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Патент USA US2129269

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Sept. 6, 1938.
2,129,269
J. P. FURLoNG
CONVERSION 0F HYDROGARBONS
Filed July 2l, 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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ATTORNEYS.
Sept. 6, 1938.
2,129,269
J. P. FURLONG
CONVERSIÜN OF HYDROGARBONS
'Filed July' 2l, 1936
»lvi
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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BY
ATTORNEYS.
2,129,269
Patented Sept. 6, 1938
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
*JNM
CONVERSION 0l' HYDBOCAEBONS
Joseph r. run-im, .im om, N. J., canna-'m
Amare! Corporation, Newark. N. J., a corpora
tion of Delaware
Appunto“ .my s1. im. ssi-m s». »am
1a own». (ci. m-f-cn
This invention relates to conversion of organic
fluids such for example as hydrocarbons, in con
tinuous process.
This invention has as one object the direct ad
s mixture of hydrocarbons either as liquids, vapors
or mixtures thereof with hot combustion gases to
effect the predominant formation either of a
fuel gas. a distillate suitable for use as high anti
knock motor fuel, paint and varnish solvent, or
10 chemical raw material, or of gases high in con
stituents of value in synthetic organic chemistry
under such circumstances that whatever the pri-.
mary product may be, a useful and valuable by
product is also obtained.
l5
Another object of the invention is an improved
process for converting organic fluids into gaseous
or liquid products of different composition than
the original fluid by the direct admixture of the
organic fluids with hot combustion gases.
20
In the conversion of hydrocarbons according
to the invention, but oxygen-free gases are pro
duced by effecting combustion of a stoichiometri
cal mixture of fuel and oxygen at substantially
the normal flame temperature of the mixture and
25 for reasons of economy and other practical con
siderations, air is used to furnish the oxygen for
the mixture. Hydrocarbons either in vapor or
liquid form or mixtures thereof are contacted with
the oxygen-free combustion gases substantially at
30 combustion temperature in the presence of water
vapor to react with carbon released from the
hydrocarbons to generate fixed gases. In many
instances, sufhcient water vapor will be provided
from the combustion of the fuel and air, but steam
35 may be added to the fuel mixture prior to its com
bustion to provide the requisite water vapor. The
mixture resulting from the contact of hydro
carbons with the hot gases is passed through a
reaction zone in which there is a material tem
40 perature gradient, due to the endothermic reac
tions in the mixture and radiation losses, the
to the radiant beat from the walls of the com
bustion chamber. Under such circumstances. CO:
resulting from the combustion of the fuel is large
ly reduced to C0. thereby increasing the volume of
gas as well as diminishing the percentage of inert Ui
gas. Also, the I-IzO resulting from combustion of
the fuel undergoes substantial reaction resulting
in the formation of further increments oi' fixed
gases, thereby further increasing the volume of
gas made. The remaining portion of the hydro- 10
carbon feed is introduced into the stream of mixed
gases and vapors, and is subjected to a lower re
action temperature to effect a milder cracking
thereof to produce oil gas of high olefin content
for enrichment of the desired gas product.
15
When a liquid distillate is the desired predomi
nating product, the hydrocarbon feed is con
tacted with the hot combustion gases in a zone ex
terior of the combustion zone and shielded from
the radiant heat but with the gases Jsubstantially 1.o
at combustion temperature. Substantially all of
the heat is thus applied to the cracking of the
hydrocarbons and a relatively small portion of the
heat is utilized for supplying energy to the re
actions involving the reduction of CO: to CO and 25
the reaction of water to form fixed gases.
In an apparatus for practicing the invention, a
cylindrical chamber of refractory ceramic ma
terial is provided at one end with a burner for ef
fecting combustion of a mixture of fuel and air 30
and with two or more sets of feed nozzles for in
troducing hydrocarbons into the chamber. the
sets being spaced at different distances from the
burner. The chamber discharges into a second
heat insulated chamber of a length approximat- 35
ing that of the first chamber. Combustion of the
fuel and air takes place ahead of the ñrst set of
nozzles and there is a temperature gradient from
the locus of the first set of nozzles to the end of
the second chamber of from approximately 40
intermediate temperatures being commensurate
3400° F. (flame temperature of air and fuel gas)
to approximately 1000’ F. In a converter for
zone at a point where combustion of the stoichio
well as to radiant heat from the walls of the
with the heat requirements ci the desired re `the production of fuel gas, baille rings of ceramic
material are located at either side of the second
actions. The mixture is discharged from the re
45 'action zone without quenching and is supplied to set of feed nozzles and the first set of feed nozzles 45
suitable after equipment for separation of gas discharge the hydrocarbons into the combustion
zone at a point where combustion has been com
from liquid.
pleted. That portion of the hydrocarbons i'ed
When fuel gas or the like is the desired pre
dominant product, a portion of the hydrocarbon through the ñrst set of nozzles is subjected to the
50 feed is introduced directly into the combustion high temperature of the combustion gases as 50
metrical mixture of fuel and air is complete,
thereby not only mixing hydrocarbons directly
with the combustion gases at combustion tem
55 perature, but also subjecting such hydrocarbons
combustion chamber and while undergoing de
composition furnishes'materlal for the reduction
of CO2 to CO and reaction of water vapor to
fixed gases at a temperature level where these re- 56
2
9,129,200
actions occur at high velocity, and that portion
or the hydrocarbons ted through the second set
of nozzles into the space between the baille rings
undergoes a milder decomposition resulting in the
formation from the oil oi' a high heating value oil
gas which commingles with the gases and vapors
resulting from the preceding reactions to form
a high heat value gaseous product.
In an apparatus for the predominant produc
tion of a liquid distillate, the ceramic baille rings
are arranged at either side of the first set of
nozzles so that the hydrocarbon introduced
through the first set of nozzles is exterior of the
combustion zone but is subjected to the combus
15 tion gases substantially at combustion tempera
ture. In such a case. the heat of the combustion
gases is substantially all utilized for the cracking
of the hydrocarbons and only a relatively small
amount of the heat is utilized for causing re
20 duction of CO: and the reaction of water.
Other objects, novel features and advantages
of this invention will become apparent from the
following specification and accompanying draw
ings, wherein:
Flg. 1 is a sectional view through an apparatus
for converting hydrocarbons in accordance with
the invention;
Fig. 2 is an enlarged sectional view of the
burner for eiïecting combustion of the stoichio
metrlcal mixture of air and fuel;
Fig. 3 is a section substantially on the line
3-1 oi' Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is a section substantially on the line 4_1
of Fig. 1; and
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary view similar to Fig. 1
of a modified arrangement of apparatus.
The converter IU comprises a cylindrical reac
tion chamber Iûa built of refractory and in
sulating material surrounded by a steel shell
capable of holding the pressure and of retaining
the gases and vapors. At the left hand end of
the chamber is provided a burner I l for effecting
the combustion of a mixture of air and fuel sup
plied through the pipes I2 and I3 respectively.
A pipe Il is provided for supplying steam to the
mixture of air and fuel, if desired.
The ñrst set of feed nozzles I5 discharge into
the converter at a point where complete com
bustion has been effected of the air and fuel.
50 Beyond the first set of nozzles is provided a second
set of nozzles lia which discharge into a chamber
35
formed by ceramic baille rings I6 and Il. Al
though only one nozzle i5 is shown in the draw
ings, two such nozzles are used, the second nozzle
55 being arranged in the same plane as the ñrst
nozzle but being arcuately spaced from the first
nozzle. Also, there is a second nozzle Isa which
bears the same relation to the ñrst nozzle lia just
described. The passageways through the baille
rings are approximately one-half the diameter
of the chamber and around the periphery of the
end of each passageway is provided a series of
pockets I8 so that the effective area of the pas
sageway is greater at each end than in the
65
middle. These pockets open toward the ends of
the passageway and toward the interior thereof
and are effective to create substantial turbulence
70
in the gases passing therethrough.
To the exit end of the reaction chamber Illa
is connected a second heat insulated chamber I9
which in effect constitutes a continuation of the
reaction chamber Ilia. From the exit Isa of the
second chamber, the mixture of vapors and gases
is discharged to an after-equipment in which are
eiïected cooling, washing and other operations to
fit the products for marketing.
'I'hermocouples T are provided in the appa
ratus at suitable locations for the purpose of de
termining the temperature existing at various
points in the apparatus.
In the operation of thisapparatus in the con
version of hydrocarbons to eil'ect predominant
formation of a gas product, fuel and oxygen.
preferably in the form of air, are supplied to the lU
burner in stoichiometrical proportions and com
bustion thereof is effected in that portion of the
conversion chamber adjacent the burner. The
combustion of this mixture is effected at sub
stantially the flame temperature of such mix
ture and the resulting combustion gases are con
tacted at substantially combustion temperature
with hydrocarbons introduced through the first
set of nozzles. The hydrocarbon feed preferably
is preheated to any desired temperature. The 20
hydrocarbon feed introduced through these
nozzles is not only subjected to direct contact with
the hot gases, but is also subjected to radiant heat
from the walls of the chamber. The combustion
temperature is in the neighborhood of 3400” F. 25
and the temperature conditions existing in the
conversion apparatus range from the combustion
temperature to a temperature in the neighbor
hood of 1000o F. at the exit end of the chamber I9.
Complete combustion is effected of the fuel 80
and oxygen in the mixture and the combustion
gases with which the hydrocarbons are contacted
contain no free oxygen. This eliminates unde
sirable formation of oxygenated hydrocarbon
compounds in the reaction zone. The contact of 35
the hot combustion gases with the hydrocarbons
takes place in the presence of water vapor to re
act with carbon released from the hydrocarbons
to generate fixed gases. The water vapor ordi
narily is provided in sufficient amount as a by 40
product of the combustion of the air and fuel,
but in the event that this amount of water vapor
is insufficient, additional water vapor may be sup
plied by the introduction of steam through the
pipe i4.
45
In an operation of the process for the production
of fuel gas and with baille rings I6 and i1 ar
ranged as shown in Fig. 1, the procedure was as
follows: Gas oil-residuum mixture preheated to
enter the converter at 685° F. was charged into 50
the converter at the rate oi’ 66.5 gallons per hour.
Fuel gas and air were fed in stoichiometrical
proportions to the burner to give oxygen-free gas
and at such rate that the flue gas aggregated:
55
163 lbs. CO2/hr.
101 lbs. H2O/hr.
583 lbs. Nz/hr.
The combustion temperature approximated 3400°
F. and the temperature of the gases leaving the 60
chamber I9 approximated 1100° F. The Whole
operation resulted in the formation of a process
gas aggregating:
41.6 lbs. CO2/hr.
163 lbs. oleñns/hr.
168 lbs. CO/hr.
69.7 lbs. CH4/hr.
6.25 lbs. Hs/hr.
583 lbs. Nr/hr.
05
70
As shown by the iigures, a very material reduc
tion of C02 to CO was effected and a substantial
content of oleiins provided, thus giving a very
emcient fuel gas.
That portion of the hydrocarbon feed which 75
3
9, 129,269
is introduced directly into the combustion zone
is exposed to the very high temperatures of all
the combustion gases 1n addition to the radiant
heat of the ceramic walls of the combustion
chamber. It is thus subjected to a high degree
3400° F. and the exit temperature from the
chamber I9 approximated 1000” F. The whole
operation resulted in the formation of process gas
aggregating:
104.1 lbs. CO2/hr.
144 lbs. oleflns/hr.
25.3 lbs. CO/hr.
38.7 lbs. CHi/hr.
4.8 lbs. Hi/hr.
434 lbs. Nz/hr.
of thermalization and >the time-temperature
relations are such that C0: reduction and water
reaction to yield fixed gases occur to a very ap
preciable extent. Reaction of water and CO:
with carbon to form ñxed gases of CO and Hz
becomes quite slow at about 1650° F. and is al
most negligibly slow at lower temperatures.
(Haslam and Russell, Fuels and their Com
bastion, 1927. McGraw Hill, page 158; Morgan
15 "Manufactured Gas.” 1926, vol. 1, page 38; U. S.
Bureau of Mines Bulletin No. 7, 1911.) In view
of the substantial water reaction and CO: re
duction which takes place in' the short length
of time that the hydrocarbons remain in the
combustion zone. the hydrocarbons must be
heated in the zone to a temperature in the range
of from 1650° F. to 2500° F. the temperature
being controllable to some extent by regulation
of the rate of feed oi' the hydrocarbons and by
regulation of the ratio between the rate of feed
through the two sets of nozzles. That portion
of the oil introduced through the feed nozzles
15a is protected from the radiant heat and the
excessively high' combustion gas temperatures
30 and undergoes a milder reaction upon heat ex
change with the vapors and gases flowing from
the combustion chamber into the space between
the baille rings I6 and I1. It is thus subjected
to temperatures in the range of 1650° F. to
2250° F. and the consequent cracking results in
the formation of a rich oil gas which creates heat
value to the final gaseous products.
In the use of the above described apparatus
for the predominant formation of a liquid prod
uct, the bañle rings I6 and I1 are arranged at
either side of a set of feed nozzles 35 as illustrated
in Fig. 5. VFuel and air in stoichiometrical pro
portions are supplied to the burner as formerly
and the combustion thereof is effected in the
- space between the end of the chamber and the
The combustion temperature approximated
3400*’ F. and the exit temperature from the
chamber I9 approximatedv995° F. The whole
operation resulted in the formation of process
gas aggregating:
30
51.4 lbs. CO2/hr.
294.5 lbs. oleñns/ hr.
156.0 lbs. CO/hr.
89.5 lbs. CHA/ hr.
6.2 lbs. Hz/hr.
'102.0 lbs. Nz/hr.
During this operation approximately 55.4 per
cent by weight of the oil is converted to gaseous
form and the remainder collected as a liquid
distillate. Fractions of this liquid are char 40
acterized by having a high speciñc gravity rela
tive to boiling point, indicative of high content
of aromatic and unsaturated hydrocarbons. A
solvent out of this liquid distillate boiling in the
range of 200° to 400° F. by the A. S. T. M. method 43
aggregated 20% by volume of the total liquid
heated to a desired temperature, is introduced
into the space between the baille rings i5 and i1
where it is contacted with hot oxygen-free com
bustion gases substantially at the combustion
temperature of the mixture of air and fuel. The
combustion temperature is in the neighborhood
of 3400° F. and the hot gases are contacted with
naphtha and only slightly inferior to that of
xylene.
50
In a still further operation of the process for
ture of the stream of mixed gases and vapors
drops to the order of 1000° F. at the exit from
the chamber I9.
In an operation of the process for the pre
dominant production of a liquid product and
with the baille rings i6 and il arranged as
shown in Fig. 5, the procedure was as follows:
Gas oil-residuum mixture (U. G. I. gas oil and
fuel oil) preheated to enter the converter at
700° F. was charged into the converter at the
rate of 62 gallons per hour. Fuel and air were
fed in stoichiometrical proportions to the burner
to give oxygen-free gas and at such rate that the
flue gas aggregated:
75
In a further operation of the process with the
baille rings i6 and Il arranged as shown in Fig.
1, the procedure was as follows: East Texas
Topped Crude preheated to enter the converter 15
at 540° F. was charged into the converter at the
rate of 103.2 gallons per hour. Fuel and air were
fed in stolchiometrical proportion to the burner
to give oxygen-free gas and at such a rate that
the nue gas aggregated
158 lbs. CO2/hr.
130 lbs. H2O/hr.
702 lbs. Na/hr.
baille ring i6. Hydrocarbon feed, preferably pre
the hydrocarbon feed, to such degree that crack
ing thereof is caused to occur and the tempera
70
i.)
123 lbs. CO2/hr.
1.2 lbs. CO/hr.
99.3 lbs. H2O/hr.
534 lbs. Nz/hr.
The combustion temperature approximated
and showed a solvent power for varnish resins
considerably better than that of V. M. and P.
the production of fuel gas and with the baille
rings I5 and Il arranged as shown in Fig. l, the
procedure was as follows: Gas oil-residuum mix
ture was fed at the rate of 134.3 gallons per hour.
preheated to enter the converter at approxi
mately 850° F. The combustion temperature was
approximately 3400” F. and the exit temperature
from the insulated chamber I9 was approxi
mately 955° F. Fuel gas and air were fed in 60
stoichiometrical proportions to give oxygen-free
flue gas at such a rate that the flue gas aggre
gated:
141.4 lbs. Con/hr.
116.6 lbs. H2O/hr.
628.0 lbs. Nz/hr.
The whole operation led to the formation of a
process gas aggregating:
42.3 lbs. CO2/hr.
257.6 lbs. Oleñns/hr.
148.9 lbs. CO2/hr.
112.0 lbs. CHi/hl‘.
3.9 lbs. Hz/hr.
628.0 lbs. Nz/hr.
70
4
2,129,269
The recovered oil (distillate or ungasiiìed por
tion of feed oil) is characterized as follows:
Gravity ° A. P. I.=21.9
v
30% distilled in single distillation at 408° F.,
80% distilled in a single distillation at 578° F.
Unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbon content
of this distillate is very high being o'i the order
of three-fourths (by volume) of the oil in the
10 lighter portions for these two hydrocarbon series.
In the first example of the process, approxi
mately half of the feed was introduced through
the nozzles I5 while the remainder was intro
duced through `the nozzles Iâa and approxi
mately 5.6 seconds was required for the passage
of the stream of mixed hydrocarbon vapors and
combustion gases through the reaction zone to
the discharge port Isa. In the second example
of the process. approximately 5.0 seconds were
20 required for the stream of mixed hydrocarbon
vapors and combustion gases to pass through the
reaction zone to the discharge port |941. In the
third example of the process, the oil feed was
evenly divided between the two sets of nozzles
lo ai I5 and Iba and approximately 4.8 seconds was
required for the hydrocarbon vapors and com
bustion gases to reach the discharge port I9a.
In the fourth example of the process, approxi
mately half of the hydrocarbon feed was intro
30 duced through the feed nozzles I5 while the re
mainder was introduced through the feed nozzles
|50. and approximately 4.8 seconds were required
for the stream of mixed hydrocarbon vapors
and combustion gases to pass through the re
action zone to the discharge port |90..
The times required for passage of mixed hy
drocarbon vapors and combustion gases to the
exit from chamber Illa in the three examples
were approximately as follows:
Example i-1.3 seconds
Example 2-1.0 second
Example 3-1.0 second
Example 4-l.0 second
The operation of the process may be conducted
with a second chamber of less length than illus
trated (even zero in some cases) and the times
of passage through the chamber Iûa may be
considered as the lower limit of reaction time
while six seconds may be considered as the
upper limit of reaction time.
In the apparatus used in making the run given
above as examples, the nozzles I5 and 35 are
approximately seven and one-half feet from the
exit end of the converter shell and approximately
twenty feet from the exit lila.
The nozzles
lia are one foot nine inches from the nozzles I5
and 35, respectively, and the baffle rings are nine
inches thick and are spaced apart two and one
00 fourth inches.
The operating conditions of the process may
be so regulated as to carry on the process under
any desired conditions of pressure, but prefer
ably the process is carried on under a condition
65 of superatmospheric pressure. Also the oper
ating conditions may be so regulated as to con
trol the length of time that the stream of mixed
hydrocarbon vapors and combustion gases re
quires to pass through the conversion zone.
When the water vapor resulting from the com
70
bustion of fuel and oxygen is insufficient to pre
vent the formation of carbon, steam is added in
an amount suil'icient to supply the necessary
water vapor to react with the carbon to generate
fixed gases but the amount of steam added is
insuilicient to cause any substantial temperature
reduction of the combustion gases.
As shown in Figs.- 2 and 3, the burner oon
slsts of a cylindrical shell 20 having a conical
nozzle 2|. One end of the shell 20 is fastened
to a plate 22 which is clamped to the shell of
the connector III to hold the burner In place.
Within the cylindrical shell 2li and to the rear
of the conicalv nozzle 2i is an apertured parti
tion 23 between which and the plate 22 extends 10
a cylindrical housing 24. A similar housing 2B
is attached to the plate 22 on the other side
thereof and in alignment with the housing 2l.
The plate 22 has a central aperture through
which extends the reduced end 26 of the pipe I2 15
which is threaded into the end of the housing 2l.
Lock nuts 21 are provided to lock the pipe in any
desired position of adjustment. By rotation of
the pipe I2, the position of the end 2B may be
adjusted relative to the plate 22. Small holes 20
28 are provided in the plate 22 leading from the
housing 25 to the housing 2l and the pipe I3
leads into the housing 25. Air is supplied
through the nozzle I2 to the housing 2l which
constitutes a‘ mixing chamber into which gas
supplied from the chamber I3 is drawn through
the holes 28. The air and fuel are thoroughly
mixed in the housing 2l and the mixture is dis
charged through the aperture in the partition 23
into the nozzle 2| which in turn discharges into 30
the conversion cylinder. The pipe I4 passes
through the plate 22, the annular space between
the housing 24 and the cylinder 25, and into the
nozzle 2l and is used to supply steam to the mix
ture of fuel and air if steam is required in the 35
conversion process.
A sight tube SII communicates with the con
verter near the burner outlet for observing the
flame. This tube also provides means for igniting
the fuel mixture by introducing a torch there
through into position to ignite the mixture.
In the passage of the stream of mixed hydro
carbon vapors through the reaction zone there is
a steady decrease from the temperature at which
the hydrocarbons are heated by contact with the 45
hot combustion gases to the exit temperature
without any sudden temperature drop and the
stream of mixed hydrocarbon vapors and gases is
discharged into the after equipment without
quenching.
It is of course understood that various modi
ñcations may be made in the structure above dis
closed and in the procedure above described with
out in any way departing from the spirit of the
invention as defined in the appended claims.
65
I claim:
l. The process of converting hydrocarbons
which comprises continuously supplying a com
bustible stream containing a stoichiometrical
mixture of fuel and oxygen, eñecting combustion 60
of said stream substantially at the normal llame
temperature of said stoichiometrical mixture to
produce a continuous stream of oxygen-free com
bustion gases having carbon oxidizing properties,
injecting into said combustion gas stream while
at substantially the said normal flame tempera
ture a charging stream composed substantially
entirely of hydrocarbons and producing a hydro
carbon-containing mixture heated to a tempera
ture above 1650° F., passing said hydrocarbon
containing mixture through a reaction zone at
progressively decreasing temperature and dis
charging the reaction product from said zone at
a temperature in the range between approxi
mately 1000“ F. and approximately 1100° F., and 75
:1,129,269
maintaining said hydrocarbon-containing mix
ture above 1650" F. for suflicient time to yield a
highly aromatic and oieiinic reaction product and
to effect oxidation of carbon separated from said
hydrocarbons.
2. The process of converting hydrocarbons
which comprises continuously supplying a corn
bustible stream containing a stoichiometrical
mixture oi’ fuel and oxygen, eñecting combustion
oi' said stream substantially at the normal flame
temperature of said stoichiometrical mixture to
produce a continuous stream of oxygen-f ree com
bustion gases containing H2O and C02. injecting
hydrocarbons.
5. The process of converting hydrocarbons
which comprises continuously supplying a com
bustible stream containing a stoichiometricai
mixture or fuel and oxygen to a iirst zone. effect
ing combustion oi' said stream in said zone sub
stantially at the normal name temperature of 10
said stoichiometrical mixture to produce a con
tinuous stream o! oxygen-free gases having car
bon oxidizing properties, passing said combustion
into said combustion gas stream while at substan
tially the said normal iiame temperature a charg
gas stream through a restricted passage into a
second zone at substantially the said normal 15
ing stream composed substantially entirely of
hydrocarbons and producing a hydrocarbon-con
zone a charging stream composed substantially
taining mixture heated to a temperature above
1650” F., passing said hydrocarbon-containing
20 mixture through a reaction zone at progressively
decreasing temperature and discharging the reac
tion product from said zone at a temperature in
the range between approximately 1000° F. and
approximately 1100° F., and maintaining said
25 hydrocarbon-containing mixture above 1650° F.
for suiiicient time to yield a highly aromatic and
olefinic reaction product and to eil’ect reaction oi
said H2O and CO: with carbon separated from
said hydrocarbons.
3, The process of converting hydrocarbons
30
which comprises continuously supplying a com
bustible stream containing a stoichiometrical
mixture oi' fuel and oxygen to a iirst zone, effect
ing combustion of said stream in said zone sub
35 stantially at the normal iiame temperature of said
stoichiometrical mixture to produce a continu
ous stream of oxygen-free gases having carbon
oxidizing properties, injecting into said combus
tion gas stream in a second zone while substan
40 tially at the said normal ilame temperature a
charging stream composed substantially entirely
of hydrocarbons thereby producing a hydrocar
bon-containing mixture heated to a temperature
above 1650“ F., passing said hydrocarbon-con
name temperature, injecting into said second
entirely or hydrocarbons and producing a hydro
carbon-containing mixture heated to a temper
ature above 1650“ F., passing said hydrocarbon
20
containing mixture through a restricted passage
into a third zone and through said third zone at
progressively decreasing temperature, discharg
ing the reaction product from said third zone at
a temperature in the range between approxi 25
mately 1000“ F. and approximately 1100° F., and
maintaining said hydrocarbon-containing mix
ture above 1650° F. for sutlicient time to yield a
highly aromatic and oleilnic reaction product
and to effect oxidation oi carbon separated from 30
said hydrocarbons.
6. The process oi converting hydrocarbons
which comprises continuously supplying a com
bustible stream containing a stoichiometrical
mixture of fuel and oxygen to a first zone, effect 35
ing combustion of said stream in said zone sub
stantially at the normal flame temperature of
said stoichiometricai mixture to produce a con
tinuous stream of oxygen-free gases containing
H2O and CO2, passing said combustion gas stream 40
through a restricted passage into a second zone at
substantially the said normal flame temperature,
injecting into said second zone a charging stream
composed substantially entirely of hydrocarbons
the reaction product from said third zone at a
and producing a hydrocarbon-containing mixture 45
heated to a temperature above 16.50° F., passing
said hydrocarbon-containing mixture through a
temperature in the range between approximately
1000° F. and approximately 1100° F. and main
third zone and at progressively decreasing tem
45 taining mixture through a third zone at progres
sively decreasing temperature and discharging
50
F. for suiiicient time to yield a highly aromatic and
olefinic reaction product and to effect reaction of
said H2O and CO2 with carbon separated from said
restricted passage into a third zone through said
taining said hydrocarbon-containing mixture
perature, discharging the reaction product from 50
above 1650° F. for suihcient time to yield a highly
aromatic and oleflnic reaction product and to
eiîect oxidation of carbon separated from said
between approximately 1000“ F. and approxi
mately 1100° F., and maintaining said hydrocar
bon-containing mixture above 1650° F. for sum
cient time to yield a highly aromatic and oleñnic 55
reaction product and to effect reaction of said
H2O and CO2 with carbon separated from said
hydrocarbons.
4. The process of converting hydrocarbons
which comprises continuously supplying a com
bustible stream containing a stoichiometrical
mixture of fuel and oxygen to a first zone, effect
ing combustion oi said stream in said zone sub
stantially at the normal flame temperature of
said stoichiometrical mixture td produce a con
tinuous stream of oxygen-free gases containing
H2O and CO2, injecting into said combustion gas
stream in a second zone and while substantially
65 at the said normal flame temperature a charging
stream composed substantially entirely of hydro
carbons thereby producing a hydrocarbon-con
taining mixture heated to a temperature above
i650“ F., passing said hydrocarbon-containing
mixture through a third zone at progressively
decreasing temperature and discharging the re
action product from said third zone at a temper
ature in the range between approximately 1000”
F. and approximately 1100° F., and maintaining
'Il said hydrocarbon-containing mixture above 1650“
said third zone at a temperature in the range
hydrocarbons.
7. The process of converting hydrocarbons
which comprises continuously supplying a com 60
bustible stream containing a stoichiometrical
mixture of fuel and oxygen, eiiecting combustion
of said stream substantially at the normal flame
temperature of said stoichiometrical mixture to
produce a continuous stream of oxygen-free com 65
bustion gases having carbon oxidizing proper
ties, dividing into two branches a charging stream
composed substantially entirely ci hydrocarbons,
continuously injecting one branch of said charg
ing stream into said combustion gas stream while 70
at substantially said flame temperature and in
the presence of radiant heat to produce a iirst
hydrocarbon-containing mixture heated to a
temperature above 1650“ F., continuously inject
ing the second branch oi said charging stream 75
6
2,129,269
into said first hydrocarbon-containing mixture,
passing the resulting second hydrocarbon-con
taining mixture through a reaction zone at pro
gressively decreasing temperature and discharg
ture to produce a continuous stream of oxygen
ing the reaction product from said zone at a tem
perature in the range between approximately
100D“ F. and approximately 1100° F., and main
free combustion gases containing H20 and C02,
dividing into two branches a charging stream
taining said first hydrocarbon-containing mix
continuously injecting one branch of said charg
ing stream into said combustion gas stream in
a first zone while substantially at said normal l0
flame temperature and in the presence of radiant
heat to produce a first hydrocarbon-containing
mixture heated to a temperature above 1650° F.,
ture above 1650" F. for sufficient time to yield a
highly aromatic and olefinic reaction product
and to effect oxidation of carbon separated from
said hydrocarbons.
8. The process of converting hydrocarbons
which comprises continuously supplying a com
bustible stream containing a stolchiometrical
mixture of fuel and oxygen, eiîecting combustion
of said stream substantially at the normal iiame
temperature of said stolchiometrical mixture to
produce a continuous stream of oxygen-free com
bustion gases containing H2O and C0?, dividing
into two branches a charging stream composed
substantially entirely of hydrocarbons, continu
ously injecting one branch of said charging
stream into said combustion gas stream while
substantially at said flame temperature and in
the presence of radiant heat to produce a ñrst
hydrocarbon-containing mixture heated to a.
temperature above 1650‘J F., continuously in
jecting the second branch of said charging stream
30
mixture of i’uel and oxygen, effecting combus
tion oi' said stream substantially at the normal
flame temperature of said stoichiometrical mix
into said ñrst hydrocarbon-containing mixture,
passing the resulting second hydrocarbon-con
taining mixture through a reaction zone at pro
gressively decreasing temperature and discharg
ing the reaction product from said zone at a
temperature in the range between approximately
1000“ F. and approximately 110i)u F., and main
taining said first hydrocarbon-containing mix
ture above 1650° F. for sufiicient time to yield a
highly aromatic and oleflnic reaction product and
to effect reaction of said H20 and said CO2 with
carbon separated from said hydrocarbons.
9. The process of converting hydrocarbons
which comprises continuously supplying a com
bustible stream containing a stoichiometrical
mixture of fuel and oxygen, eiîecting combustion
of said stream substantially at the normal ñame
temperature of said stoichiometrical mixture to
produce a continuous stream of oxygen-free com
bustion gases having carbon oxidizing properties,
50 dividing into two branches a charging stream
composed substantially entirely of hydrocarbons,
continuously injecting one branch of said charg
ing stream into said combustion gas stream in a
first zone while substantially at said normal flame
55 temperature and in the presence of radiant heat
to produce a first hydrocarbon-containing mix
ture heated to a temperature above l650° F.,
maintaining said ñrst hydrocarbon-containing
mixture above 1650° F. in said ñrst zone for suñi
60 cient time to effect oxidation of carbon separated
from said hydrocarbons and material reduction
of CO2 in the combustion gases, flowing said first
hydrocarbon-containing mixture into a second
zone, continuously injecting the second branch
65 of said charging stream into said hydrocarbon
containing mixture in said second zone, ñowing
the resulting second hydrocarbon-containing
mixture into and through a third zone at pro
gressively decreasing temperature, and discharg
70 ing the reaction product from said third zone at
a temperature in the range between approxi
mately 1000° F. and approximately 1100° F.
10. The process of converting hydrocarbons
which comprises continuously supplying a com
75 bustible stream containing a stoichiometrical
composed substantially entirely of hydrocarbons,
maintaining said first hydrocarbon-containing
mixture above 1650” F. in said first zone for
sufllcient time to effect reaction of said H20 and
C02 with carbon separated from said hydrocar
bons and material reduction of CO2 in said com
bustion gas, ñowing said first hydrocarbon-con
taining mixture into a second zone, continuously 20
injecting the second branch of said charging
stream into said hydrocarbon-containing mix
ture in Said second zone, flowing the resulting
second hydrocarbon-containing mixture into and
through a third zone at progressively decreasing 25
temperature, and discharging the reaction prod
uct from said third zone at a temperature in the
range between approximately 10(10" F. and ap
proximately 1100" F.
11. 'I'he process of converting hydrocarbons 30
which comprises continuously supplying a com
bustible stream containing a stoichiometrical
mixture of fuel and oxygen, effecting combus
tion of said stream substantially at the normal
flame temperature of said stoichiometrical mix
ture to produce a continuous stream of oxygen
free combustion gases having carbon oxidizing
properties, dividing into two branches a charg
ing stream composed substantially entirely of
hydrocarbons. continuously injecting one branch 40
of said charging stream into said combustion gas
stream in a first zone while substantially at said
flame temperature and ln the presence of radiant
heat to produce a first hydrocarbon-containing
mixture heated to a temperature above 1650cl F., 45
passing said iirst hydrocarbon-containing mix
ture through a restricted passage into a second
zone, continuously injecting the second branch
of said charging stream into said second zone,
flowing the resulting second hydrocarbon-con
taining mixture through a restricted passage into
and through a third zone at progressively de
creasing temperature, discharging the reaction
product from said third zone at a temperature
in the range between approximately 1000° F. and
approximately 1100° F., and maintaining said
ilrst hydrocarbon-containing mixture in said first
zone above 1650“ F. for suilicient time to yield a
highly aromatic and oleilnic reaction product and
to eiïect oxidation of carbon separated from said 60
hydrocarbons with material reduction of CO: in
said combustion gas.
12. The process of converting hydrocarbons
which comprises continuously supplying a com
bustible stream containing a. stoichiometrical 65
mixture of fuel and oxygen, effecting combustion
of said stream substantially at the normal dame
temperature oi said stoichiometrlcal mixture to
produce a continuous stream of oxygen-free com
bustion gases containing H20 and CO2, dividing, 70
into two branches a charging stream composed
substantially entirely of hydrocarbons, continu
ously injecting one branch of said charging
stream into said combustion gas stream in a i'lrst
zone while substantially at said normal dame '(5
2,129,269
temperature and in the presence of radiant heat
to produce a first hydrocarbon-containing mix
ture heated to a temperature above 1650" F.,
passing said ñrst hydrocarbon-containing mix
ture through a restricted passage into a second
zone, continuously injecting the second branch
of said charging stream into said second zone,
?owing the resulting second hydrocarbon-con
taining mixture through a restricted passage
10 into and through a third zone at progressively
decreasing temperature, discharging the reaction
product from said third zone at a temperature in
the range between approximately 1000'J F. and
approximately 1100“ F.. and maintaining said
15 ñrst hydrocarbon-containing mixture in said
first zone above 1650“ F. for suilicient time to
yield a highly aromatic and oleflnic reaction
product and to effect reaction of said H2O and
CO: with carbon separated from said hydrocar
20 bons with material reduction of CO2 in said com
bustion gas
13. ’I'he process according to claim 1 wherein
steam is added to said combustible stream merely
in sufficient quantity completely to eil’ect reac
tion oi’ carbon separated from said hydrocarbons
to form fixed gases.
14. 'I'he process according to claim 2 wherein
steam is added to said combustible stream merely
in suiiicient quantity completely to effect reac
tion of carbon separated from said hydrocarbons
to form fixed gases.
15. The process according to claim 7 wherein
steam is added to said combustible stream merely
in sufficient quantity completely to effect reac
tion of carbon separated from said hydrocarbons
to form fixed gases.
16. The process according to claim 8 wherein
steam is added to said combustible stream merely
in suiiicient quantity completely to eil'ect reac
tion of carbon separated from said hydrocarbons
to form ñxed gases.
JOSEPH P. FURLONG.
CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION.
September ‘ 6, 1938.
Patent no. 2,129,269.
JOSEPH P. FURLONG.
It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification
of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page l, first
column, line 2l, for the word "but" read hot; page 1|., first column, line
58, strike outthe words and comma "and 55, respectively,"; page 5, second
column, line b9, claim 6, strike out "andì and insert the same after "zone"
in line LLB, same claim; and that the said Letters Patent should be read
with this correction therein that the same may conform to thefrecord of
the case in the Patent Office. '
Signed and sealed this 25th'day of October, A. D. 1958.
Henry Van Arsdale
(Seal)
Acting' Commissioner of Patents.
7
2,129,269
temperature and in the presence of radiant heat
to produce a first hydrocarbon-containing mix
ture heated to a temperature above 1650" F.,
passing said ñrst hydrocarbon-containing mix
ture through a restricted passage into a second
zone, continuously injecting the second branch
of said charging stream into said second zone,
?owing the resulting second hydrocarbon-con
taining mixture through a restricted passage
10 into and through a third zone at progressively
decreasing temperature, discharging the reaction
product from said third zone at a temperature in
the range between approximately 1000'J F. and
approximately 1100“ F.. and maintaining said
15 ñrst hydrocarbon-containing mixture in said
first zone above 1650“ F. for suilicient time to
yield a highly aromatic and oleflnic reaction
product and to effect reaction of said H2O and
CO: with carbon separated from said hydrocar
20 bons with material reduction of CO2 in said com
bustion gas
13. ’I'he process according to claim 1 wherein
steam is added to said combustible stream merely
in sufficient quantity completely to eil’ect reac
tion oi’ carbon separated from said hydrocarbons
to form fixed gases.
14. 'I'he process according to claim 2 wherein
steam is added to said combustible stream merely
in suiiicient quantity completely to effect reac
tion of carbon separated from said hydrocarbons
to form fixed gases.
15. The process according to claim 7 wherein
steam is added to said combustible stream merely
in sufficient quantity completely to effect reac
tion of carbon separated from said hydrocarbons
to form fixed gases.
16. The process according to claim 8 wherein
steam is added to said combustible stream merely
in suiiicient quantity completely to eil'ect reac
tion of carbon separated from said hydrocarbons
to form ñxed gases.
JOSEPH P. FURLONG.
CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION.
September ‘ 6, 1938.
Patent no. 2,129,269.A
JOSEPH P. FURLONG.
It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification
of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page l, first
column, line 2l, for the word "but" read hot; page 1|., first column, line
58, strike outthe words and comma "and 55, respectively,"; page 5, second
column, line b9, claim 6, strike out "andì and insert the same after "zone"
in line LLB, same claim; and that the said Letters Patent should be read
with this correction therein that the same may conform to thefrecord of
the case in the Patent Office. '
Signed and sealed this 25th'day of October, A. D. 1958.
Henry ,Van Arsdale
(Seal)
Acting' Commissioner of Patents.
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