Патент USA US2129235код для вставки
Sept. 6, "@938. E, J. w. RAGSDALE ET AL - 2,129,235 RAIL CAR BODY original Filed April 27, 1932 5 Sheets-Sheet l .INVENTORS EARLlW. DAGsDALB ‘ \\\ \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\6 BY ALBERT G. DEAN ATTORNEY. Sept 5, ‘1938. E. J. w. RAGSDALE ET AL 2,129,235 RA'IL CAR BODY ’ Original Filed April 2'7, 1932 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 , _ <11‘ <T‘ 03 - § 8? \ (Q /,/ £3 g g \ \v Ev‘ v S 7; INVENTORS EARLLWRAGsDALB BY ALBERT GDEAN. - FM ‘ ATTORNEY. Sevi- 6, 1938- ‘E. J. w. RAGsDALE ET AL v2,129,235 RAIL CAR BODY Original Filed April 27, 1932 4 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 I NVENTGRS‘. EARLJ.W.RAC1SDALE BY ALBEIQT (I DEAN % FM ATTORNEY. ‘Sept. 6; 1938. 2,129,235 E. J. w. RAGSDALE ET AL RAIL CAR BODY Original Filed April 27, 1932 ‘ 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 7' m; 'ENTORS . EARLlWRAQsDALE ALBERT Ci. DEAN A TTURNEY. SePt- 6, 1938. E. J. w. RAGSDALE ET AL 2,129,235 RAIL CAR BODY _ IN VEN TORS EARLJRALQAQsDALE @ A 115212’? CIDE ‘Q, Patented Sept. 6, 1938. ' 21,129,235 UNITED STATES PATENT . OFFICE 2,129,235 nan. can BODY Earl J.'w.. Ragsdale, Norrlstown, and Albert G. Dean, Nar-berth, Pa., assignors to Edward G. Budd Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia, _ Pa.,‘a corporation of Pennsylvania Application April 27, 1932, Serial No. 607,690 ‘ Renewed December 12, 1936 18 Claims. (Cl. 105--399) The invention relates particularly to vehicles of an order and size adapting them to travel upon standard railway tracks and to engage in tra?lc involving loads of the kind and degree encoun 5 tered in connection with railway tra?lc as it ex _ ists today. However, the chief end and aim is the revolutionizing of the structural organization of the bodies of such vehicles to the end of achieving ‘ a maximum lightness of structure, of reducing 10 the dead weight in such vehicles so low that the gross Weight, dead load plus live load, is so enor mously far reduced over that of the standard railway vehicle of today that, through the use of a car body of the invention, that overlying inven 15 tion of pneumatic tired “railway vehicles may be practiced. Michelin et Cie of Clermont-Ferrand, France have within the past two‘or three years produced, successfully operated and introduced to commercial practice on railways of France and 20 recently into this country, such vehicles. ‘It is characteristic of them that the structures of the bodies and their wheel suspensions in the form of trucks or otherwise are designed strictly with reference to a factor of safety but sufficient to 25 safely carry the traflic loads in the form of pas sengers, freight or the like imposed upon them and without reference to the utilization of heavy masses of material for the purpose of stabilizing the travel of the vehicle upon and enabling it to 30 resist shocks from the trackway and without ref erence to the utilization of heavy masses for the rosion render it an ideal material for use in light weight, such as pneumatic tired railway vehicles. A second outstanding aim of the invention therefore is the evolution of a structure which can be made economically from all points of view 6 of this ideal material. It will be seen. however, upon a full under standing of the invention that it has adapta tion to vehicles of other character useful for op erating in other ?elds of traiilc'where the condi- l0 tions impose similar requirements. Of the drawings, Figure l is a general side elevation of a passen ger carrying railway vehicle embodying the in vention. 35 _ Figure 2 is a general three-quarter front side view in perspective showing the rear part of the vehicle completely sheathed in with the paneling, etc. of the superstructure, showing its principal load sustaining frame in the midsection stripped 20 of sheathing and in skeleton form, and showing further the fore part of the vehicle broken off in order to disclose the sections of portions of the sustaining frame. _ Figure 3 is a half vertical transverse section of 25 the principal load sustaining frame and the con pressure within the break-down limits of the rub ber entering into the structure of the tire and nected superstructure, said section being taken in the region of the skeleton part of the view of Figure 2, or substantially on the line 3-—3 of Figure 1 looking in the direction of the arrows.v 30 Figure 4 is a similar section omitting‘the su perstructure and including somewhat over half of the vertical transverse cross section of the principal load sustaining frame taken in the transverse plane of the swivel of one of the wheel 35 trucks, substantially in line 4-4 looking in the’ direction of the arrows of each Figure 1 and Fig yet high enough to keep the number of wheels ure 5. purpose of precluding crushing, etc., whereby the 7 dead weight is so far reduced that the structure may be used in combination with wheels equipped 85 with pneumatic tires inflated at a relatively high ‘ , down within those limits which may be practical 40 1y embodied in such combinations of equalization Figure 5 is a general diagram in plan form of the substantially horizontal principal load sup- N and truck mounting as enable the car to travel at porting frame. the high speeds prevailing in railway practice and around curves of relatively short radius. Figure 6 is an enlarged side elevation with por tions broken away of the longitudinally extend The outstanding aim of the invention therefore is the achievement of a structure of car body ing sill units constituting the lateral boundaries of the principal sustaining frame of Figure 5. 45 which will enable the foregoing objects to be the more fully realized. The second aim of the invention is the achieve ment of a structure which may be constituted of 0 electrically spot welded strainless steel in its larg est part. The extremely great strength of prop erly treated stainless steel per unit weight as compared with the strengths of ordinary steels coupled with its eminent adaptability for elec 55 trical 'spot welding and its immunity from cor I Figure 7_ is a detail cross section of a portion of the sill unit of Figure'? very much enlarged taken substantially on the line in the planes des ignated by the arrows 1-1. Figure 8 is an enlarged horizontal cross section 50 taken substantially in plane 8—8 of Figure 3 looking in the direction of the arrows showing certain details of the longitudinally extending sill units, the transverse beams interconnecting the sills and their adjunctive members. 55 2 2,129,235 Figure 9 is a view taken in a similar plane de picting the juncture with the longitudinal and transverse members of the frame of the diagonal members as occurring in the regions within the circle 9, Fig. 5. Figure 10 is an enlarged cross section in the vertical plane of the lateral slide bearings of the swivelling trucks indicated within the circle ID of 10 Figure 4 and on the line I0—i0 of Figure 5. Figure 11 is a cross section in the vertical plane showing-the connection of the flooring of the ve hicle with the heads of the transverse members as indicated by the line Il-l| of Figure 3. Figure 12 is a horizontal section of an inter 15 mediate portion of the vertical posts of the frame of the superstructure on line l2-—l2 of Figure 3 and likewise in the upper sectionas similarly designated. Figure 13 is the enlarged transverse cross sec 20 tion of the parts encompassed by the circle it of Figure 3. Figure 14 is a transverse ‘cross section of one of the corner posts of the car as in the region within the circle M of the plan diagram of Figure 5. 25 Figure 15 is a transverse cross section of the curvilinear members interconnecting the posts of the frame as shown in Figure 12 with the carlines constituting the transverse frame members of the roof as shown in Figures 16 and 17, each as 30 taken in the plane designated by the section line and circle of corresponding number in Figure 3. Figure 18 is a horizontal section of a portion of the vertical posts extending between two adjacent window openings on the line Iii-I8 of Fig. 3. The foundation of the‘ vehicle body of the in vention consists of the principal load sustaining frame’ 20 shown in skeleton form‘ in the fore part of Figure 2 and in plan form in Figure 5.‘ This frame is composed of a pair of longitudinally ex 40 tending side sill units 2| alike in all essential respects, which longitudinally extending sill units are interconnected by a multiple number of transverse floor beam members 22. Character istically the longitudinally extending sill units are 45 relatively thin transversely and extremely deep vertically as appears clearly in Figures 3, 4 and 6, whereby it is possible to utilize the extremely high tensile strength of stainless steels to the maxi mum degree in the attainment of minimum weight and at the same time reduce the de?ec tion of the sill under most adverse loadings to a ?gure well within permissible limits. The trans verse beams 22 interconnect these sill units of very thin and extremely deep cross section at or near their tops particularly in such fashion that the tops of the transverse beams and the tops of the sill units lie in substantially the same hori~ zontal plane and are therefore adapted to re ceive and support the flooring of the vehicle 60 body, as clearly appears in Figures 2, 3, 4 and 11. In order to prevent lateral de?ection of such ex tremely thin and deep vertical cross sections of sill units 2|, which lateral de?ection is very likely, if'permitted to occur in units of such form, to cause their failure, diagonal braces 23 are intro duced between the under sides of the transverse beams 22 at points removed from the sill units 2i inwardly of the body andsubstantially at the lowermost extremities of the thin and deep cross 70 sections of the units 2|. Pneumatic tired swivelled wheel trucks desig nated generally 24 and shown particularly in Figure 4 occupy the space beneath the transverse beams 22 and between the sill units 2| which 75 depend from the ends thereof. Such trucks in deed occupy a space within the diagonal brace members 23 and the relation of the parts is such that the wheels of the truck extend upwardly into substantial proximity to the transverse beams 22. The trucks are multi-wheel trucks each having six wheels, as appears in Figure 1 of this embodiment, and are swivelled through‘ a trunnion connection 25 to the transverse beams 22 and provided with laterally disposed stabilizing bearings 26 normally, in substantial disengage 10 ment as between beams 22 and the truck but en~v gaging whenever the loads on the car body re quire such engagement, as in the usual practice. In‘ the support of the body’ from these trucks certain of the transverse beams 22, particularly 15 those designated 22a longitudinally spaced as pairs from each other and from the opposite ends of the body and likewise from the ends of the vehicle are constituted of considerably increased strength over and above the remainder and are 20 ,5 interconnected by a plurality of short cross con necting beams 27 and 28. The members 28 and those portions of the beams 220. between them are overlaid'top and bottom by rectangular trun nion bearing plates 29 which together support the trunion bearing 30 vertically aligned with a series of buttressing inner plates 3i and receiving centrally the swivel pin 25. The lower plate 29 has a substantially horizontal central offset 32 receiving the substantially horizontal lower edges 30 of the buttressing inner plates 3! of the bearing 30. All the parts are electrically spot-welded to gether. The offset 32 of the lower plate 29 is received as a male trunnion bearing upon the seat 33 formed upon the bolster 34 of the truck 35 and encompassed by circular retaining wall mem ber 35. The lateral stabilizing bearings 25 are constituted by channel-shaped members 36 Welded as at 311 in inverted position to mounting plates 38 through which they are detachably con 40 nected by bolts 39 to the stabilizing bearing sup ports Alli permanently connected as by rivets iii to the beams 22. The superstructure comprises vertically ex tending posts ll2 (see Figures 3 and 4) extending 45 substantially the full depth of the relatively thin and deep vertical cross sections of the sill units 2| and connected therewith by electric welding at These posts are con nected by curvilinear members 45 shown in Fig 50 ures 3 and 15 with the transversely extending carlines 4G appearing in Figures 3 and 16. The posts t2 as clearly appears in Figures 3, 4 and both bottom 43 and top H. 12 are of channel shaped cross section lacing outwardly of the car body, the side walls of the 55 channel being outwardly flanged as at “and the mouth of the channel being closed by a cover member 48 electrically welded to the ?anges 41F, ' thereby converting the channel member into a box section form. The post is electrically welded 60 to the sill units 2! through the bottom of the channel, and to the ?anges 41 and the overlapped portions of the cover plate 48 are electrically welded longitudinally extending sheathing stringers 49 spaced at intervals suitable for the 65 attachment of the sheathing 50. The stringers are of angle cross section welded to the posts by one branch of the angle and welded to the panels 50 by the other branch. The panels 50 are of a cross section concaved inwardly of the body and 70 provided at their lateral extremities with in turned ?anges and spot welded through the in turned flanges to the outturned branches of the angle cross section of the stringers 49. Thus the weld at this point passes through all three cross ‘ _ sections as' illustrated for example in Figure 13 where one of the panels 50 is shown joined to the - stringer 49 through an inturned ?ange 5| carried by a molding 52 which constitutes the uppermost margin of the paneling 50. A similar molding panel section 52 is provided at the bottom of the post 42 and the paneling 50 is continuous between $1 3. 9,189,285 these moldings. The angular cross section of the ’ stringers plus the ?anging and concaving of the panels enables an extremely light paneling to be v employed and accessibly electrically spot welded 10 together and at the same time affords by reason of the stiffening and strengthening" nature of the end 4| and the downturned branch 62 of the angle cross section of the sill 53 the upholstery paneling ,52 of the interior of the body. A simi lar construction is used at the top of the window at the point designated 44 in Figure 3. At this point the seat member 59 ‘for the weather strip ping is welded to an angle section horizontal top header 55 secured to the posts through a gusset 45 and likewise to a molding 52 in essentially the same manner as are parts 52, 53, 55, 42, 59 se 10 cured together as outlined in detail in Figure 13. Above the windows the paneling 50 is con tinued in a short zone and connected with the cross sections involved a substantial addition to ‘posts 42 and moldings 52 of the paneling in the strength and rigidity of the side frame of the " essentially the same manner as are the corre 15 car body and minimizes de?ection in the princi pal load sustaining frame 20 and the side sill units 2|‘ thereof. Aprimary advantage of the ?uted surfaces on the longitudinal paneling is sponding parts in the lower section of the super eling. This ?exible Joinder is important topre menting.‘ vent the showing of shearing strains under load in the very thin paneling. Flat panels would become dished or wavy upon de?ection, and this would result in objectionable appearance and The carlines 45 constituting the transverse sup port for the roof structure are likewise of box cross section overall as appears in Figures 3 and 35 16. However, this box cross section, instead of be‘ng formed by one channel shaped member and one cover plate as are the posts 42, is structure. . The corner posts 51 (Figures 1, 2, 5 and 14) are i‘kewise of channel cross section but of a di?er not so much to add strength to the main under- ' ent detail form, their main bodies having a bot 20 frame to take de?ection loads, but rather to tom wall 58 angularly bent inwardly. The cover prevent the waving or dishing of the extremely plates 59 are curvilinear in cross section convexed thin metal of the panels under de?ection. Fur outwardly. However, the cover plate overlaps thermore, the provision in the ?uted paneling ?anges 41 an is provided with inturned ends 55 strips in their edges of the inwardly extending of essentially he same form and function as are 25 ?anges and the .connection of these?anges to the intermediate posts of Figure 18, whereby the post ?anges through the angle members 49 there are accommodated the weather strips 51 of affords a ?exibility of joinder between the ?uted the windows which are bounded by these corner paneling‘ and the trussed framework which posts. At their bottoms the cover plates 69 are provided with an outwardly and downwardly 30 avoids any, substantial transmission'of the shear ing strains of the truss framework into the pan turned ?ange ‘I0 for strengthening and,v orna possibly. drumming noises. The. light gauge metal moldings secured to the paneling at top . and bottom and above and below‘ the window 40 openings are of longitudinal ?uted form for a like reason. At the upper molding 52 are pro vided window sills, which latter are formed by formed of two channel-shaped members 7! ‘elec trically welded together bottom to bottom and facing the one upwardly and the other down wardly. Each is provided with a cover plate 12 secured by welding through overlapping and the provision between the posts of angle cross section members 53 welded to the upper ?ange of welding to outturned ?anges 13 of the channel molding 52 by the horizontal branch of the angle members ‘H. cross section, which branch extends inwardly bers ‘H are angularly de?ected inwardly of the channels whereby to form a stiffening and rein forcing subordinate box cross ‘section 14. The substantially to the plane 54 ofkthe inner face of the posts 42 and is welded to the posts through corner gussets- 55 of angle cross section. The other branch 62 of the cross section of window sill members 53 is turned downwardly in the plane 54 of the inner‘. face of the post 42. The outer edges 56 of the overlapping portions of cover plates 48 of post 42 (see Figure 12) are turned inwardly of‘ the body ‘of the vehicle, as likewise appears in Figure 18. ‘Between these inturned ends 56 and the side walls of the post 42 are interposed rubber weather strips 51 in which are carried the window panes 58 of the windows (T) of the car. These rubber strips are retained in The bottoms of the channel mem 45 carlines are interconnected at intervals by pur lines 15 of Z-shape cross section stiffened and 50 reinforced by angular mid section offsets ‘l6 sim ilar to those which constitute the box cross sec tion 14 and joined to the carlines by electrically welding _ their outer horizontally extending‘ branches respectively to the bottom and top 55 ?anges of the carlines 46. Secured to the carlines by riveting in the form illwtrated is a metallic sheet roo?ng 11. In terposed between the upper and lower ?anges of the‘ carlines 46 and resting upon the lower of 60 place by removable moldings 59 secured to the ‘such ?anges also as upon the lower branches of interior side face of the post 42. Electrically the 2 cross section of the purline ‘i6 is a sound welded to the window sill 53 in extension of the deadening interior upholstery material ‘(not seats constituted by the ?anges 41 and 55 for the shown). weather stripping 51 is an inwardly facing The curvilinear members 45 connecting the car 65 channel member 59 affording a similar seat at the window sill and the rubber weather strip 51 at the sill is held in place by a sill molding 60 likewise removably secured to the window sill‘ (Figure 13) . This strip, instead of being of angle section as in the instance of the vertical mold ings shown in Figure 18. is of Z~cross section. the inner branch of the Z being turned downwardly to appropriately ?nish the ‘window sill 53 inte riorly, and likewise to accommodate between its lines and the posts as shown in Figures 3 and 15 are all of compound box section form. The side members 19 curvilinear in plan form are lapped over the side walls of the channel cross section of posts‘ 42 and electrically welded thereto. 70 Their exterior edges are outturned in ?anges 80, a cover plate member 8| essentially of the same cross section as cover plate members 48 and curved concentrically with the members 19 and is electrically spot welded alike to the cover plate 75 4 2,129,235 A very important advantage results from this ‘organization of parts. The centers of securement ' member 82 concentrically curved to members 19 of these several parts 42, 89, 85, 86 and 81 to and BI has its edges provided with outwardly ex gether, all lie in the same transverse plane as tending flanges 83 electrically spot welded to the clearly appears in Figure 6 and others, and is 1 members 49 the ?anges 80 and the ?anges ‘H! or " the box section carlines 46. Similarly a bottom Y side members 19 and the order of assembly is, however, the reverse of that described. particularly designated in Figure 6 by the line The ' 90-90. There is thus attained a truss in which the forces are transmitted as truly to a common order of assembly is as follows. First are attached members 19 then member axis of connection as possible, substantially truly to common points on such transversely extending 10 members 45 and ?nally member 8|, the tools‘ axis passing through the central zones of con _ being applied to the overlapping ?anges. The nection, and likewise there is obtained a truss metal sheathing of. the roof is extended down having a longitudinal plane of full symmetry .wardly over the cover plate 8| and electrically with the diagonals joined to the- other truss ele 16 welded thereto, while its lower edge is fastened ments substantially equally on each side of said 10 ~82, the welding tools reaching inwardly of the to the upturned flange 84 of the uppermost mold plane. ing 52 as secured in place through the upper most stringer 49. through the posts 42 and 89 are carried by the diagonals without any material torsion~ on the However, it is not the detail of the super 20 structure which constitutes the princlpal fea ture of the invention, but as intimated herto fore, the detail of the principal loadvsupporting frame 20. Referring now particularly to the lower portions of Figure 3 and. to Figures 4, 2 and 6, it is to be pointed out that the extremely thin 25 and deep longitudinally extending side units 2| Furthermore, the roof and ?oor loads trusses. Yet this truss is susceptible of mass production of rolled cross sections of stainless 20 steel strips and which may be economically fabri cated by electric welding in mass production. These important ends are attained in scarcely ‘ less degree throughout the substantially hori zontally extending principal load supporting frame 29. The beams 22 are likewise truss mem are balanced truss structures composed of upper and lower longitudinally extending chord mem bers B5 and 86, respectively. These are in the form of channel cross sections, the mouths of which face toward each other, the upper one down and the lower one up in the plane of the bers having longitudinally extending vertical truss. Diagonal truss members 81, the extremi ties of which lie vertically above each other, thereof in essentially the same manner as are 35 interconnect these chord members 85 and 86. _They likewise are of channel form, the channels presenting upwardly and their channels are of such dimension thattheir side walls nest snugly inside of the side walls of the channels of members 85 and 86 as clearly appears in Figure 7. The side walls are electrically spot welded to gether each to each as indicated in Figures 6 and 7 and they can be most effectively so spot welded because of the snugness and extent of their over lapping relation and the openness of the cross sections employed. Between the points of con nection of the diagonals 911 with the chords 95 and til the chord members have their channel shape cross sections closed and thereby con verted into an effective box section by cover members 88 in the form of relatively shallow channel cross section members of such dimension that their side walls may be ?tted snugly in teriorly of the side walls of the members 85 and 55 86 presenting outwardly and the overlapped walls . electrically spot welded together. Both the prin cipal channel members of chord members 85 and 85 and the cover or subordinate members 89 have their central portions de?ected in angular form 60 for adding to their rigidity and strength. Before these cover members are welded in place, however,-the posts 42 are welded in place at the points 43 and 44 as heretofore pointed out, to the exterior faces of the exterior side walls of 65 the members 85 and 86. This is carried through the channels of both members 85 and 8B and diagonals 81, as clearly appears in Figures 3, 4, 6 and 7. Similarly on the opposite sides of these welded points there are welded in place through 70 their bottoms, interiorly facing channel cross section members 89 of a dimension and general physical characteristics essentially similar to those of the posts‘ 42 which interconnect mem bers 85 and 86 between points 43 and 44 (see the same ?gures). ‘ planes of symmetry. They are composed of up per and lower chord members 9|, 92 of channel shaped cross sections, which cross sections are 30 converted into box form by cover plates 93a secured to the outturned ?anges of the side walls those of the posts 42 (see Figures 4, l0 and 11). Before these cover plate members'llta, however, 35 are welded in place by overlapping portions to the flanges of the side walls, there are welded to the side walls of the chord members iii, 92 truss plates 93 on opposite sides thereof and ex teriorly. These truss plates are of relatively 40 thin gauge stock as compared with the gauge of the chord members 9|, 92. They are divided by diagonal indentations 94 into a plurality of rectangular portions, which portions are pre vented from dish-panning through the stiffened indentations 94. Between each rectangular such portion and the next adjoining are electrically welded in place channel shaped reinforcing verti cal truss members 95 presenting outwardly of the beam and welded by their bottoms, the bot 50 toms bein'g stiffened and rendered more rigid by the offset 96. This welding is directly to the web plates 93 with the diagonal indentations 94. The channels are welded in place prior to the welding of the webbing to the chord members 9i and 92 and accessibility for welding of all parts attained thereby. Then follows the welding of the cover plates 93. These transverse beams are of a thickness enabling their ends as deprived of the outturned 60 ?anges of the chord members 9! and 92 but re~ taining the side walls thereof, to be slipped snugly between and in extended overlapping re lation to the side walls of the channel shaped vertical members 89 of the truss units 2| as 65 clearly appears in Figures 3, 4, 8 and 9. In this extended overlapping region designated 91, Fig ures 3 and 4, the side walls of the channel mem bers 89, and the web plates 93 of the chord mem bers 9|, 92 are commonly spot welded to each 70 other and generally together in the most secure fashion. “A general accessibility for welding is obtained merely by cutting short the ends of the cover plates 93a and reaching downwardly from the top of the channel shaped member 89 75 2,129,235 of the truss 2|‘ and upwardly from the open mouth of the channel below the beam 22. The diagonal bracing members 23 are likewise of channel cross section presenting inwardly and a of a dimension between side walls enabling them to ?t snugly between the side walls of the mem bers 89 as provided with the triangular interior gusset plates 98, the side walls and gusset plate being commonly welded to each other and to l0 gether in their overlapping regions. This ap plies to the lower end of the members 23 as ap 5 of the channel cross sections involved in the cir cles, cover plates are welded on to closefthese open ings. These cover plates- are of various plan form and dimension as indicated at various points I05’ occurring throughout the plan form of Fig ure 5 and in general they meet but do not 'over lap the terminal ends of the cover plates of the channels and are secured like the cover plates to the outturned ?anges of the panels but in var ious speci?c, instances they may overlap by a considerable amount the outturned ?anges of the pears in Figures 3 and 4. > At their upper ends channels, all as clearly appears at the joint I06’ angular gusset plates 90 and I00 ,are utilized illustrated in detail in Figure 8. to secure the upper end through overlapping 15 ?anges to the outturned ?anges of the chord members 92 of the'beams 22, and secured com monly to both the principal channel member and the cover members 93a. , Centrally of the sustaining frame, as appears 20 in Figures 2 and 5, there are provided a longi tudinally extending series of short interconnect ing beams IOI of a form essentially similar to , A vehicle body having its elements of the forms and shapes shown or their equivalents, and com 15 bined as between the elements themselves and as between sub-assemblies of those elements con stituting units, enables one to construct through rolled and drawn sections from stainless steel strips and sheets, and electrically weld ‘together 20 in large part by spot welding, a body possessing in an extremely high degree the requisites of the beams 22 and of an essentially similar con ' the bodies which enter into the invention of struction and cross sectional dimension whereby pneumatic tired railway vehicles. Such a vehi 25 mass fabrication is obtained. The connection , cle recently constructed with a passenger carry 25' of these beams IM to the beams 22 is clearly ing capacity of 42 has dead weight of 13,500 shown in Figure 8. The central runs of the _ pounds as against the dead weight of the usual channels 95 constituting the vertical members railway vehicle of the same capacity of between of the truss form of the beams 22 are widened 50,000 and 70,000 pounds, this dead weight in 30 su?lciently to receive between their side walls cluding the weight of the propelling power plant. and in snug overlapping relation thereto in the With a power plant of approximately 100 horse same manner as are received the ends of beams power the vehicle was propelled at the rate of 72 22 by the verticals 89 of trusses 2I, the ends of miles per hour as against substantially 300 horse the beams IOI. These are welded in place after power required if propelling the vehicle of 50,000 to ‘70,000 pounds weight at a; less speed. 35 the channels 05 are welded in place, after the 35 beams 22 are welded to the sills 2|, and are ac While we have shown and described but one cessible for welding by reason of the omission of 'form of our invention we desire to have it un the cover plates in the region of the opposite. derstood that it is applicable to trussed housing extremities of the channels 95 and cover plates structures at large particularly vehicle bodies at large in all it features, and we, therefore, de 40 40 93a. To prevent distortion and weaving of the sus sire to include such embodiments which do not taining frame in'its horizontal plane there are depart in any wise from its generic spirit and provided between the transverse members 22 in therefore the terminology utilized in the ap the region of the trunnion plates 29 and the pended claims is to be given every latitude which joints between the next adjoining beams 22 on the existing weight in this particular ?eld war 45 rants. each side thereof and the sills 2|, diagonally ex tending beams I02 which radiate from the trun What we claim is: 1. A principal load sustaining frame for vehicle nion plate region 29 to the respective diagonally bodies fabricated of light gauge sheet‘ metal and' offset corners. These beams, like the beams IOI including longitudinally extending side frame so are of the form and general dimension of the beams 22 likewise for production reasons. Their trusses the posts of which form part of the body superstructure, longitudinally extending panel connection to beams 22 and sills 2| are achieved by a structure essentially similar to that of the ing, and means to secure said paneling to said posts, the paneling and the securing means be beams IM to the beams 22. However, the chan ing organized and arranged to permit relative 55 nel section member I03 by which such connec movement between the paneling and the posts tion is made, as appears in Figure 9, which chan nel section member corresponds to the member 95 ' such that de?ection of the side frame trusses ‘and the member 80, has its bottom deflected does not substantially distort the paneling. 2. A side wall for vehicle bodies fabricated of outwardly beyond the end of the beam I02 inya right angular point I04 adapted to be nested in the angle between beam 22 and the sill 2 I. There by the bottom IIM may be electrically spot welded directly tothe side walls of the chord members, and the web members of the beams 22 and the sills 2I. Added strength at'such junction points is provided by tie plates I05 and I06 carried the one ‘between the side wall of channel I03 and the side wall of post 42 below the chord 85 of sill 2|, and‘the other similarly below the chord 85 70 between the side wall of vertical 89 and the side wall of post 42. . After these various joints between sills and beams and diagonals are made through the aper tures provided by foreshortening of the cover 75 plates of the chord members and the open mouths light gauge sheet metal and comprising trussed side frames including vertical posts of channel section facing outwardly, said channels being ?anged in their edges, and paneling comprising longitudinally extending ?uted sheet metal strips ?angedlinwardly in their edges and secured to 65 gether through said edge ?anges, and angle sec tion members connecting said ?anges of they paneling to the ?anges of the posts. , » 8. A horizontally disposed principal load sus taining frame for a light weight vehicle having 70 a roof and comprising spaced longitudinally ex tending sill units fabricated as truss structures including top and bottom chords, and vertical and diagonal webs extending between the chords, the chords and webs being fabricated in major 75 6 2,129,235 part from light gauge sheet metal strips, formed balancing web members whereby eccentric load into channels andhaving the vertical webs ex tending across the chords on each side oi’ the chords, the webs on the respective sides being of substantially the same size vso- as to give the sill units substantially a longitudinal vertical ing is avoided. plane of symmetry, certain of said vertical webs extending to the roof, the loading of the truss diagonals being distributed in balanced relation 10 to said vertical webs, and transverse beams also fabricated of light gauge sheet metal and inter connecting the longitudinal sill units at the verti cal webs. 4. A load sustaining frame for light weight 15 vehicles having a roof and comprising spaced longitudinally extending side units and trans verse floor supporting beams interconnecting the side units, said side units and transverse beams being fabricated in major part of light gauge, 20 sheet metal strips formed into angular section,, the side units each including top and bottom. through-running, chords and vertical’ and di agonal webbing to form ‘truss structures, said vertical webbinghsupporting the roof and trans 25 verse ?oor beams, the diagonal webbing being substantially in the longitudinal vertical plane of symmetry of the respective side units as to chords and vertical webbing, the loading of the diagonal webbing being distributed in substan 30 tially balanced relation about said plane to said vertical webbing. _ ' 5. A horizontally extending principal load sus taining frame for light weight vehicles having a roof and comprising longitudinally extending sill 35 units and transverse ?oor supporting beams in terconnecting the sill units and having their tops substantially in the same plane as the tops of the sill units, said beams and sill units being fabricated in large part of sheet metal chan 40 nels, said sill units including top and bottom chords and vertical and diagonal webbing to form truss structures, said vertical webbing extending across the chords and supporting the roof and transverse beams, said transverse beams being 45 substantially symmetrical in cross section and joined to the vertical webbing of the side sill units in substantially equal proportion on oppo site sides of the plane of symmetry of the trans~ verse beams for a substantially equal distribu 50 tion of the loading on said vertical webbing, wheel units connected with the transverse beams and occupying the space between the longitudi nal sills, and diagonal braces, some of which are laterally opposite said wheel units, bracing the 55 bottoms of the sills to the transverse beams, the braces opposite said wheel units being spaced from the wheel units so as to permit free swivel ing' movement of said wheel units. 6. A load'sustaining frame for light weight \vehicles having a roof and comprising spaced longitudinally extending side unit trusses having elements of sheet metal formed into angular members, transverse beams interconnecting the 65 side unit trusses and of substantially less depth in vertical cross section, said side unit trusses having longitudinally extending chord members, vertically extending sheet metal channel section roof supporting posts extending across the chords 70 of said trusses and secured thereto to form main web parts of said side unit trusses, and balancing web members arranged transversely opposite each post and having opposite side walls, said. trans verse beams having opposite side walls overlap 76 ping and secured to the opposite side walls of said ' ~ '7. A principalload sustaining platform for light weight vehicles comprising longitudinally extending side units of light gauge metal, which side units are trussed structures, each truss structure comprising top and bottom chord mem bers embodying vertically opposed channels, di agonal truss members interiorly of the channels interconnecting the side walls thereof, vertical truss members on each side connecting the re spective side walls of the opposed channels op posite the connected ends of the diagonal truss members, which vertically extending members are of channel cross section facing outwardly of 15 the chord members, and transverse beam mem bers interconnecting said longitudinally extend ing side units through the intermediary of the side walls of the interior vertically extending members of the side unit truss, vertical exten sions of the exterior vertically extending mem bers of the side unit truss constituting posts of the vehicle side frame structure. 8. A light weight, high strength vehicle body having a roof and an underframe, the principal load of which is carried by side trusses, each of said trusses including through-running chord members, and vertical struts and diagonals of angular section, each of said chord members, struts and diagonals being formed from light 30 gauge sheet metal strips, said vertical struts having portions extending in the plane of the truss and across the chord elements and secured thereto, transverse ?oor beams securing said trusses together, certain of said vertical struts 36 of the trusses serving to directly support the floor beams and certain of said struts extending beyond the side trusses to directly support the roof, the diagonals of said truss elements being in a longitudinally extending vertical plane of 40 symmetry of the truss elements and being adapt ed to distribute their loads to other members of the truss elements substantially equally on op~ posite sides of said plane. 9. A load sustaining frame for vehicle bodies 45 having an underframe including transverse floor beams centrally joined longitudinally by a cen ter sill construction, and supported at their ends by side trusses, said trusses including top chords, lower chords, vertical struts and diagonals, all 50 of which are of channel shaped cross section and fabricated from metal strips of relatively light gauge, said trusses being adapted to take sub stantially all of the shear and bending moment reactions of the car body, said center sill con 55 struction including channel shaped cross section chord members fabricated from metal strips of relatively light gauge, and intermediate webbing between said chord memberasaid transverse ?oor beams extending through said webbing and being secured to the respective chord members and webbing of the center sill, said center sill ‘being adapted to take longitudinal loads, and having a relatively low resistance to shear or bending moments. 65 10. A frame for vehicle bodies having a roof, side frames and transverse floor supporting beams, said ?oor supporting beams intercon necting said side frames, said side flames being fabricated substantially throughout of "light 70 gauge sheet metal angular section truss elements, includingthrough-running chord members, ver tical struts, and diagonal members, having mu tually overlapping walls some at least of said truss members being closed by cover members to 75 2,129,235 formbox section members, said chord members \being secured to adjacent members at the over 7 which are-laterally, opposite said wheel units, bracing the bottoms of the side frames to the transverse beams,lthe braces opposite said wheel lapping walls thereof, substantially all of the truss elements being in balanced relation with units being spaced'from the wheel units so as respect to a longitudinally extending vertical planewof symmetry of the diagonals, the loading of the diagonals being distributed in substantially to permit free swiveling movement of said wheel balanced relation to the other truss elements on the respective sides of the plane‘ of the diagonals. 10 11. A frame for vehicle bodies having a roof, side frames and transverse ?oor supporting weight vehicles comprising spaced longitudinally units. ' ' 15. A principal load sustaining frame for light extending side frame trusses having elements of sheet metal formed into channels, transverse 10 members interconnecting the side frame trusses. beams interconnecting'said side frames, said, and a superstructure, said side frame trusses 15 side frames being fabricated, substantially including posts extending ‘to and supporting said throughout of light gauge, sheet metal, channel superstructure, said posts extending substan section, truss elements, including through-run tially the full vertical depth of said side frame ning chord members, vertical struts, and diago nal‘ members, the truss elements-being intercon trusses and constituting vertical outer web parts of said trusses, the trusses including through nected in balanced relation with respect to a longitudinally extending vertical plane of sym 20 metry of the diagonals whereby the loading of the diagonals may be distributed in substantially balanced relation to the other truss elements, certain of the vertical struts being continuous to the roof, said transverse ?oor beams and roof 25 being anchored with respect to the struts so that the effective line of anchorage is in the plane of ,‘ > the diagonals for a minimum torsional ‘reaction upon the truss at large. "12. A principal load sustaining frame for ve 30 hicle bodies fabricated of light gauge sheet metal and including longitudinally extending side frame trusses the'posts of which form part of the body superstructure, longitudinally ?uted panel running chord members and being reinforced on their inner sides by additional vertical web mem bers opposite said posts, and diagonal members in ‘the plane of the chord members, the loading of the diagonal members being substantially equally distributed on opposite sides of their lon gitudinal vertical plane of symmetry. 16. A load sustaining side wall frame and truss 25 for light weight vehicles adapted to ‘support a roof from its upper portion and to support a transverse system of floor supporting beams from its lower portion, said side wall truss being fab ricated in major part of light gauge sheet metal 80 strips formed into angular section and includ ing top and bottom through-running chords and vertical and diagonal webbing, portions of said ing, and means to ?exibly secure said paneling vertical webbing being extended in one piece be-. with respect to said posts so that de?ection of yond the top chord and there adapted to sup the side frame trusses is not substantially trans— - port the roof structure and portions of said ver mitted into the paneling. ' tical webbing extending across the truss to the 13. A principal load sustaining frame for light weight vehicles having a roof, and comprising 40 longitudinally extending side frames, transverse ?oor supporting beams interconnecting the side frames, said beams and side frames being fab ricated in large part of sheet metal strips formed into channels, said side frames including top and 45 ‘bottom chords and vertical and diagonal webbing to form trus's structures, said vertical webbing extending across the chords and supporting the roof and transverse beams, said transverse beams being unitary and being substantially symmet rical in transverse cross section and joined to the vertical webbing of the side frames in substantially equal proportion on opposite sides of a longitudinal plane of symmetry of the transverse beams for a substantially equal distribution of the loading on said vertical webbings _ 14. A principal load sustaining frame for light weight vehicles having a roof,'and comprising, longitudinally extending side frame and trans verse ?oor supporting beams interconnecting the ‘side frame, said beams and side frames being fabricated in large, part of angular sheet metal members, said side frames including top and'bot tom chords “and vertical and diagonal webbing to form truss structures, said vertical webbing extending across the chords supporting the roof \ and transverse beams, said transverse beams be ing substantially symmetrical in cross section and joined to the vertical webbing of the side sill units in substantially equal proportion on op 70 pos*te sides of the plane of symmetry of the trans verse beams for a substantially equal distribu tion of the loading on said vertical webbing, wheel units connected with the transverse beams and occupying the space between ‘the longitudi 75 nal side frames, and diagonal braces, some of bottom chord, said last-mentioned portions be ing adapted to support the transverse ?oor sup porting beams, the diagonal webbing being sub stantially in a vertical plane of symmetry of the truss as to chords and vertical webbing, the load ing on the diagonal webbing being distributed in substantially balanced relation about said plane to said vertical webbing. 17. A load sustaining frame for light weight vehicles having a_ roof and comprising spaced longitudinally extending side units and trans verse ?oor supporting beams interconnecting the longitudinal side units, said side units and trans verse beams being fabricated in major part of light gauge sheet metal strips formed into an gular sections and including top and bottom through-running chords and ‘vertical and diag onal webbing forming truss structures, said ver-_ tical webbing supporting the roof and transverse st beams, the diagonal webbing being substantially in a longitudinal vertical plane of symmetry of the respective side units as to chords and verti-’ cal webbing, the loading of the diagonal webbing being distributed in substantially balanced re lation about said plane to said vertical webbing, and a center‘ sill centrally joining said transverse floor beams and including channel shape cross section chord members fabricated from metal strips of relatively, light gauge and intermediate webbing between said chord members, said‘trans verse ?oor beams extending through said web bing and being secured to the respective chord members and webbing of the center sill. 70 18. A load sustaining frame-for light weight vehicles having a roof and comprising spaced longitudinally extending side units and trans verse ?oor supporting beams interconnecting the longitudinal side units, said side units being fab 75 8 \ 2,129,235 ricated in major part of light gauge sheet metal strips formed into angular sections and includ ing top and bottom through-running chords and. vertical and diagonal webbing forming truss structures, the vertical webbing of said side units supporting the roof and transverse beams, the diagonal webbing being substantially in a lon gitudinal vertical plane of symmetry of the re about said plane to said vertical webbing, said transverse beams being substantially symmetri cal in transverse cross section and joined to the vertical webbing of the side sill units in sub stantially equal proportion on opposite sides of a. longitudinal plane of symmetry,of the trans verse beams for a substantially equal distribu tion of the loading on said vertical webbing. spective side units as to chords and vertical web bing, the loading of the diagonal webbing being distributed in substantially balanced relation _ EARL J. W. RAGSDALE. ALBERT G. DEAN.