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Патент USA US2129221

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Sept'G, 1938.
H_ B_ LEW‘S
2,129,221
* OVERHEAD Doon
Filed Feb. 12, 1934
2 Sheets-Sheet l
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sept. 6, .1938.
H. B. I_Ewls
2,129,221 ,
OVERHEAD DOOR
Filed Feb. 12; 1954
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented`
2,129,221
6, >1938
_UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,129,221
OVERHEAD DOOR
Howard B. Lewis, Losl Angeles, Calif., assigner
to Paton, Inc., Los Angeles, Calif., a corporation
of California
Application February 12, 1934, serial No. mais
`8Claims. (Cl. 2li-_16)
The invention relates primarily to a simple force along a :hordal line extending from a mov
counterbalance for an eccentrically mounted able point associated with the weight so as to
weight, and relates secondarily to a counterbal « rotate around a center of rotation to a stationary
. anced door embodying my new counterbalance.
point which is in a position of commotion with
Although there are many uses for the counter
the movable point when the center ci' gravity of 5
Cl
balance, I shall, for the purpose of simplifying the weight is disposed vertically above the axis
the disclosure of my invention, conñne the clis-- v of rotation of the weight.
Further objects and advantages of the inven
closure thereof to a counterbalanced door struc
ture having especial utility as a door for garages . tion will be brought out in the following part of
the speciiìcation.
or any opening of considerable size. At the pres
10
ent time large doors are either swung on hinges,
Referring to the drawings, which are for illus
trative purposes only,
mounted in horizontal tracks so as to slide be
Fig. 1 is a longitudinally, vertically sectioned
tween closed and open positions, or mounted so
that they may be raised to an overhead position. view showing an embodiment of `the invention
_The doors swung on vertical hinges require space employed as a door in a garage. the door being
>into which they may be swung into open posi
tion, and where sliding doors are employed, space ,
must be provided for them when they are moved
into open position.- _ If a' door opening is equipped
with a pair of door 'members adapted to overlap
when one of the door members is open, the en
tire door area cannot be open at one time. O_ver-l
_ head doors, in addition tol other disadvantages
shown in partly raised position.
‘
Fig. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary viewshow- `
ing the door of Fig.> 1 in closed position.
_ Fig. 3 is a longitudinally sectioned view taken
as indicated by the line 3_3 of Fig. 2.
20
Fig. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional
view on a plane represented by the line _4_4 of
Fig. 3.
- `
found in their use, are often difficult to operate.
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary section on a plane rep
My present invention concerns an overhead
door which rotates relative to a horizontal axis
resented by the line 5-.5 of Fig. 4.
Fig. 6 is a force-diagram illustrating the opera
tion of the counterbalance means involved in the
from-lowered to raised position and whichmay
be easily and noiselessly swung from open and
closed positions for the reason that it is prac
30 tically perfectly counterbalanced in all positions.
In addition 4to providing a door which is easily
.operated and which may be made in a single unit
for a door opening of practically any width, the
' invention is of such simplicity that the cost of
manufacture and installation of doorsis main
tained at a
‘
»
-
It is an object of the invention to provide for
use in doors ofthe character herein disclosed,
and for other purposes, a simple formof coun
terbalance wherein, by use of springs, the door
or other swingably mounted weight may be per
fectly counterbalanced in all positions of rota
tion relative to the axis onÍ which it is swingable.
A further object of the invention is to provide
45 a door of the above character which may be
easily adjusted to proper closing position after
the installation of the parts thereof, and having
asimple spring counterbalance means, the effect
of which relative to the opening and closing
structure shown in Figs. 1 to 5,.
'
-
Fig. 7 is a vertically sectioned view showing an
alternative form of counterbalance structure in 30
volving my invention."
,
Fig. 8 is a sectional view showing the door of
Fig. 'l in raised position.
' Fig. 9 is an enlarged perspective detail taken
as indicated' by the arrow 9 of Fig. 7.
35
Fig. 10 is a perspective view showing a manner
`in which a single spring may be connected so
as to counterbalance both- ends of a door in ac
cordance with my invention.
-
Fig. 11 is a vertically cross sectioned view show 40.
ing a form of the invention in which the door
is pivotally attached to swingable supporting
arms and is guided by means of a link during its
movement between raised and lowered positions.
Fig. 12 is a vertically sectioned view showing
a form of the invention in which the upper por- »
tion of the door is guided so as to travel in a
horizontal plane as it is swung between raised
_andlowered positions.
_
>
_
Fig. 13 is an enlarged fragmentary section on
movement of the door may be varied or adjustedl
a plane represented by the line i3-I3 of Fig. 12.
to suit requirements or individual preference.
In Fig. 1 I show a garage I5 _having a doorway
VIt is a further object of the invention to pro- ‘
vide a counterbalance means for a weight which or door opening Il of a size to permit passage of
.is rotatable around an eccentric axis, comprising a vehicle, such as an automobile I1. For closing
a force exerting element placed so as to exert a the opening I6 a door I8 is provided, this door be
56 .
2
2,129,221
ing shown in open position in Fig. 1 and in closed
position in Figs. 2 and 3. The door I8, as shown,
is of a size to ñll the width of the opening I6 and
is of such height that the upper edge 20 thereof
nearly reaches the wall edge 2I deñning the upper
limit of the opening I6. To illl the space22 be
tween the edges 20 and 2I, a cover strip 23 may
be secured to the wall edge 2 I. Projecting across
the back of the door on opposite sides of a centrall
horizontal plane are members 24, the ends 25 of
which project beyond the sides 26 of the door I8
and extend across the inner faces of the front
walls 21 of the garage I5. Secured to the ends
of the members 25 are arms 28 which extend per
15 pendicularly to the vertical plane of the door I8
and also horizontally when the door is closed, as
shown in Fig. 2.
The arms 28 may be made of light-weight steel
spring is so proportioned and positioned that it
will exert a zero pull when the point 45 is in the `
vertical plane A-A of Fig. 2, and exert a pull suf
ñcient to counterbalance the weight of the door
and its associated part when the point 45 is in
any other position, such as inthe lowered position
in which it is' shown in Fig. 2.
I have discovered a new mathematical relation
ship which is involved in the counterweight dls- '
closed herein, which will be made clear from a
consideration of Fig. 6 in which a weight W ro
tates on a radius r around a point O. The torque
Tw of the weight W around O due to gravity on
the Weight W swinging about O at the radius -r
is expressed as follows: ,
Tw=Wr cos :c
A spring of force constant
‘channels 3l having inwardly extending lips 32, as
20 shown in Fig. 4. In the rearward end 33 of each
channel 3l a slidable block 34 is placed, this block
being engaged by a screw 35 which extends
through a plate or cap 36 on the rearward ex
tremity of the channel 3I. The block 34 has an
opening 31 for receiving a pin 38 which projects
into a boss 48 formed on a mounting plate 4I.
È
ed adjacent the rearward end 33 of each of the
.
is attached to a stationary point A directly above
0 a distance 1' to pull the weight W toward A.
The extension of the spring E is zero when r is
vertical. The torque Ts around the point O due
to the spring is '
As clearly shown in Fig. 3, a mounting plate for
the pivot means provided by the pin 38 is mount
30 pair of arms 28 and on some stationary part of
the garage structure, such as posts or side walls
42 of the garage I5. The arms 28 are of such
.
t
W
A
T.= 1,-;E
Therefore,
30
l ~cos 2(90--x)=_
length that the mounting plates 4I may be placed
with their pins 38 spaced from the door opening
a distance substantially .equal to, but slightly less
than, half the height of the door. By operation of
the screws 35, the blocks 34 may be adjusted to
vary the effective lengths of the arms 28 and
thereby easily andquickly adjust the door I8 to a
desired position in the opening I6.
.
Ropes or cables 44 are secured at 45 to the outer
portions of the forward ends of the arms 28 and
are carried over pulleys 46 mounted above the
pivots provided by the pins 38, the distance of
each pulley from its corresponding pivot being
45
substantially the same' as the distance from the
points 45 to the pins 38, the result being that
when the door I6 is in closed position, as shown
in Fig. 2, the portion 41 of each cable 44 extends
at an angle of 45° relative to horizontal or verti
cal or constitutes a chord of the 90° arc 48 trans
scribed by the movement of the point 45 between
horizontal and vertical positions. '
or
40
T.=Wr cos x=Tw
Consequently, the system is in equilibrium at all
points of a complete revolution of W around O.
In the above manner any weight rotatably 45
mounted,>such as the door I8, may be counter
balanced by use of a spring connected so as to
exert its force along a chord or path extending
from the point 45 to a point above the axis of
rotation of the weight. A_ single spring may be 50
employed, or springs may be placed so as to oper
ate in unison, the number of springs- employed
varying with the weight of the door. In Figs. 1
From the pulleys 46 rearward portions 50 of the . to 6 of the drawings I have shown a garage door
cables 44 extend to pulling means 5I, each of I8 counterbalanced by separate spring means 5I
which, as shown in Fig. 2, may` consist of a for
mounted at opposite ends of the door, eachof the
spring means substantially counterbalancing half
ward attachment plate `52 _and a rearward attach
ment plate 53 with a complement of springs 54 the weight of the door. In the'diagramrnatic per
connecting` therebetween. The attachment plates spective view, Fig. 10, I show the manner in which
52 are connected to the portions 50 of the cables _ a door I8' may be counterbalanced by use of a
44. and the attachment plates 53 are secured to spring 5I’ through cables 44a and 44h which may
a stationary member of the garage. The pulling be carried over systems of pulleys 55 to connect
means 5I, acting through the cables 44, exert up
to the spring 5I’.
~ward forces for counterbalancing the weight of
In Figs. 7 and 8 I show an alternative form of
the door I8 and its attachment so that by lifting my invention in which my new principle of coun 65
on the door when it is in the position shown in terbalancing by use of a spring is practically ap
Fig. 2. it may be rotated through the dotted line plied without the use of cables or pulleys. In Fig.
position 55 of Fig. 1 to the raised position in which I 7 I show a door opening I 6a closed by a door GII
it is shown in full lines- in Fig. 1.
mounted on the forward ends of arms, such as
A `feature of my invention resides in the use the arm 3|' which pivotally engages a supporting
70
member'4l'. The arm 3l' has bracket plates of
of the counterbalance spring means 5I which ex
erts its force along a line constituting the chord triangular form 6I and 62, as shown in Fig. 9. se
of the arc 48 of the securement point or points 45 cured to its forward end, providing flanges 63 by
of the upwardly rotatable door structure or other which the-arm may be secured to members 24'A
rotatable weight similarly secured, and which placed across the back of the door 60. The upper 7
2,129,221
plate orrbracket 62 has an outer ñange 64 ex
Y 3
V1t 'swings from the horizontal position in whion
tending parallel to the arm 3l’ and having a >it is sh'own in full lines in Fig. 11-to the raised
series of spring connecting means therealong in. ' position shown in dotted lines 83, the link 8i
the form of holes 65. IWhen the door 66 is
_ swung into raised position, as shown in Fig. 8, the
plate or iiange 64 assumes a vertical position.
From one of the holes 65 in the iiange 64 a ten
sion spring 66 Ísextended to a stationary mount
ing plate.61 which is secured above and to the
right of the flange 64 at approximately an angle
of 45°, as shown in Fig. 8, and in such position
of commotion with the flange 64 that the spring
66 will extend between theiiange 64 and a flange
6B of the plat`e 61 in substantially relaxed condi-`
tion or without being stressed or with very little
tension therein. As the door 60 is swung from
the raised position of Fig. 8 to the lowered posi
tion of Fig. 7,-the spring 56 stretches through an
angle of substantially 45° or along a chordal
line relative to the rotation of the point at which
swings to a position indicatedin dotted lines 8l,
and the upper end of such link 8i passes right
wardly through an arc 85. In. this form of the
invention the upper edge of the door does not
swing through an arc concentric with the pivot
point 11, such as the arc 86, but follows the ñatter
arc 65, thereby reducing the head room required
for the door. During' the movement of the door
member 15 from lowered position, through an in
termediate position such as indicated by the
dotted lines 15a, to the raised position thereof in
dicated by the dotted lines 15b, the door member 15
15 rotates relative to the outer end of the arm
16, the bracket means 61 by which the door mem
ber 15 is secured to tlì'e pipe 16 rotating on the
pipe 18. In lowered position the door member
15 is substantially perpendicular to the arm 16_ 20
the spring 66 is attached to the arm 3l", and
but is swung into an acute-angle position relative
counterbalances the -half of the door to which it
is connected, it being understood that a .spring
and its necessary attachments are preferably used
to the arm 16 as the door 15 and the arm 16 swing ,
at each end of the doorl 60, although a single
upwardly, the door 15 being returned to a per
pendicular position relative to the arm 16 when
fully raised position of the door is reached.
`spring may be used at one end of the door of
In Fig. 12 I show a form of the invention in
sufiicient strength to counterbalancev the entire
which the head rooin required for the door is fur- `
door'.
ther reduced.
«
It will be noted that when the door 60 is in
30 lowered position, the member 6l extends hori
In this form of the invention a
door member. 90 is rotatably secured by means of
a bracket 81 to a horizontal pipe 18 mounted on
zontally and at an angle of 90° to the- ñange 68; the outer end of an arm 16 having a stationary
therefore, by moving the ends of the spring 66 pivot point 11. Near the upper edge of the door
to different holes in the members 64 and 68, the 90 a plate 9|, as shown in Fig. 13, is secured, this
pull oi.’ the spring when the door 60 is in lowered plate carrying a laterally extending arm 92 hav
position may be varied.I In this form ofthe in
ing engagement means such as a roller 93 which
vention the ideal conditions disclosed in the form engages a horizontal slot 94 in a plate 95 adapted
of the invention shown in Fig. 6 are not reached, to be secured to a vertical wall member 9_6 par~
but the results obtained are ‘entirely practicable, _allel to the movement of the roller 93 as the door
and the equipment necessary for the practice of 90 is swung from lowered position, as shown- in
40 the invention in this form is very simple and full lines in Fig.'12, to the raised position 'shown 40
relatively inexpensive. In this alternative form i in dotted lines 81. As the arm 16 moves upwardly
of the invention auxiliary springs 10 may be con- ' through the dotted line position“, the roller 93
nected from eyes 1I on the corner of the bracket
62 to plates 13 mounted on the sides of walls 14
J in which the opening'of the door Ilia is formed.
When the Vdoor is in lowered position, the springs
10 exert upward forces tó assist in initial upward
movement of the door, and as the door swings intooverhead position, as shown in Fig. 8, the springs
10 maylbe also placed under tension to assist
in initiating‘the closing or lowering movement of
the door. For operation of the'door, a strap 1I’
moves horizontally and rearwardly in the guide
means provided by the slot 94, this causing the
door 90 to swing through a position indicated by
the dotted 'lines |00 and on the pipe 18 into an
angular position relative to the arm 16. When
the door reaches its completely raised position in-.
dicated by the dotted lines- 91, the arm 16, in ver
tical position _indicated by the dotted lines l0i,»is
again in a position perpendicular to the door. In
this form of the invention- the weight of the door
9|! and its associated parts is counterbalanced by
which the door maybe swung from overhead to a spring- 51a, one e'nd of which is connected to
' lowered position, and a suitable hand grip 12' a stationary member 53a and the other end of
may be placed on the front face of the door :for- which is connected at |03 to the arm 16 by means
use in raising the door from the closed position of a rope or cable “a which extends over a sheave
' may be suspended from the inner face thereof by
in which it is shown in Fig. '1.
`
`
`
In Fig. 11 I> show a door member 15 supported
_46a mounted vertically above the pivot point 11.
Although I have herein shown and described my
60 on the- outer or leftward end of an arm 16 which - invention in simple and practical form, it is recog
is pivotally secured at 11 to a stationary member
such as a wall or post. The door member 15 in
this form of my invention is not rigidly secured
hired `that certain parts or elements thereof are
representative of other parts, elements, or mech~
anisrns which may bejused in substantially the
` to the end of the arm 16, as in the previous forms ' same manner to accomplish substantially the
of the invention, but is pivotally secured >so that
same results; therefore, it is to be understood that
the invention is not to be limited to the details
horizontal pipe 18 which extends laterally‘ from ldisclosed `herein but is to beaccorded the full
the outer end of the,arm 16 which is shown-as scope of the following claims.
it may rotateA on a horizontal axis defined by a
i being equipped with counterweight means consist
I claim as my invention:
.
ing of _a spring 66a which extends from a plate y
1. In combination with a building structure
66a near the outer end of the Aarm 16 to a wall having a »wall providing a door opening:` .a door
plate 61a. From a iitting lll near the upper edge cooperable with said door opening; an arm ex-,
of the door member 15 a bar or link Il is ex
tending rearwardly from said door; pivot means
tended to a stationary pivot 62 disposed below at the rear end of said arm on which said arm may
75 thepivot point 11 of the arm 16. As the> arm
swing to carry said door toward a position above
60
said pivot means; an attachment means con
of said arms and being positioned so as to exert
' necting between said door and said arm so as to
a force to swing said arms through an arc as
be rswung through an arc as said door is moved
around said pivot means; a force exerting ele
' ment connected to said attachment means and
said door is moved around said pivot means;
and means connected to said block members and
being positioned to exert a force substantially
along a chord of said arc; a stationary member
connected to said force exerting element, said
stationary member being in such position that
saidl force exerting element is substantially re
laxed when said door is in a position above said
pivot means, said force exerting element being'`
adapted to exert a force to raise said door, the
weight on said pivot means progressively in
creasing as said arm is moved into a position in
conjunction with said pivot means; and means for
varying the length of said arm so as to adjust said
door relative to a desired position in said door
opening.
adapted for adjustment to change the pivotal
axis of said pivot means relative to said arms.
5. In combination with a building structure
having a wallproviding a door opening: a door
cooperable with said door opening; a pair of
arms extending rearwardly from said door; block
members slidably mounted on said arms; pivot
means associated with said block members on
which said arms may swing to carry said door to
ward a position above said pivot means; force
exerting means connected to the forward ends of
said arms and being positioned so as to exert a
force to swing said arms through an arc as said
door is moved around said pivot means; and
screw elements associated with said block mem
l
bers and being adapted for adjustment to change
the pivotal-axis of said pivot means relative to
with said door opening; a pair of arms extending _ said arms.
-6. In combination with a building structure
rearwardly from said door;` pivot means at the
having a door openingza door cooperable with
rear ends of said arms on which said arms may
swing to- carry said door toward a position above said door opening; a pair of arms extending 25
said pivot means; members placed substantially rearwardly from said door; block members slida
in a vertical plane with said pivot means; force Ably mounted on said arms; pivot means asso
exerting means connected to the forward ends of - ciated with said block members on which- said
2. In combination with a building structure
_having a~door opening: a rigid door cooperable
said arms and being positioned so as to exert a
30 force to swing said arms through an arc as said
door is moved around said pivot means, said force
exerting means including a spring deformed in
proportion to the change in distance between said
arms and said members as said arms are moved
35 away from said members by rotation of said door,
the weight on said pivot means progressively in
i
arms may swing to carry said door toward a
position above said pivot means; stationary mem
bers placed substantially in a vertical’plane with
said pivot means; force exerting means connected
to the forward ends of said arms and being posi
tioned-so as to exert a force to swing said arms
through an arc as said door is moved around said 35
pivot means, said force exerting means including
creasing as said arms are moved into conjunction
springs deformed in proportion to the change in
with said pivot means; and means for varying the
distance between said arms and said stationary
lengths of said arms so as to adjust said door rel
members as said arms are moved away from said
lative to a desired position in said door opening.
3. In combination with a4 building structure
having a wall providing a door opening: a door
cooperable with said door opening; a pair of chan
neled arms extending rearwardly from said door;
members by rotation of said door, the Weight on 40
said pivot means progressively increasing as said
arms are moved into conjunction with said pivot
means; and means associated with said block
members for varying the length of said arms
so as to adjust said door relative to a desired posi 45
pivot means at the rear of said arms on which
said arms may swing to carry said door toward
a' position above said pivot means; attachment
means connecting between said door and said
arms so as to be swung through an arc as said
‘door ismoved around said pivot means; force >ex
îémen'ts‘ connected "toi" said” attachment
‘ means vand being positioned to exert a force sub
stantially along a chord of said arc; stationary
tion in said door opening.
'
'
7. In combination with a building structure
having a door opening:y a door cooperable with
said door opening; a pair of arms extending rear
wardly from said door; block members slidably d
mounted on said arms; pivot .means associated
with said block members on which said arms
may swing to carry said door toward a position
above said pivot means;` stationary members
placed substantially in a vertical plane with said
sition that said force exerting elements are sub pivot means; force exerting means connected to
stantially relaxed when said door> is in a position the forward ends of said arms and being posi
tioned so as to exert a f_orce to swing said arms
above said pivot means, said force exerting ele
ments being adapted to exert a force to raise said through an arc as said door is moved around said
pivot means, said force exerting means including 60
60 door, the weight on said pivot means increasing
springs deformed in proportion to the change
as said arms are moved to a position in conjunc
in distance between said arms and said station
tionv with said pivot means; block members slida
members connected to said force exerting ele
ments, said stationary members being in such po
bly mounted on said arms; and means for ad
justing said block members so as to 'change the
pivotal axis of said pivot means relative to said
ary members as said arms are moved away from
means associated with said block members on
which said arms may swing to carry said door
said members by rotation of said door, the weight
on said pivot means progressively increasing as 65
said arms are moved into conjunction with said
pivot means; and screws associated with said
block members adapted for adjustment to vary
the length of said arms so .as >to centralize said
70
door relative to said door opening.
8. A counterbalanced door of the character
described, including: a door; van arm extending
rearwardly from said door; pivot means at the
toward a position above said pivot means; force
exerting means connected to the forward ends
swing to carry said door toward a position above 75
arms.
-
4. In combination with a» building structure
having a wall providing a door opening: a door
cooperable with said door opening; a pair of
arms extending rearwardly from said door; block
members slidably mounted on said arms; pivot
rear end of said arm on which said arm may
2,199,221
`in
said pivot means, said arm being pivotally se
position above said pivot means, said force exert
cured to `said door; an attachment means'con
nected to said door so as to be swung through an
arc as said door is moved around said pivot
means; a force exerting element connected 'to
ing element being adapted to exert a force to
raise said door, which force varies substantially
in proportion to the length of said chord; a link
said attachment means and being positioned to
exert a `force substantially along a chord of said
arc; a stationary member connected to said force
tively closed and open positions; means for piv
otally securing one end of said link to said door;
exerting element, said stationary member being
in such position that said force exerting element
is substantially relaxed when said doory is in a
for guiding the door as it moves between rela
and a stationary pivot means attached to the l
other end oi said link.
‘
v
HOWARD B. LEWIS.
10
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