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Патент USA US2129197

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Patented Sept. 6, 1938
‘ 2,129,197 '
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,129,197
BRONZE ALLOY
John W. Bryant, Jr., Minneapolis, Minn.‘ _
', No Drawing. Application July 3, 1937.
‘
Serial N0. 151,890
9 Claims. (01. 75-154)
loy having peculiar welding qualities which per
This invention relates to bronze alloys. In par
ticular, it relates to bronze alloys which can be / mits the same to be readily ‘welded to iron or steel.
welded onto‘ steel or iron for use especially to form
bearing surfaces and protective coatings there
5
for.
‘ \
'
at rather low temperatures, and which alloy can
‘ be easily made to'thoroughly bond with and, in
fact, become an integral part of the body of metal 5
Most bronze alloys now available for use in pro- v
to which it is welded.
producing my said alloy. '
will more fully appear from the following description.
5 pumps, etc., high grade steel must be used to pro-'
vide the requisite strength and rigidity. For hear
ing purposes, however, the steel is not satisfactory
for various reasons among which are the inability
of’ the steel to resist the corrosive action of the
materials which would contact it and the lack of
resistance of the steel to abrasive action. It,
therefore, becomes desirable in many situations to
coat steel with a material that will have the requi
site qualities to form proper bearing surfaces for
iii the steel, and at ‘the same time ‘will protect the
steel against corrosive and abrasive action.
It is the general object of this invention to pro~
vide a novel bronze alloy having peculiar char
acteristics which adapt it for use in welding onto
a steel and cast iron, particularly for use to form
bearing surfaces and protective coatings.
‘
A more speci?c object is to provide such‘an al
loy which is high in Brinell hardness and will form
a ?ne bearing surface highly resistant to with
stand abrasion and acid or corrosive conditions. '
Another object is to provide a bronze alloy
which can be formed into a welding rod for weld‘
ing onto steel ‘or iron and which is highly resist
ant to oxidation or burning in the welding i'lame.
w
Another object is to provide a novel bronze al
"
_
>
I have found that a highly satisfactory alloy 15'
embodying my invention is produced when ap
proximately the following proportions by weight
A hardness of 65 Brinell is in many situations in
sufficient to permit the metal to form a satisfac
rigidity are required, as on the shafts of rotary
‘
The objectsv and advantages of the invention
ness, generally expressed in terms of - “Brinell
' In many situations ‘where great strength and
‘
poses onto steel and iron.
,.hardness” is low, generally running around 65.
ing is required to carry a heavy load or is sub
:Iected to either corrosive or abrasive conditions.
,
Still another object is to provide a novel alloy
which is not subject to the disadvantages of pres= l0
ent alloys now known and used for welding pur
sirable in bearing surfaces for the reason that the
5 zinc has an abrasive action. The degree of hard
0 tory bearing surface, especially where the bear
'
Another object is to provide a novel process for
ducing welding rods are composed largely of, cop
per and zinc with other elements added in small
amounts for purposes of ?uxing, etc. Due to the
0 nature of the metals used in producing these
welding rods, a welded surface made from them
does not make a satisfactory bearing surface for
many purposes. The high zinc content is unde
of the following elements are employed:
.
Percent 20
Copper
Tin
80 ‘
>
17.3‘
Nickel
1.5
Silicon
,
Iron
-
Phosphorus
'
'
.5
_.___
.5
'
_
.02
Maximum impurities___‘-_, ____________ __
.28
25
The above are the preferred proportions of the
various ingredients that I use, but I have found 30 -
that variance in the maximum and minimum pro
portions of the various elements may be made as
follows:
i
.
‘
Percent
Copper....___-..________________..___ ‘77
Tin
8
Nickel
1
Silicon“-.. _________________ __‘__'__
.-92 ~
35
-18
- 5
.5 — 3
Iron
.25- 1
Phosphorus ________ ____ __________ __
0
_-
Maximum impurities permitted ____
0
-.-
.04 40
. 30
If the proportions of copper are increased or de
creased above or below 80% in the total mix, the
proportions of tin conversely should be decreased
or increased correspondingly. While the alloy 45
can be formed without the use of phosphorus, it
is highly desirable that from .02 to .04% phospho
' rus be used.
In preparing my bronze alloy, the iron and sili
0011 used are ?rst alloyed together in the propor- 50
2,120,197
tions of 50% of each to form an alloy known as
ferro-silicon. The nickel employed is alloyed with
an equal amount by weight of copper to form the
alloy known as nickel-copper. The phosphorus
is alloyed with copper in the proportions of 10%
by weight phosphorus to 90% by weight copper to
form the alloy known as phosphor-copper.
The balance of the copper in pure- form not
vemployed in producing. the nickel-copper alloy
10 and the phosphor-copper alloy is charged with
the nickel-copper and ferro-silicon. When the
pure copper, nickel-copper and ferro-silicon have
been melted, the tin is then added. The ‘tin hav
ing a low melting point is quickly melted down.
15 The phosphor-copper is added last after the tin
has been added, to prevent the phosphorus from
being burned out. After all the ingredients have
been added, the molten metal is vigorously stirred
with a steel rod having a high melting point to
20 prevent any of the iron from the steel entering the
mix. The molten'metal is then poured into in
gots, whereupon after the ingots have solidi?ed
they are melted down and the metahis then
?nity for the iron or steel to which the alloy is
being welded. The tin and silicon give hardness
to the applied alloy while the nickel gives tough
ness to the applied alloy, prevents brittleness
of the same and most important of all it gives 5
the applied alloy the property of elongation. The
iron of course also adds some degree of hard
ness to the product. The phosphorus found in
the welding rod, being employed as a flux dur
-ing the operation of welding onto the steel or 1O
iron, is totally or almost totally consumed dur
ing the welding operation, its chief function be
ing the absorption of oxygen when the rod and
metal is in the welding flame. If any phos
phorus remains in the ?nal applied product, the 15
. small amount remaining does not change the
physical characteristics of the ?nal product and
would be classi?ed as an impurity therein. The
?nal product therefore can be considered as con
20
taining practically no phosphorus.
The applied alloy has a Brinell hardness of
150 to 200 Br. It forms an almost perfect hear
ing surface because it is hard and it is able to
Withstand acid or corrosive conditions. As dur
ing its application it does not oxidize or burn in 25
the welding ?ame, it is of uniform texture
throughout without pits or bubbles therein and
without irregularities of any kind. It bonds
perfectly with steel or iron. One. of the most im
purposes.
'
Assuming that it is desired to produce, for ex-7 portant properties of the alloy is its elongation 3C
30
ample, a shaft for a high pressure rotary pump, permitting stretch of the alloy with the backing
a shaft of high grade steel is ?rst prepared in metal even though the backing metal may have
a different coefficient of linear expansion than the'
order to provide the requisite strength and rigid
ity. The steel alone is not satisfactory for hear; alloy. This elongation property prevents check
ing or cracking of the alloy on the backing metal 35
35 ing purposes for the reason that it lacks the abil
ity to resist the corrosive action of the materials as the backing metal is subjected to different
being pumped and it has little resistance to. any, temperatures.
The process of preparing the alloy of the in
_ abrasive action. It, therefore, becomes desirable
to coat the steel shaft with material that will vention is such as to prevent injury to the ele
40 stand up under the conditions of use. The steel ments having low melting points as they are 4(
'shaft is. machined down to a size approximately added. By first producing the respective alloys
poured into molds to form welding rods‘of con
25 venient size for welding purposes.
The welding rods so made are preferably, al-v
though not necessarily, coated with a standard
commercial ?ux before they are used for welding
of ferro-silicon, nickel-copper and phosphor
copper, the smelting operation can be performed
welding rods is then used; A layer‘of the bronze . at a relatively low heat. By ?rst forming the
alloy is applied to the shaft with a welding torch, alloy into ingots and thereafter remelting the 45
whereupon the shaft is remachined to the desired alloy and thereafter molding into the welding
rods, a stabilized alloy is secured by uniformity
size. This leaves a layer of the bronze alloy over
_ one-fourth inch
under that desired. The bronze
alloy of the present invention in the form of
lying the steel and securely attached to the steel _ of practice having advantages over an alloy that
shaft and forming an integral part thereof. If
50 a machined section of the shaft is observed as
through a glass, it will be seen that the outer
would be formed without employment of the in
goting and remelting steps.
5‘
The proportions of the various components of
most coating of the shaft is of a light copperish
color and that this outer coating merges into an
the limits speci?ed for various purposes to se- _
inner coating of grayish copperish color which,
cure more pronounced or less pronounced char
55 in turn, merges into the pure steel of gray color
of the shaft.
'
The alloy. welding rod is applied to the steel
by use of an ordinary welding torch and as the
rod is melted,'it flows smoothly and quietly onto
60 the steel without bubbling or agitation.
This
permits of even application of the alloy to the
steel without bubbles or pits being formed in
the ?nal product. The phosphorus and silicon
in the alloy serve to- cause the metal to flow
the alloy of the invention‘ can be varied within
acteristics attaching to the alloy in the final 5:
product. By reducing or increasing the pro
portions of 'tin and silicon, the hardness of the
?nal product can be varied. By increasing or
decreasing the proportion of nickel, the-tough
ness and elongation of the ?nal product can be 6‘
varied.
»
While the alloy is particularly'useful in pro- ducing bearing surfaces on iron or steel, it of
course can be put to many other uses. In par
65 smoothly and quietly onto the steel without bub
ticular, it is contemplated that it may be used
bling under the action of the welding torch. The - to form non-abrasive and non-corrosive liners
phosphorus having ‘remained in the alloy, at
least, until acted ‘upon by the welding torch
acts as a ?ux and absorbs the oxygen and pre
70 vents the bubbling action. The silicon, of course,
does the same thing to a certain degree. As the
torch melts the welding rod, the iron in the al
loy forms a protective ?lm around the molten
pool to prevent oxidization of themetal while
75 at the same time the iron givesv the alloy an ‘ar
or casings for iron and steel parts where strength
is desired and yet the parts must not be sus
ceptible to corrosion. By use of the present al- 7,
loy, many parts now made entirely from bronze
can be made from steel or iron to the exposed
surfaces of which thealloy of the invention has
been welded or otherwise applied.
'
It will, of course, be understood that varia- 7,
3
‘ 2,129,197
5. A metal alloy consisting of theiollowing per
tions may be made in the process of preparing
I . my alloy and in the steps thereof and in the
proportions of the various elements employed in
the alloy without departure from the scope of the
present invention which, generally stated, con
sists in the matter described and set ‘forth in the
Per cent
Copper
'
_
7’!
. '8
1
’
Silicon
Iron
Nickel
_
-
1
Copper
- 5
.5
.5
>
8
15
.5 .
-
‘ 77
20
—92
1 Silicon
.5 - 3
> Iron
.25- 1
25
8. I A metalalloy consisting of the following per
centages by weight of the following elements:
Percent
77 —92
‘
— 5
Tin
1
8 —18
Nickel (approximately) _____________ _; 1.5
Per cent
Tin
—18
1’
Per cent
3. A metal alloy comprising the following per
_
8
centages by weight of the following elements:
centeges by weight oi’ the following elements:
Copper
.
—92
Iron_
.25- 1
7. A metal alloy consisting of the following per
8 -1a
_
-
Silicon (approximately)_-___.,_ _____ __‘_
Per cent
77 --92
Nickel
77
Tin
- 5
Silicon (approximately) _____________ -_
Iron (approximately) _______________ _-
5
Percent
centages by weight of the following elements: _ ‘
_
_
consisting of the following per 10
Copper
Iron
.25- 1
r 2. A inetalalloy consisting of the following per
00
(approximately) ________ __' ____ __
- 5
.5- 3
centages by weight of the following elements:
.5 - 3
Ann
'
'6. A metal
—92
—18
1
‘
1
. Silicon
Per cent
Nickel
8 —18
Nickel
l. A metal alloy consisting of the following
10 proportions by weight of the following elements:
_ Copper
Tin
'77 —92
Tin
' ‘appended claims.
What is claimed is:
centages by weightof the following elements:
Copper
—18
Tin
Nickel (approximately) ______________ _- 1.5
Silicon (approximately) __________ -__-__ -'.5
Iron (approximately) ____ __-_.______-_‘._
.5
I
~
>
I
Nickel (approximately) _____________ __
Silicon (approximately) ____________ __
Iron
9. A metal alloy
~ —4. A metal alloy. consisting of approximately
'77
—92
8
>-l8
30
1.5
.5
25-‘- 1 35
‘of the following
the following percentages by weight of the'fol— _ percentages by weight of the following elements: A
- lowing elements:
-
Tim
'
. 1.5v
Silicon
46
1m-
'
‘
1
>
"
v
5
.5
77 —92 40
Tin
,
Nickel (approximately) __- ____________ __
Silicon
'
Iron. (approximately) ________________ __
1?.3
Nickel
Per cent
‘Copper
Per cent
80
Copper
.
8 —18
1.5
.5- 3
.5
JOHN W. BRYANT, Jli.
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