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Патент USA US2129235

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Sept. 6, "@938.
E, J. w. RAGSDALE ET AL
- 2,129,235
RAIL CAR BODY
original Filed April 27, 1932
5 Sheets-Sheet l
.INVENTORS
EARLlW. DAGsDALB ‘
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BY
ALBERT G. DEAN
ATTORNEY.
Sept 5, ‘1938.
E. J. w. RAGSDALE ET AL
2,129,235
RA'IL CAR BODY
’
Original Filed April 2'7, 1932
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTORS
EARLLWRAGsDALB
BY ALBERT GDEAN.
-
FM
‘
ATTORNEY.
Sevi- 6, 1938-
‘E. J. w. RAGsDALE ET AL
v2,129,235
RAIL CAR BODY
Original Filed April 27, 1932
4 5 Sheets-Sheet 3
I NVENTGRS‘.
EARLJ.W.RAC1SDALE
BY ALBEIQT (I DEAN
% FM
ATTORNEY.
‘Sept. 6; 1938.
2,129,235
E. J. w. RAGSDALE ET AL
RAIL CAR BODY
Original Filed April 27, 1932 ‘
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
7'
m; 'ENTORS
. EARLlWRAQsDALE
ALBERT Ci. DEAN
A TTURNEY.
SePt- 6, 1938.
E. J. w. RAGSDALE ET AL
2,129,235
RAIL CAR BODY
_
IN VEN TORS
EARLJRALQAQsDALE @
A 115212’? CIDE ‘Q,
Patented Sept. 6, 1938.
' 21,129,235
UNITED STATES
PATENT . OFFICE
2,129,235
nan. can BODY
Earl J.'w.. Ragsdale, Norrlstown, and Albert G.
Dean, Nar-berth, Pa., assignors to Edward G.
Budd Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia,
_ Pa.,‘a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application April 27, 1932, Serial No. 607,690
‘
Renewed December 12, 1936
18 Claims. (Cl. 105--399)
The invention relates particularly to vehicles of
an order and size adapting them to travel upon
standard railway tracks and to engage in tra?lc
involving loads of the kind and degree encoun
5 tered in connection with railway tra?lc as it ex
_ ists today. However, the chief end and aim is the
revolutionizing of the structural organization of
the bodies of such vehicles to the end of achieving
‘ a maximum lightness of structure, of reducing
10 the dead weight in such vehicles so low that the
gross Weight, dead load plus live load, is so enor
mously far reduced over that of the standard
railway vehicle of today that, through the use of
a car body of the invention, that overlying inven
15 tion of pneumatic tired “railway vehicles may be
practiced. Michelin et Cie of Clermont-Ferrand,
France have within the past two‘or three years
produced, successfully operated and introduced
to commercial practice on railways of France and
20 recently into this country, such vehicles. ‘It is
characteristic of them that the structures of the
bodies and their wheel suspensions in the form
of trucks or otherwise are designed strictly with
reference to a factor of safety but sufficient to
25 safely carry the traflic loads in the form of pas
sengers, freight or the like imposed upon them
and without reference to the utilization of heavy
masses of material for the purpose of stabilizing
the travel of the vehicle upon and enabling it to
30 resist shocks from the trackway and without ref
erence to the utilization of heavy masses for the
rosion render it an ideal material for use in light
weight, such as pneumatic tired railway vehicles.
A second outstanding aim of the invention
therefore is the evolution of a structure which
can be made economically from all points of view 6
of this ideal material.
It will be seen. however, upon a full under
standing of the invention that it has adapta
tion to vehicles of other character useful for op
erating in other ?elds of traiilc'where the condi- l0
tions impose similar requirements.
Of the drawings,
Figure l is a general side elevation of a passen
ger carrying railway vehicle embodying the in
vention.
35
_
Figure 2 is a general three-quarter front side
view in perspective showing the rear part of the
vehicle completely sheathed in with the paneling,
etc. of the superstructure, showing its principal
load sustaining frame in the midsection stripped 20
of sheathing and in skeleton form, and showing
further the fore part of the vehicle broken off
in order to disclose the sections of portions of
the sustaining frame.
_
Figure 3 is a half vertical transverse section of 25
the principal load sustaining frame and the con
pressure within the break-down limits of the rub
ber entering into the structure of the tire and
nected superstructure, said section being taken
in the region of the skeleton part of the view of
Figure 2, or substantially on the line 3-—3 of
Figure 1 looking in the direction of the arrows.v 30
Figure 4 is a similar section omitting‘the su
perstructure and including somewhat over half
of the vertical transverse cross section of the
principal load sustaining frame taken in the
transverse plane of the swivel of one of the wheel 35
trucks, substantially in line 4-4 looking in the’
direction of the arrows of each Figure 1 and Fig
yet high enough to keep the number of wheels
ure 5.
purpose of precluding crushing, etc., whereby the
7 dead weight is so far reduced that the structure
may be used in combination with wheels equipped
85 with pneumatic tires inflated at a relatively high
‘ , down within those limits which may be practical
40 1y embodied in such combinations of equalization
Figure 5 is a general diagram in plan form of
the substantially horizontal principal load sup- N
and truck mounting as enable the car to travel at
porting frame.
the high speeds prevailing in railway practice
and around curves of relatively short radius.
Figure 6 is an enlarged side elevation with por
tions broken away of the longitudinally extend
The outstanding aim of the invention therefore
is the achievement of a structure of car body
ing sill units constituting the lateral boundaries
of the principal sustaining frame of Figure 5.
45
which will enable the foregoing objects to be the
more fully realized.
The second aim of the invention is the achieve
ment of a structure which may be constituted of
0 electrically spot welded strainless steel in its larg
est part. The extremely great strength of prop
erly treated stainless steel per unit weight as
compared with the strengths of ordinary steels
coupled with its eminent adaptability for elec
55 trical 'spot welding and its immunity from cor
I
Figure 7_ is a detail cross section of a portion
of the sill unit of Figure'? very much enlarged
taken substantially on the line in the planes des
ignated by the arrows 1-1.
Figure 8 is an enlarged horizontal cross section 50
taken substantially in plane 8—8 of Figure 3
looking in the direction of the arrows showing
certain details of the longitudinally extending
sill units, the transverse beams interconnecting
the sills and their adjunctive members.
55
2
2,129,235
Figure 9 is a view taken in a similar plane de
picting the juncture with the longitudinal and
transverse members of the frame of the diagonal
members as occurring in the regions within the
circle 9, Fig. 5.
Figure 10 is an enlarged cross section in the
vertical plane of the lateral slide bearings of the
swivelling trucks indicated within the circle ID of
10
Figure 4 and on the line I0—i0 of Figure 5.
Figure 11 is a cross section in the vertical plane
showing-the connection of the flooring of the ve
hicle with the heads of the transverse members
as indicated by the line Il-l| of Figure 3.
Figure 12 is a horizontal section of an inter
15 mediate portion of the vertical posts of the frame
of the superstructure on line l2-—l2 of Figure 3
and likewise in the upper sectionas similarly
designated.
Figure 13 is the enlarged transverse cross sec
20 tion of the parts encompassed by the circle it
of Figure 3.
Figure 14 is a transverse ‘cross section of one of
the corner posts of the car as in the region within
the circle M of the plan diagram of Figure 5.
25
Figure 15 is a transverse cross section of the
curvilinear members interconnecting the posts of
the frame as shown in Figure 12 with the carlines
constituting the transverse frame members of
the roof as shown in Figures 16 and 17, each as
30 taken in the plane designated by the section line
and circle of corresponding number in Figure 3.
Figure 18 is a horizontal section of a portion of
the vertical posts extending between two adjacent
window openings on the line Iii-I8 of Fig. 3.
The foundation of the‘ vehicle body of the in
vention consists of the principal load sustaining
frame’ 20 shown in skeleton form‘ in the fore part
of Figure 2 and in plan form in Figure 5.‘ This
frame is composed of a pair of longitudinally ex
40 tending side sill units 2| alike in all essential
respects, which longitudinally extending sill units
are interconnected by a multiple number of
transverse floor beam members 22. Character
istically the longitudinally extending sill units are
45 relatively thin transversely and extremely deep
vertically as appears clearly in Figures 3, 4 and 6,
whereby it is possible to utilize the extremely high
tensile strength of stainless steels to the maxi
mum degree in the attainment of minimum
weight and at the same time reduce the de?ec
tion of the sill under most adverse loadings to a
?gure well within permissible limits. The trans
verse beams 22 interconnect these sill units of
very thin and extremely deep cross section at or
near their tops particularly in such fashion that
the tops of the transverse beams and the tops of
the sill units lie in substantially the same hori~
zontal plane and are therefore adapted to re
ceive and support the flooring of the vehicle
60 body, as clearly appears in Figures 2, 3, 4 and 11.
In order to prevent lateral de?ection of such ex
tremely thin and deep vertical cross sections of
sill units 2|, which lateral de?ection is very likely,
if'permitted to occur in units of such form, to
cause their failure, diagonal braces 23 are intro
duced between the under sides of the transverse
beams 22 at points removed from the sill units 2i
inwardly of the body andsubstantially at the
lowermost extremities of the thin and deep cross
70 sections of the units 2|.
Pneumatic tired swivelled wheel trucks desig
nated generally 24 and shown particularly in
Figure 4 occupy the space beneath the transverse
beams 22 and between the sill units 2| which
75 depend from the ends thereof. Such trucks in
deed occupy a space within the diagonal brace
members 23 and the relation of the parts is such
that the wheels of the truck extend upwardly
into substantial proximity to the transverse
beams 22. The trucks are multi-wheel trucks
each having six wheels, as appears in Figure 1 of
this embodiment, and are swivelled through‘ a
trunnion connection 25 to the transverse beams
22 and provided with laterally disposed stabilizing
bearings 26 normally, in substantial disengage 10
ment as between beams 22 and the truck but en~v
gaging whenever the loads on the car body re
quire such engagement, as in the usual practice.
In‘ the support of the body’ from these trucks
certain of the transverse beams 22, particularly 15
those designated 22a longitudinally spaced as
pairs from each other and from the opposite ends
of the body and likewise from the ends of the
vehicle are constituted of considerably increased
strength over and above the remainder and are 20
,5 interconnected by a plurality of short cross con
necting beams 27 and 28. The members 28 and
those portions of the beams 220. between them
are overlaid'top and bottom by rectangular trun
nion bearing plates 29 which together support
the trunion bearing 30 vertically aligned with a
series of buttressing inner plates 3i and receiving
centrally the swivel pin 25. The lower plate 29
has a substantially horizontal central offset 32
receiving the substantially horizontal lower edges 30
of the buttressing inner plates 3! of the bearing
30. All the parts are electrically spot-welded to
gether. The offset 32 of the lower plate 29 is
received as a male trunnion bearing upon the
seat 33 formed upon the bolster 34 of the truck 35
and encompassed by circular retaining wall mem
ber 35. The lateral stabilizing bearings 25 are
constituted by channel-shaped members 36
Welded as at 311 in inverted position to mounting
plates 38 through which they are detachably con 40
nected by bolts 39 to the stabilizing bearing sup
ports Alli permanently connected as by rivets iii to
the beams 22.
The superstructure comprises vertically ex
tending posts ll2 (see Figures 3 and 4) extending 45
substantially the full depth of the relatively thin
and deep vertical cross sections of the sill units 2|
and connected therewith by electric welding at
These posts are con
nected by curvilinear members 45 shown in Fig 50
ures 3 and 15 with the transversely extending
carlines 4G appearing in Figures 3 and 16. The
posts t2 as clearly appears in Figures 3, 4 and
both bottom 43 and top H.
12 are of channel shaped cross section lacing
outwardly of the car body, the side walls of the 55
channel being outwardly flanged as at “and the
mouth of the channel being closed by a cover
member 48 electrically welded to the ?anges 41F, '
thereby converting the channel member into a
box section form. The post is electrically welded 60
to the sill units 2! through the bottom of the
channel, and to the ?anges 41 and the overlapped
portions of the cover plate 48 are electrically
welded
longitudinally
extending
sheathing
stringers 49 spaced at intervals suitable for the 65
attachment of the sheathing 50. The stringers
are of angle cross section welded to the posts by
one branch of the angle and welded to the panels
50 by the other branch. The panels 50 are of a
cross section concaved inwardly of the body and 70
provided at their lateral extremities with in
turned ?anges and spot welded through the in
turned flanges to the outturned branches of the
angle cross section of the stringers 49. Thus the
weld at this point passes through all three cross
‘
_
sections as' illustrated for example in Figure 13
where one of the panels 50 is shown joined to the
- stringer 49 through an inturned ?ange 5| carried
by a molding 52 which constitutes the uppermost
margin of the paneling 50. A similar molding
panel section 52 is provided at the bottom of the
post 42 and the paneling 50 is continuous between
$1
3.
9,189,285
these moldings. The angular cross section of the
’ stringers plus the ?anging and concaving of the
panels enables an extremely light paneling to be
v employed and accessibly electrically spot welded
10
together and at the same time affords by reason
of the stiffening and strengthening" nature of the
end 4| and the downturned branch 62 of the
angle cross section of the sill 53 the upholstery
paneling ,52 of the interior of the body. A simi
lar construction is used at the top of the window
at the point designated 44 in Figure 3. At this
point the seat member 59 ‘for the weather strip
ping is welded to an angle section horizontal top
header 55 secured to the posts through a gusset
45 and likewise to a molding 52 in essentially the
same manner as are parts 52, 53, 55, 42, 59 se 10
cured together as outlined in detail in Figure 13.
Above the windows the paneling 50 is con
tinued in a short zone and connected with the
cross sections involved a substantial addition to ‘posts 42 and moldings 52 of the paneling in
the strength and rigidity of the side frame of the " essentially the same manner as are the corre 15
car body and minimizes de?ection in the princi
pal load sustaining frame 20 and the side sill
units 2|‘ thereof. Aprimary advantage of the
?uted surfaces on the longitudinal paneling is
sponding parts in the lower section of the super
eling. This ?exible Joinder is important topre
menting.‘
vent the showing of shearing strains under load
in the very thin paneling. Flat panels would
become dished or wavy upon de?ection, and this
would result in objectionable appearance and
The carlines 45 constituting the transverse sup
port for the roof structure are likewise of box
cross section overall as appears in Figures 3 and 35
16. However, this box cross section, instead of
be‘ng formed by one channel shaped member
and one cover plate as are the posts 42, is
structure.
.
The corner posts 51 (Figures 1, 2, 5 and 14) are
i‘kewise of channel cross section but of a di?er
not so much to add strength to the main under- ' ent detail form, their main bodies having a bot 20
frame to take de?ection loads, but rather to tom wall 58 angularly bent inwardly. The cover
prevent the waving or dishing of the extremely plates 59 are curvilinear in cross section convexed
thin metal of the panels under de?ection. Fur
outwardly. However, the cover plate overlaps
thermore, the provision in the ?uted paneling ?anges 41 an is provided with inturned ends 55
strips in their edges of the inwardly extending of essentially he same form and function as are 25
?anges and the .connection of these?anges to the intermediate posts of Figure 18, whereby
the post ?anges through the angle members 49 there are accommodated the weather strips 51 of
affords a ?exibility of joinder between the ?uted the windows which are bounded by these corner
paneling‘ and the trussed framework which posts. At their bottoms the cover plates 69 are
provided with an outwardly and downwardly 30
avoids any, substantial transmission'of the shear
ing strains of the truss framework into the pan
turned ?ange ‘I0 for strengthening and,v orna
possibly. drumming noises. The. light gauge
metal moldings secured to the paneling at top
. and bottom and above and below‘ the window
40 openings are of longitudinal ?uted form for a
like reason. At the upper molding 52 are pro
vided window sills, which latter are formed by
formed of two channel-shaped members 7! ‘elec
trically welded together bottom to bottom and
facing the one upwardly and the other down
wardly.
Each is provided with a cover plate 12
secured by welding through overlapping and
the provision between the posts of angle cross
section members 53 welded to the upper ?ange of
welding to outturned ?anges 13 of the channel
molding 52 by the horizontal branch of the angle
members ‘H.
cross section, which branch extends inwardly
bers ‘H are angularly de?ected inwardly of the
channels whereby to form a stiffening and rein
forcing subordinate box cross ‘section 14. The
substantially to the plane 54 ofkthe inner face
of the posts 42 and is welded to the posts through
corner gussets- 55 of angle cross section. The
other branch 62 of the cross section of window
sill members 53 is turned downwardly in the
plane 54 of the inner‘. face of the post 42. The
outer edges 56 of the overlapping portions of
cover plates 48 of post 42 (see Figure 12) are
turned inwardly of‘ the body ‘of the vehicle, as
likewise appears in Figure 18. ‘Between these
inturned ends 56 and the side walls of the post 42
are interposed rubber weather strips 51 in which
are carried the window panes 58 of the windows
(T) of the car. These rubber strips are retained in
The bottoms of the channel mem
45
carlines are interconnected at intervals by pur
lines 15 of Z-shape cross section stiffened and 50
reinforced by angular mid section offsets ‘l6 sim
ilar to those which constitute the box cross sec
tion 14 and joined to the carlines by electrically
welding _ their
outer
horizontally
extending‘
branches respectively to the bottom and top 55
?anges of the carlines 46.
Secured to the carlines by riveting in the form
illwtrated is a metallic sheet roo?ng 11. In
terposed between the upper and lower ?anges
of the‘ carlines 46 and resting upon the lower of 60
place by removable moldings 59 secured to the ‘such ?anges also as upon the lower branches of
interior side face of the post 42. Electrically the 2 cross section of the purline ‘i6 is a sound
welded to the window sill 53 in extension of the deadening interior upholstery material ‘(not
seats constituted by the ?anges 41 and 55 for the shown).
weather stripping 51 is an inwardly facing
The curvilinear members 45 connecting the car 65
channel member 59 affording a similar seat at
the window sill and the rubber weather strip 51
at the sill is held in place by a sill molding 60
likewise removably secured to the window sill‘
(Figure 13) . This strip, instead of being of angle
section as in the instance of the vertical mold
ings shown in Figure 18. is of Z~cross section. the
inner branch of the Z being turned downwardly
to appropriately ?nish the ‘window sill 53 inte
riorly, and likewise to accommodate between its
lines and the posts as shown in Figures 3 and 15
are all of compound box section form. The side
members 19 curvilinear in plan form are lapped
over the side walls of the channel cross section
of posts‘ 42 and electrically welded thereto. 70
Their exterior edges are outturned in ?anges 80, a
cover plate member 8| essentially of the same
cross section as cover plate members 48 and
curved concentrically with the members 19 and
is electrically spot welded alike to the cover plate 75
4
2,129,235
A very important advantage results from this
‘organization of parts. The centers of securement
' member 82 concentrically curved to members 19 of these several parts 42, 89, 85, 86 and 81 to
and BI has its edges provided with outwardly ex
gether, all lie in the same transverse plane as
tending flanges 83 electrically spot welded to the clearly appears in Figure 6 and others, and is
1 members 49 the ?anges 80 and the ?anges ‘H! or
" the box section carlines 46.
Similarly a bottom Y
side members 19 and the order of assembly is,
however, the reverse of that described.
particularly designated in Figure 6 by the line
The ' 90-90. There is thus attained a truss in which
the forces are transmitted as truly to a common
order of assembly is as follows.
First are attached members 19 then member
axis of connection as possible, substantially truly
to common points on such transversely extending 10
members 45 and ?nally member 8|, the tools‘ axis passing through the central zones of con
_ being applied to the overlapping ?anges. The nection, and likewise there is obtained a truss
metal sheathing of. the roof is extended down
having a longitudinal plane of full symmetry
.wardly over the cover plate 8| and electrically with the diagonals joined to the- other truss ele
16 welded thereto, while its lower edge is fastened ments substantially equally on each side of said
10 ~82, the welding tools reaching inwardly of the
to the upturned flange 84 of the uppermost mold
plane.
ing 52 as secured in place through the upper
most stringer 49.
through the posts 42 and 89 are carried by the
diagonals without any material torsion~ on the
However, it is not the detail of the super
20 structure which constitutes the princlpal fea
ture of the invention, but as intimated herto
fore, the detail of the principal loadvsupporting
frame 20. Referring now particularly to the
lower portions of Figure 3 and. to Figures 4, 2 and
6,
it is to be pointed out that the extremely thin
25
and deep longitudinally extending side units 2|
Furthermore, the roof and ?oor loads
trusses.
Yet this truss is susceptible of mass
production of rolled cross sections of stainless 20
steel strips and which may be economically fabri
cated by electric welding in mass production.
These important ends are attained in scarcely ‘
less degree throughout the substantially hori
zontally extending principal load supporting
frame 29. The beams 22 are likewise truss mem
are balanced truss structures composed of upper
and lower longitudinally extending chord mem
bers B5 and 86, respectively. These are in the
form of channel cross sections, the mouths of
which face toward each other, the upper one
down and the lower one up in the plane of the
bers having longitudinally extending vertical
truss. Diagonal truss members 81, the extremi
ties of which lie vertically above each other,
thereof in essentially the same manner as are
35 interconnect these chord members 85 and 86.
_They likewise are of channel form, the channels
presenting upwardly and their channels are of
such dimension thattheir side walls nest snugly
inside of the side walls of the channels of
members 85 and 86 as clearly appears in Figure
7. The side walls are electrically spot welded to
gether each to each as indicated in Figures 6 and
7 and they can be most effectively so spot welded
because of the snugness and extent of their over
lapping relation and the openness of the cross
sections employed. Between the points of con
nection of the diagonals 911 with the chords 95
and til the chord members have their channel
shape cross sections closed and thereby con
verted into an effective box section by cover
members 88 in the form of relatively shallow
channel cross section members of such dimension
that their side walls may be ?tted snugly in
teriorly of the side walls of the members 85 and
55 86 presenting outwardly and the overlapped walls
. electrically spot welded together. Both the prin
cipal channel members of chord members 85 and
85 and the cover or subordinate members 89 have
their central portions de?ected in angular form
60 for adding to their rigidity and strength.
Before these cover members are welded in
place, however,-the posts 42 are welded in place
at the points 43 and 44 as heretofore pointed out,
to the exterior faces of the exterior side walls of
65 the members 85 and 86. This is carried through
the channels of both members 85 and 8B and
diagonals 81, as clearly appears in Figures 3, 4, 6
and 7. Similarly on the opposite sides of these
welded points there are welded in place through
70 their bottoms, interiorly facing channel cross
section members 89 of a dimension and general
physical characteristics essentially similar to
those of the posts‘ 42 which interconnect mem
bers 85 and 86 between points 43 and 44 (see the
same ?gures).
‘
planes of symmetry. They are composed of up
per and lower chord members 9|, 92 of channel
shaped cross sections, which cross sections are 30
converted into box form by cover plates 93a
secured to the outturned ?anges of the side walls
those of the posts 42 (see Figures 4, l0 and 11).
Before these cover plate members'llta, however, 35
are welded in place by overlapping portions to
the flanges of the side walls, there are welded
to the side walls of the chord members iii, 92
truss plates 93 on opposite sides thereof and ex
teriorly. These truss plates are of relatively 40
thin gauge stock as compared with the gauge
of the chord members 9|, 92. They are divided
by diagonal indentations 94 into a plurality of
rectangular portions, which portions are pre
vented from dish-panning through the stiffened
indentations 94. Between each rectangular such
portion and the next adjoining are electrically
welded in place channel shaped reinforcing verti
cal truss members 95 presenting outwardly of
the beam and welded by their bottoms, the bot 50
toms bein'g stiffened and rendered more rigid by
the offset 96. This welding is directly to the web
plates 93 with the diagonal indentations 94. The
channels are welded in place prior to the welding
of the webbing to the chord members 9i and 92
and accessibility for welding of all parts attained
thereby. Then follows the welding of the cover
plates 93.
These transverse beams are of a thickness
enabling their ends as deprived of the outturned 60
?anges of the chord members 9! and 92 but re~
taining the side walls thereof, to be slipped
snugly between and in extended overlapping re
lation to the side walls of the channel shaped
vertical members 89 of the truss units 2| as 65
clearly appears in Figures 3, 4, 8 and 9. In this
extended overlapping region designated 91, Fig
ures 3 and 4, the side walls of the channel mem
bers 89, and the web plates 93 of the chord mem
bers 9|, 92 are commonly spot welded to each 70
other and generally together in the most secure
fashion. “A general accessibility for welding is
obtained merely by cutting short the ends of
the cover plates 93a and reaching downwardly
from the top of the channel shaped member 89 75
2,129,235
of the truss 2|‘ and upwardly from the open
mouth of the channel below the beam 22.
The diagonal bracing members 23 are likewise
of channel cross section presenting inwardly and
a of a dimension between side walls enabling them
to ?t snugly between the side walls of the mem
bers 89 as provided with the triangular interior
gusset plates 98, the side walls and gusset plate
being commonly welded to each other and to
l0 gether in their overlapping regions.
This ap
plies to the lower end of the members 23 as ap
5
of the channel cross sections involved in the cir
cles, cover plates are welded on to closefthese open
ings.
These cover plates- are of various plan
form and dimension as indicated at various points
I05’ occurring throughout the plan form of Fig
ure 5 and in general they meet but do not 'over
lap the terminal ends of the cover plates of the
channels and are secured like the cover plates to
the outturned ?anges of the panels but in var
ious speci?c, instances they may overlap by a
considerable amount the outturned ?anges of the
pears in Figures 3 and 4. > At their upper ends
channels, all as clearly appears at the joint I06’
angular gusset plates 90 and I00 ,are utilized
illustrated in detail in Figure 8.
to secure the upper end through overlapping
15 ?anges to the outturned ?anges of the chord
members 92 of the'beams 22, and secured com
monly to both the principal channel member
and the cover members 93a.
,
Centrally of the sustaining frame, as appears
20 in Figures 2 and 5, there are provided a longi
tudinally extending series of short interconnect
ing beams IOI of a form essentially similar to
,
A vehicle body having its elements of the forms
and shapes shown or their equivalents, and com 15
bined as between the elements themselves and as
between sub-assemblies of those elements con
stituting units, enables one to construct through
rolled and drawn sections from stainless steel
strips and sheets, and electrically weld ‘together 20
in large part by spot welding, a body possessing
in an extremely high degree the requisites of
the beams 22 and of an essentially similar con ' the bodies which enter into the invention of
struction and cross sectional dimension whereby pneumatic tired railway vehicles. Such a vehi
25 mass fabrication is obtained. The connection , cle recently constructed with a passenger carry 25'
of these beams IM to the beams 22 is clearly ing capacity of 42 has dead weight of 13,500
shown in Figure 8. The central runs of the _ pounds as against the dead weight of the usual
channels 95 constituting the vertical members railway vehicle of the same capacity of between
of the truss form of the beams 22 are widened 50,000 and 70,000 pounds, this dead weight in
30 su?lciently to receive between their side walls cluding the weight of the propelling power plant.
and in snug overlapping relation thereto in the With a power plant of approximately 100 horse
same manner as are received the ends of beams power the vehicle was propelled at the rate of 72
22 by the verticals 89 of trusses 2I, the ends of miles per hour as against substantially 300 horse
the beams IOI. These are welded in place after power required if propelling the vehicle of 50,000
to ‘70,000 pounds weight at a; less speed.
35 the channels 05 are welded in place, after the
35
beams 22 are welded to the sills 2|, and are ac
While we have shown and described but one
cessible for welding by reason of the omission of 'form of our invention we desire to have it un
the cover plates in the region of the opposite. derstood that it is applicable to trussed housing
extremities of the channels 95 and cover plates structures at large particularly vehicle bodies at
large in all it features, and we, therefore, de 40
40 93a.
To prevent distortion and weaving of the sus
sire to include such embodiments which do not
taining frame in'its horizontal plane there are depart in any wise from its generic spirit and
provided between the transverse members 22 in therefore the terminology utilized in the ap
the region of the trunnion plates 29 and the pended claims is to be given every latitude which
joints between the next adjoining beams 22 on the existing weight in this particular ?eld war 45
rants.
each side thereof and the sills 2|, diagonally ex
tending beams I02 which radiate from the trun
What we claim is:
1. A principal load sustaining frame for vehicle
nion plate region 29 to the respective diagonally
bodies fabricated of light gauge sheet‘ metal and'
offset corners. These beams, like the beams IOI
including longitudinally extending side frame so
are of the form and general dimension of the
beams 22 likewise for production reasons. Their trusses the posts of which form part of the body
superstructure, longitudinally extending panel
connection to beams 22 and sills 2| are achieved
by a structure essentially similar to that of the ing, and means to secure said paneling to said
posts, the paneling and the securing means be
beams IM to the beams 22. However, the chan
ing organized and arranged to permit relative 55
nel section member I03 by which such connec
movement between the paneling and the posts
tion is made, as appears in Figure 9, which chan
nel section member corresponds to the member 95 ' such that de?ection of the side frame trusses
‘and the member 80, has its bottom deflected does not substantially distort the paneling.
2. A side wall for vehicle bodies fabricated of
outwardly beyond the end of the beam I02 inya
right angular point I04 adapted to be nested in
the angle between beam 22 and the sill 2 I. There
by the bottom IIM may be electrically spot welded
directly tothe side walls of the chord members,
and the web members of the beams 22 and the
sills 2I. Added strength at'such junction points
is provided by tie plates I05 and I06 carried the
one ‘between the side wall of channel I03 and
the side wall of post 42 below the chord 85 of sill
2|, and‘the other similarly below the chord 85
70 between the side wall of vertical 89 and the side
wall of post 42.
.
After these various joints between sills and
beams and diagonals are made through the aper
tures provided by foreshortening of the cover
75 plates of the chord members and the open mouths
light gauge sheet metal and comprising trussed
side frames including vertical posts of channel
section facing outwardly, said channels being
?anged in their edges, and paneling comprising
longitudinally extending ?uted sheet metal strips
?angedlinwardly in their edges and secured to 65
gether through said edge ?anges, and angle sec
tion members connecting said ?anges of they
paneling to the ?anges of the posts.
,
»
8. A horizontally disposed principal load sus
taining frame for a light weight vehicle having 70
a roof and comprising spaced longitudinally ex
tending sill units fabricated as truss structures
including top and bottom chords, and vertical
and diagonal webs extending between the chords,
the chords and webs being fabricated in major 75
6
2,129,235
part from light gauge sheet metal strips, formed
balancing web members whereby eccentric load
into channels andhaving the vertical webs ex
tending across the chords on each side oi’ the
chords, the webs on the respective sides being
of substantially the same size vso- as to give the
sill units substantially a longitudinal vertical
ing is avoided.
plane of symmetry, certain of said vertical webs
extending to the roof, the loading of the truss
diagonals being distributed in balanced relation
10 to said vertical webs, and transverse beams also
fabricated of light gauge sheet metal and inter
connecting the longitudinal sill units at the verti
cal webs.
4. A load sustaining frame for light weight
15
vehicles having a roof and comprising spaced
longitudinally extending side units and trans
verse floor supporting beams interconnecting the
side units, said side units and transverse beams
being fabricated in major part of light gauge,
20 sheet metal strips formed into angular section,,
the side units each including top and bottom.
through-running, chords and vertical’ and di
agonal webbing to form ‘truss structures, said
vertical webbinghsupporting the roof and trans
25 verse ?oor beams, the diagonal webbing being
substantially in the longitudinal vertical plane
of symmetry of the respective side units as to
chords and vertical webbing, the loading of the
diagonal webbing being distributed in substan
30 tially balanced relation about said plane to said
vertical
webbing.
_
'
5. A horizontally extending principal load sus
taining frame for light weight vehicles having a
roof and comprising longitudinally extending sill
35 units and transverse ?oor supporting beams in
terconnecting the sill units and having their
tops substantially in the same plane as the tops
of the sill units, said beams and sill units being
fabricated in large part of sheet metal chan
40 nels, said sill units including top and bottom
chords and vertical and diagonal webbing to form
truss structures, said vertical webbing extending
across the chords and supporting the roof and
transverse beams, said transverse beams being
45 substantially symmetrical in cross section and
joined to the vertical webbing of the side sill
units in substantially equal proportion on oppo
site sides of the plane of symmetry of the trans~
verse beams for a substantially equal distribu
50 tion of the loading on said vertical webbing,
wheel units connected with the transverse beams
and occupying the space between the longitudi
nal sills, and diagonal braces, some of which are
laterally opposite said wheel units, bracing the
55
bottoms of the sills to the transverse beams,
the braces opposite said wheel units being spaced
from the wheel units so as to permit free swivel
ing' movement of said wheel units.
6. A load'sustaining frame for light weight
\vehicles having a roof and comprising spaced
longitudinally extending side unit trusses having
elements of sheet metal formed into angular
members, transverse beams interconnecting the
65 side unit trusses and of substantially less depth
in vertical cross section, said side unit trusses
having longitudinally extending chord members,
vertically extending sheet metal channel section
roof supporting posts extending across the chords
70 of said trusses and secured thereto to form main
web parts of said side unit trusses, and balancing
web members arranged transversely opposite each
post and having opposite side walls, said. trans
verse beams having opposite side walls overlap
76 ping and secured to the opposite side walls of said
' ~
'7. A principalload sustaining platform for
light weight vehicles comprising longitudinally
extending side units of light gauge metal, which
side units are trussed structures, each truss
structure comprising top and bottom chord mem
bers embodying vertically opposed channels, di
agonal truss members interiorly of the channels
interconnecting the side walls thereof, vertical
truss members on each side connecting the re
spective side walls of the opposed channels op
posite the connected ends of the diagonal truss
members, which vertically extending members
are of channel cross section facing outwardly of 15
the chord members, and transverse beam mem
bers interconnecting said longitudinally extend
ing side units through the intermediary of the
side walls of the interior vertically extending
members of the side unit truss, vertical exten
sions of the exterior vertically extending mem
bers of the side unit truss constituting posts of
the vehicle side frame structure.
8. A light weight, high strength vehicle body
having a roof and an underframe, the principal
load of which is carried by side trusses, each of
said trusses including through-running chord
members, and vertical struts and diagonals of
angular section, each of said chord members,
struts and diagonals being formed from light 30
gauge sheet metal strips, said vertical struts
having portions extending in the plane of the
truss and across the chord elements and secured
thereto, transverse ?oor beams securing said
trusses together, certain of said vertical struts 36
of the trusses serving to directly support the
floor beams and certain of said struts extending
beyond the side trusses to directly support the
roof, the diagonals of said truss elements being
in a longitudinally extending vertical plane of 40
symmetry of the truss elements and being adapt
ed to distribute their loads to other members of
the truss elements substantially equally on op~
posite sides of said plane.
9. A load sustaining frame for vehicle bodies 45
having an underframe including transverse floor
beams centrally joined longitudinally by a cen
ter sill construction, and supported at their ends
by side trusses, said trusses including top chords,
lower chords, vertical struts and diagonals, all 50
of which are of channel shaped cross section and
fabricated from metal strips of relatively light
gauge, said trusses being adapted to take sub
stantially all of the shear and bending moment
reactions of the car body, said center sill con 55
struction including channel shaped cross section
chord members fabricated from metal strips of
relatively light gauge, and intermediate webbing
between said chord memberasaid transverse
?oor beams extending through said webbing and
being secured to the respective chord members
and webbing of the center sill, said center sill
‘being adapted to take longitudinal loads, and
having a relatively low resistance to shear or
bending moments.
65
10. A frame for vehicle bodies having a roof,
side frames and transverse floor supporting
beams, said ?oor supporting beams intercon
necting said side frames, said side flames being
fabricated substantially throughout of "light 70
gauge sheet metal angular section truss elements,
includingthrough-running chord members, ver
tical struts, and diagonal members, having mu
tually overlapping walls some at least of said
truss members being closed by cover members to 75
2,129,235
formbox section members, said chord members
\being secured to adjacent members at the over
7
which are-laterally, opposite said wheel units,
bracing the bottoms of the side frames to the
transverse beams,lthe braces opposite said wheel
lapping walls thereof, substantially all of the
truss elements being in balanced relation with units being spaced'from the wheel units so as
respect to a longitudinally extending vertical
planewof symmetry of the diagonals, the loading
of the diagonals being distributed in substantially
to permit free swiveling movement of said wheel
balanced relation to the other truss elements on
the respective sides of the plane‘ of the diagonals.
10
11. A frame for vehicle bodies having a roof,
side frames and transverse ?oor supporting
weight vehicles comprising spaced longitudinally
units.
'
'
15. A principal load sustaining frame for light
extending side frame trusses having elements of
sheet metal formed into channels, transverse 10
members interconnecting the side frame trusses.
beams interconnecting'said side frames, said, and a superstructure, said side frame trusses
15
side frames being fabricated, substantially including posts extending ‘to and supporting said
throughout of light gauge, sheet metal, channel superstructure, said posts extending substan
section, truss elements, including through-run tially the full vertical depth of said side frame
ning chord members, vertical struts, and diago
nal‘ members, the truss elements-being intercon
trusses and constituting vertical outer web parts
of said trusses, the trusses including through
nected in balanced relation with respect to a
longitudinally extending vertical plane of sym
20 metry of the diagonals whereby the loading of
the diagonals may be distributed in substantially
balanced relation to the other truss elements,
certain of the vertical struts being continuous to
the roof, said transverse ?oor beams and roof
25 being anchored with respect to the struts so that
the effective line of anchorage is in the plane of ,‘ > the diagonals for a minimum torsional ‘reaction
upon the truss at large.
"12. A principal load sustaining frame for ve
30 hicle bodies fabricated of light gauge sheet metal
and including longitudinally extending side
frame trusses the'posts of which form part of the
body superstructure, longitudinally ?uted panel
running chord members and being reinforced on
their inner sides by additional vertical web mem
bers opposite said posts, and diagonal members
in ‘the plane of the chord members, the loading
of the diagonal members being substantially
equally distributed on opposite sides of their lon
gitudinal vertical plane of symmetry.
16. A load sustaining side wall frame and truss 25
for light weight vehicles adapted to ‘support a
roof from its upper portion and to support a
transverse system of floor supporting beams from
its lower portion, said side wall truss being fab
ricated in major part of light gauge sheet metal 80
strips formed into angular section and includ
ing top and bottom through-running chords and
vertical and diagonal webbing, portions of said
ing, and means to ?exibly secure said paneling vertical webbing being extended in one piece be-.
with respect to said posts so that de?ection of yond the top chord and there adapted to sup
the side frame trusses is not substantially trans— - port the roof structure and portions of said ver
mitted into the paneling.
'
tical webbing extending across the truss to the
13. A principal load sustaining frame for light
weight vehicles having a roof, and comprising
40 longitudinally extending side frames, transverse
?oor supporting beams interconnecting the side
frames, said beams and side frames being fab
ricated in large part of sheet metal strips formed
into channels, said side frames including top and
45 ‘bottom chords and vertical and diagonal webbing
to form trus's structures, said vertical webbing
extending across the chords and supporting the
roof and transverse beams, said transverse beams
being unitary and being substantially symmet
rical in transverse cross section and joined to the
vertical webbing of the side frames in substantially equal proportion on opposite sides of a
longitudinal plane of symmetry of the transverse
beams for a substantially equal distribution of
the loading on said vertical webbings
_
14. A principal load sustaining frame for light
weight vehicles having a roof,'and comprising,
longitudinally extending side frame and trans
verse ?oor supporting beams interconnecting the
‘side frame, said beams and side frames being
fabricated in large, part of angular sheet metal
members, said side frames including top and'bot
tom chords “and vertical and diagonal webbing
to form truss structures, said vertical webbing
extending across the chords supporting the roof
\ and transverse beams, said transverse beams be
ing substantially symmetrical in cross section and
joined to the vertical webbing of the side sill
units in substantially equal proportion on op
70 pos*te sides of the plane of symmetry of the trans
verse beams for a substantially equal distribu
tion of the loading on said vertical webbing,
wheel units connected with the transverse beams
and occupying the space between ‘the longitudi
75 nal side frames, and diagonal braces, some of
bottom chord, said last-mentioned portions be
ing adapted to support the transverse ?oor sup
porting beams, the diagonal webbing being sub
stantially in a vertical plane of symmetry of the
truss as to chords and vertical webbing, the load
ing on the diagonal webbing being distributed in
substantially balanced relation about said plane
to said vertical webbing.
17. A load sustaining frame for light weight
vehicles having a_ roof and comprising spaced
longitudinally extending side units and trans
verse ?oor supporting beams interconnecting the
longitudinal side units, said side units and trans
verse beams being fabricated in major part of
light gauge sheet metal strips formed into an
gular sections and including top and bottom
through-running chords and ‘vertical and diag
onal webbing forming truss structures, said ver-_
tical webbing supporting the roof and transverse
st
beams, the diagonal webbing being substantially
in a longitudinal vertical plane of symmetry of
the respective side units as to chords and verti-’
cal webbing, the loading of the diagonal webbing
being distributed in substantially balanced re
lation about said plane to said vertical webbing,
and a center‘ sill centrally joining said transverse
floor beams and including channel shape cross
section chord members fabricated from metal
strips of relatively, light gauge and intermediate
webbing between said chord members, said‘trans
verse ?oor beams extending through said web
bing and being secured to the respective chord
members and webbing of the center sill.
70
18. A load sustaining frame-for light weight
vehicles having a roof and comprising spaced
longitudinally extending side units and trans
verse ?oor supporting beams interconnecting the
longitudinal side units, said side units being fab 75
8
\
2,129,235
ricated in major part of light gauge sheet metal
strips formed into angular sections and includ
ing top and bottom through-running chords and.
vertical and diagonal webbing forming truss
structures, the vertical webbing of said side units
supporting the roof and transverse beams, the
diagonal webbing being substantially in a lon
gitudinal vertical plane of symmetry of the re
about said plane to said vertical webbing, said
transverse beams being substantially symmetri
cal in transverse cross section and joined to the
vertical webbing of the side sill units in sub
stantially equal proportion on opposite sides of
a. longitudinal plane of symmetry,of the trans
verse beams for a substantially equal distribu
tion of the loading on said vertical webbing.
spective side units as to chords and vertical web
bing, the loading of the diagonal webbing being
distributed in substantially balanced relation
_ EARL J. W. RAGSDALE.
ALBERT G. DEAN.
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