescopes directed to a source of
diffused light) and manipulating screws l2 and
I5 until the bull’s-eye rings are centered in the
?eld of the eyepiece. As the ?eld of binoculars
of different powers and sizes varies considerably,
the numbering of the bull's-eye rings as shown in
Figure 2 gives a ready means of being certain that 30
the largest ring in the ?eld is the same ring all
around the ?eld, or in the case of a target as in
Figure 4, that the same numbered dots are adja
cent the circular margin of the ?eld.
. After the barrel has been thus centered with
respect to one of the telescopes, it is swung on
its hinge l9 to the other telescope and if found
also to show the bull’s-eye rings perfectly cen
tered with the ?eld of view and the cross lines
vertically and horizontally disposed, the optical 40
system of that barrel could be considered per
fect.
'
If, however, as usually the case, when the free
barrel is swung to the second telescope the bull’s
eye is found considerably displaced in the ?eld 45
will there occupy the dotted position shown in
either to the right, left, up or down, or the cross
lines noticeably out of plumb or level, then an
adjustment of the prisms is made until about
half of the apparent errors are overcome/and
after which the thumbscrews I2 and I4 are again 50
manipulated until the bull's-eye rings are cen
tered in the ?eld of view. After this the free
barrel is again swung over to the ?rst position
and upon sighting through the eyepiece will show
a displacement of the bull’s-eye rings of about 55
half the former displacement. This is corrected
to about half its apparent value by shifting or
turning of the prisms, as may be required, then
the screws I2, l5 are again manipulated to cen
ter the target in the ?eld, and the barrel swung
over again to the second position, and the same
adjustment to correct'half of the apparent error
Figure 1.
repeated as described.
marks will later be explained.
A similar pair of telescopes is arranged for ad
justably securing to plate 5 which secures to lugs
50 4 at the rear of the binoculars to be tested. These
telescopes are shown in‘Figure 5 at 45, 46, each
rigidly secured to ?at slotted arms 41, 48 as de
scribed-for the forward telescopes, and the slotted
arms each independently secured to plate 5 by
55 thumbscrews 49,50 passing through the slots 5|,
52 of the arms. By this means the telescopes 45,
46 may be independently adjusted up and down
on plate 5 as well as spaced any required distance.
Plate 5 is perfectly ?at and of even thickness and
60 is rigidly secured to the ?nished surfaces of lugs 4
as by thumbscrews or cap screws not shown, and
'
The rear telescopes 45, 46 each have the usual
65 objective at their forward ends 53, 53’ and eye
piece at the rear ends 54, 54’, and are provided
with a cross line inside at the focal points 55, 55'
of the eyepieces, and may be turned plumb by
turning the eyepieces and also may have bubble
70 glasses mounted on them if desired as in the front
telescopes for centering with the cross lines
thereof.
In using the apparatus for correcting misalign
ment of the optical systems in prism binoculars,
75 either the forward or rearward prisms may have
a!
1
'
By‘ repeating the above several times the ap
parent errors rapidly diminish until the bull’s 65
eye rings exactly center themselves in both po
sitions and with the cross lines plumb and level,
though for alternate checking, the two rear tele
scopes 45, 46 may be mounted in place and
sighted through in both positions to insure abso 70
lute centering of the cross lines in both posi
tions.
After thus adjusting the prisms and/or lens
systems of the free barrel, it may be relied on
that the axis of its optical system is in line with 75.
2,129,130
the mechanical axis of hinge joint IS. The bin
oculars are then removed from the vise, the cor
rected barrel clamped in place, and the same
back and forth adjustments carried out on the
other barrel until there is no displacement from
perfect centering in either position when viewing
the target through the eyepiece of the binocular
or through the rear telescopes 45, 46, and the
cross lines are plumb and level. The adjusted
10 glasses of the barrels are then permanently se
cured in the adjusted position, as by cement or
other means, the covers are replaced on the
prism tubes, and the binoculars will be found
in perfect alignment.
As previously suggested, in such binoculars as
15
are provided with eccentric or laterally movable
mounts of the objectives and/or prisms, which
sometimes are provided with adjusting screws,
these are suitably adjusted in the aligning opera
20 tions described above, and require no further fas
t-ening.
A point to be noted is that the bull’s-eye dia
phragms in the telescope rings 39 and 40 should
be accurately centered with relation to the opti
25 cal axis of the telescopes, and the mountings may
if desired include any suitable means for verti
cal and horizontal adjustment from the outside
to facilitate such centering.
Having thus described my invention and the
30 preferred manner of its use, it will be evident
to anyone skilled in the art that various modi
?cations in the structure may be made within
the spirit of the invention and scope of the ap
pended claims.
35
I therefore claim:
1. Apparatus for aligning the optical systems
of jointed binocular ?eld glasses comprising a
pedestal provided with a vertical ?ange, a table
pivotally mounted on said pedestal for vertical
tilting and provided with means for adjusting it
to various degrees of tilting, a plate mounted on
said table for rotation about an upright axis, and
provided with means for adjusting it to any de
sired degree of rotation, a vise carried by said
plate adapted for clamping one barrel of a bin—
ocular ?eld glass with the other barrel free to
swing, and a pair of collimator tubes adjustably
secured to said vertical ?ange adapted respec
3
with the other free to swing for bodily displace
ment of its longitudinal optical axis, a pair of
telescopes supported for independent bodily
movement in a plane at right angles to said axis,
and means for securing said telescopes in ad
justed position for aligning with said axis respec
tively in its opposite positions of displacement
upon swinging of the barrel, and a target cen
tered in each of said telescopes adapted for opti
cally centering of its image in the ?eld of view
of the eyepiece of the free barrel of said binoc
ulars.
5. Apparatus for aligning the optical systems
of jointed binocular ?eld glasses comprising
means for clamping one barrel of the binoculars 15
with the other free to swing for bodily displace
ment of its longitudinal optical axis, a pair of
telescopes supported for independent bodily
movement in a plane at right angles to said axis,
and means for securing said telescopes in ad
justed position for aligning with said axis respec
tively in its opposite positions of displacement
upon swinging of the barrel, and a target com
posed of concentric ?gures centered in each of
said telescopes of a form adapted for optically
centering of its image in the ?eld of view of the
eyepiece of the free barrel of said binoculars.
6. Apparatus for aligning the optical systems
of jointed binocular ?eld glasses comprising
means for clamping one barrel of the binoculars 30
with the other free to swing for bodily displace
ment of its longitudinal optical axis, a pair of
telescopes supported for independent bodily
movement in a plane at right angles to said axis,
and means for securing said telescopes in ad 35
justed position for aligning with said axis re
spectively in opposite positions of displacement
upon swinging the barrel, and a target composed
of concentric ?gures and a pair of cross lines
centered in each of said telescopes, said concen
tric ?gures being of a form adapted for optically
centering of its image in the ?eld of view of eye
piece of the free barrel of said binoculars.
'7. Apparatus for aligning the optical systems
of jointed binocular ?eld glasses comprising
means for clamping one barrel of the binoculars
with the other free to swing for bodily displace
ment of its longitudinal optical axis, a pair of
telescopes supported for independent bodily
tively for aligning with the optical axis of said
free barrel in two positions of swinging.
movement in a plane at right angles to said axis,
2. In apparatus as speci?ed in claim 1, a sec
ond pair of collimator tubes spaced from the ?rst
justed position for aligning with said axis respec
pair with binoculars positioned between them,
and means for individually adjusting the second
pair of tubes to respectively align with an exten
sion of the optical axis of said free barrel in its
two positions of swinging.
3. The method of aligning the optical systems
in a pair of hingedly connected prism binoculars
(30 which comprises ?rmly holding one of the barrels
with the other free to swing on its hinge joint,
alternately swinging the free barrel from one to
the other axis of a pair of spaced collimators
while successively shifting the prism of the bar
rel until a centering target of each collimator
shows no apparent displacement when viewed in
either position through the eyepiece of the free
barrel, thereafter repeating the above operations
on the prism. of the other barrel, and securing the
70 prisms in place, to thereby bring the optical axes
of both barrels parallel to the axis of the hinged
connection of the barrels.
I
4. Apparatus for aligning the optical systems
.of jointed binocular ?eld glasses comprising
75 means for clamping one barrel of the binoculars
and means for securing said telescopes in ad- 0
tively in its opposite positions of displacement
upon swinging of the barrel, a target carried by
and centered in each of said telescopes including
a straight line and adapted for optically center
ing of its image in the ?eld of the eyepiece oi
the free barrel of said binoculars, means mount
ing said targets for axial rotation with respect
to the body of the telescopes respectively, and 60
means carried by the telescopes for indicating
the leveling of said targets in ?xed relation to
any straight line thereon.
8. Apparatus for aligning the optical systems
of jointed binocular ?eld glasses comprising
means for clamping one barrel of the binoculars
with the other free to swing for bodily displace
ment of its longitudinal optical axis, a pair of
telescopes supported for independent bodily
movement in a plane at right angles to said axis, 70
and means for securing said telescopes in ad
justed position for aligning with said axis re
spectively in its opposite positions of displace
ment upon swinging of the barrel, av target car
ried by a section of and. centered in each of said 75
4
2,129,130
telescopes adapted for optically centering of its
respectively with the opposite positions of said
image in the ?eld of the eyepiece of the free bar
rel of said binoculars and including a straight
line, means providing for axial turning of the
sections of said telescopes carrying the center
ing targets, and a leveling glass secured to each
of said sections extending transversely of its axis.
axis as extended through the eyepiece of said free
barrel, and means for clamping said second pair
9. Apparatus for aligning the optical systems
of jointed binocular ?eld glasses comprising
10 means for clamping one barrel of the binoculars
with the other free to swing, for bodily displace
ment of its longitudinal optical axis, a pair of
telescopes supported for independent bodily
movement in a plane at right angles to said axis,
15 and means for securing said telescopes in ad
justed position for aligning with said axis respec
tively in its opposite positions of displacement
upon swinging of the barrel, and a target cen
tered in each of said telescopes adapted for opti
cally centering of its image in the ?eld of View
of the eyepiece of the free barrel of said binocu
lars, each of said telescopes provided with an
arm extending at right angles to the longitudinal
axis of the telescope, a ?at rigid surface against
which said arms are adapted to be clamped, and
means for adjustably clamping said arms respec
tively against said surface.
10. In the construction as speci?ed in claim 4,
a second pair of telescopes spaced from said ?rst
3 O pair of telescopes and between which the binoculars are positioned, and means adapting said sec
ond pair of telescopes to be separately aligned
of telescopes in such aligned position.
11. Apparatus for aligning the optical systems
of jointed binocular ?eld glasses comprising
means for clamping one barrel of the binocu
lars with the other free to swing for bodily dis
placement of its longitudinal optical axis, a pair
of telescopes supported for independent bodily 10
movement in a plane at right angles to said axis,
and means for securing said telescopes in ad
justed position for aligning with said axis respec
tively in its opposite positions of displacement
upon swinging of the barrel, and a target cen 15
tered in each of said telescopes adapted for opti
cally centering of its image in the ?eld of view
of the eyepiece of the free barrel of said binocu
lars, a second pair of telescopes spaced from said
?rst pair of telescopes and between which the 20
binoculars are positioned, and means adapting
said second pair of telescopes to be separately
aligned respectively with the opposite positions
of said axis as extended through the eyepiece of
said free barrel, said last mentioned means in 25
cluding an arm extending at right angles from
each telescope, a ?at rigid surface against which
said arms are adapted to be clamped, and means
for adjustably clamping said arms respectively
against said surface.
30,
WILLIAM O. HAMMER.
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