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Патент USA US2129331

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Sept- 6, 1938.
E. E. LITTLEFIELD
2,129,331
ELECTRICAL CONTROLLING APPARATUS AND METHOD
Filed May 23, 1923
2/
28
22
K’?
4,14
Patented Sept. 6, 1938
2,129,331 ‘
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,129,331
-
ELECTRICAL CONTROLLING APPARATUS
AND METHOD
Edgar Earle Little?eld, Los Angelcs, Calif.
Application May 23,1928, Serial No. 280,025
10 Claims. (Cl. 172—239)
This application is a continuation, in part, of
upon the purpose the apparatus is designed to
the following applications: application Ser. No. serve. Assuming that the circuits are closed, it
328,305, ?led Oct. 3, 1919; application Ser. No. , will be apparent that current will flow to the im
54,080, ?led Sept. 2, 1925; application Ser. No. pedance and the ?ow of this current may be reg
5 4,102, ?led Jan. 22, 1925; which applications, by ulated by the rheostat, the operation of the trans
reference, are made a part hereof, said applica
lating device being controlled by the latter.
tions having resulted in Patents 1,709,083,
In Fig. 2~I have shown a modi?ed embodiment
1,862,937 and 1,893,627 respectively.
This invention relates to an electrical system
10 of the type having a translating device arranged
on the primary side of
inductive impedance in
the form of atransforipér, or similar device, and
which translating devi‘iiéi'is controlled by appro
priate means on the secondary side of the im
pedance. In certain cases, as will be explained
later, a translating, device may be arranged on
the secondary side of the impedance and con
trolled from the primary side; Preferably the
voltage of the current supplied to the secondary
20 side of the impedance is suf?ciently low to pre
vent arcing or heating of contact points and,
moreover, enables it to be manipulated or con
trolled with safety.
-
Numerous advantages and objects will appear
25 from the following description taken in connec
tion with the accompanying drawing in which
Fig. 1 illustrates, diagrammatically, a translating
device arranged on the primary side of an im
pedance and. controlled by means of a rheostat, or
30 equivalent device, on the secondary side. Fig. 2
I shows a modi?ed embodiment in which the trans
lating device takes the form of a valve or motor
for controlling a supply of ?uid, the circuit of
the valve being controlled by means of a relay
35 included in the secondary circuit. In this em
bodiment a thermostatic switch is substituted for
a rheostat control. ‘In Fig. 3 is shown a flushing
system embodying my invention but having a
modi?ed circuit arrangement.
40
In the various views like numerals refer to
like parts.
Referring to Fig. 1, 1 represents an impedance
having a low tension secondary circuit l9 which
' includes a rheostat 20 for which may be substi
45 tuted, when necessary or desirable, any other
equivalent device. The primary circuit of this
impedance includes a translating device 2 of any
desirable form or type and a source of alternating
current 3. Obviously, current fromyan ordinary
50 service main may be employed to energize the
55
in which 61 represents an impedance having a
low tension secondary winding 84 to which is
connected a secondary circuit 13 which contains 10
a relay ‘l0 and a thermostatic controlling device
'18. The action of this thermostatic device may.
be dependent upon the temperature of a com~,
partment or room in which the same may be lo
cated. To the primary winding 85 of the im 15
pedance is connected a high tension primary cir
cuit ‘II, it being assumed that the primary wind~
ing 85 is of a high tension type.
A suitable source
of alternating current 68 is included in circuit ‘ll
while a switch element 14 permits the circuit to 20
be interrupted when necessary or desirable.
A
branch circuit 12, controlled by the relay 10, con
tains a ?uid supply controlling means 69 by
means of which a ?ow of ?uid, such as water, air,
steam, gas or oil, through the supply line I may
be controlled. By utilizing low voltage in the‘
secondary circuit oi'the impedance a considerable
saving is effected in the cost of installation, since
the thermostatic device is often located some dis
tance from the impedance. Moreover, by em 30
ploying low voltage, arcing at the contact points.
of the thermostat is minimized or eliminated.
In the arrangement disclosed in Fig. 2 I have
shown a system which is particularly adapted for
use in heating systems in which the thermostatic 35
controlling device 18 may be located in a room
remote from the furnace and fuel supply, the
two latter being omitted from the drawing but
being understood to form component parts of the
system. While I have shown the thermostatic
device 18 in open position it will be understood
that as employed to control the temperature of
a compartment or room the circuit which it con
trols is normally closed. In other words, the
operation of the thermostatic device depends 45
upon the temperature of the room or compart
ment, the circuit through the former being in
terrupted upon a rise in temperature above a
certain point and completed again upon a drop
primary circuit 24 instead of that supplied by
ping in the temperature below such point. As 50
suming that the thermostat 18 has responded to
the generator 3. For many purposes I have
found 24 volts a safe and desirable voltage for
an increase in the temperature of its surround
ings, the temperature of the air of a room for
the secondary circuit, while the primary voltage
instance, the circuit through it will be inter
rupted as shown in the drawing. At such time 65
may be practically anything desired, depending
2,129,381
the relay 10 will open, as shown, interrupting
branch circuit 12, thus cutting oil the heating
medium, in the form of gas or oil, controlled by
the means shown at 69.
Obviously, upon a drop
ping of the temperature of the compartment be
low a certain point the current through the
thermostat will be restored, resulting in the sup
ply of heating medium being replenished, thus re
storing the desired temperature to the compart
10 ment. It is apparent that such a system may be
utilized in connection with a refrigeration system,
thus finding an additional use.
In such a sys
tem the thermostatic device would be so arranged
in a compartment of the system as to control
either the starting of the refrigerating machine
or the ?ow of cooling brine to the refrigerating
compartment, the functioning of the thermostatic
device depending upon the temperature of the
compartment in which it is located.
I also contemplate that the translating device
08 may take the form of a time-controlled cir
cuit controlling device by means of which branch
circuit 12 may be interrupted at predetermined
times and the same used in connection with elec
trically controlled irrigation systems.
In this
case an electrically controlled fluid supply valve
maybe substituted for the thermostatic device
18 and the relay ‘Ill connected for actuation by
branch circuit 12 instead of by circuit 13. In
other words, in such case the position of the re
lay ‘III in the two circuits would be reversed. An
other convenient arrangement which ?nds use in
electrically controlled time-clock irrigation sys
tems is the substitution of time-controlled circuit
interrupting means for the thermostatic device
18. In this case the translating device 69 would
take the form of a valve for controlling the flow
of irrigating water, it being understood that
spray heads, etc., although not shown in the
40 drawing, form component parts of such a sys
tem. By including the time-controlled circuit
interrupting device in the low tension secondary
circuit ‘I3 not only is arcing of the contact points
overcome but repairs and replacements may be
made without fear of serious consequences. In
connection with irrigation systems, such as those
described above, it has been found that a current
of 75 to 100 watts is su?lcient for operation of
the water supply valve while from 15 to 24 volts
has been found satisfactory for the current in
the secondary circuit. Obviously, such an ar
rangement may be employed for controlling a.
flow of ?uid for any desired purpose. While in
the above arrangements the primary or feeder
circuit of the systems of both Fig. 1 and Fig. 2
are normally closed it will be evident that no
appreciable current flows through the impedance
until the reactance of the latter is overcome by
the closing of the secondary circuits.
60
A modi?ed circuit arrangement for an auto
matic urinal ?ushing system is shown in Fig. 3
in which the relay is omitted. In this particular
embodiment of the invention the source of flush
ing ?uid I8 is controlled by means of an elec
trically actuated valve l5 arranged on the pri
mary side of an impedance 1 and connected to a
source of alternating current by means of a cir
cuit 21, it being evident that the current sup
plied by the ordinary commercial service mains
70 of commerce may, as occasion requires, be sub
stituted for the source of current 3'. A low
tension circuit 23 connects the electrodes 2| and
22 with the impedance secondary.
The system of Fig. 1 constitutes means by
which current from an ordinary service main
may be gradually applied to a translating device,
an electric motor or light bulb for instance, by
operation of the rheostat 20 contained in the low
potential secondary circuit l8. While circuit 24
is normally closed, permitting a small amount of
current to normally flow to the transformer, the
reactance of the latter will prevent any appre
ciable current passing until circuit I9 is closed,
at which time current may be gradually applied
to the translating device 2. It is, of course, 10
contemplated that the current of circuit [9 will
be of sufilciently low voltage to permit safe ma
nipulation of the circuit. Such a system enables
the controlling device 20 to be placed at a dis
tance from the transformer, etc., at the same 15
time reducing the cost of installation and over
coming the inconvenience and cost of under
writer’s inspections, together with the added cost
thereof. Any other convenient and desirable cir
cuit controlling device may be substituted for 20
the rheostat 20, for instance, a time controlled
device, whereby circuit I! may be controlled. Or,
it may take the form of a device for controlling a
flow of liquid, as water, for use in an irriga
tion system. Instead of controlling a flow of
liquid it may be a device for controlling a flow
of fuel such as gas or oil. Where such devices
are substituted for the rheostat 20 and it is de
sired to substitute time controlled circuit con
trolling means for the translating device 2, a cir 30
cuit controlling clock for instance, it would
be desirable to arrange circuit l9 to be normally
closed. In this case circuit 24 would be made
and broken in response to operation of the time
controlled means contained therein.
35
Any convenient form of thermostatic cut out
device may be included in the circuits of the
foregoing systems, as desired, for protecting the
various devices contained therein. '
While in the foregoing I have illustrated and
described typical forms of preferred embodi
ments whereby my invention may be carried into
practice it will be understood that many ‘modi
flcations in the structures employed, as well as in
the elements themselves, and in the application 45
thereof, may be made without departing from
the spirit of the appended claims.
I claim:
1. An electric motor starting system adapted
to control the starting of an electric motor by 50
means of induced current, including a transform
er normally connected in closed circuit relation
with the current supply mains; an electric motor
on the primary side of said transformer con—
nected in series with the primary winding of 55
said transformer, the primary winding of the
transformer being so proportioned with respect
to said motor that when the secondary winding
of the transformer is open circuited the counter
electromotive-force set up in said primary wind 60
ing will prevent the passage of suilicient current
to said motor to operate the same; an electric
circuit formed partly by said secondary winding
and having a controlling switch therein located
at a distant point, the motor being controlled
by said circuit.
2. An electric motor starting system adapted
to control the starting of an electric motor by
means of induced current, which includes a
transformer, an electric motor on the primary 70
side thereof, the motor being normally connected
in closed circuit relation with said supply mains,
the primary winding of the transformer being
connected in series with said motor and so pro
portioned with respect thereto that when the 75
3
2,129,331
secondary winding of the transformer is open
circuited the counter electromotive-force set up
in said primary winding will prevent the passage
of su?icient current to said motor to operate the
same; means controlling the starting of said
motor including an electric circuit formed partly
by saidv secondary winding and having a con
trolling switch therein located at a distant point,
said system permitting the electromotive-force
10 of the induced current to be so reduced that the
starting of the motor may be controlled from the
secondary side of the transformer.
3. The combination, with an electric motor
having the windings thereof normally connected
15 in closed circuit relation with the supply mains,
of a transformer having relatively stationary
windings and having its primary win-ding con
nected in series with the windings of said motor
and so proportioned with respect thereto that
20 when the secondary winding of said transformer
is open circuited the counter electromotive-force
set up in said primary winding will prevent the
passage of sumcient current to said motor to
operate the same; means adapted to control the
25 starting of said motor from the secondary side
of said transformer including an electric circuit
formed partly by the secondary winding of said
transformer and having a controlling switch
therein located at. a distant point, said means
30 permitting the electromotive-force of the cur
rent controlling the starting of the motor to be
so reduced below that of the primary winding
of the transformer that the starting of the motor
may be controlled from the secondary side of the
35 transformer without overheating said starting
controlling means.
4. As an article of manufacture, an electrical
system including a transformer having relatively
stationary windings and adapted to supply sec
40 ondary current, said transformer being normally
connected in closed circuit relation with the cur
rent supply mains; an electric motor on the pri
- mary side of said transformer connected in series
with the primary winding of said transformer,
45 said primary winding being so proportioned with
respect to said motor that when the secondary
winding of the transformer is open circuited the
counter electromotive-force set up in said pri
mary winding will prevent the passage of suffi
50 cient current to said motor to operate the same;
mains; an electric motor on the primary side of
said transformer connected in series with the
primary winding of said transformer, the pri
mary winding of the transformer being so pro
portioned with respect to said motor that when
the secondary winding of the transformer is open
circuited the counter electromotive-force set up
in said primary winding will prevent the pas 10
sage of su?icient current to said motor to operate
the same; a circuit formed partly by the second
ary winding of the transformer and having a
variable resistance therein located at a distant
point and adapted to vary the current of the sec 15
ondary winding.
7. As an article of manufacture, an electrical
control system adapted to control the starting
of an electric motor by means of induced current
having an electromotive-force below that of the 20
current supply mains‘including an impedance
having relatively stationary windings and nor
mally connected in closed circuit relation with
the supply mains; an electric motor so arranged
that it is capable of energization by means of 25
said impedance, and starting controlling means
including an electric circuit formed partly by
the secondary winding of said impedance adapt
ed to so reduce the electromotive-force of the
secondary current that the starting of the motor
may be controlled from the secondary side of
said impedance without damage to the starting
controlling means.
8. An electrical control system including, a
transformer having fixed primary and secondary 35
windings; an electric motor located on the pri
mary side of said transformer; energizing means
common to said motorand said transformer, said
transformer being normally connected in closed
circuit relation with said energizing means; a 40
secondary circuit connected to be fed wholly
through said transformer, said circuit having
means therein located at a distant point adapted
to manually control the starting of said motor
without overheating.
45
9. An electrical control system including a
transformer having relatively stationary wind
ings and normally connected in closed circuit
relation with the supply mains; an electric motor
on the primary side of said transformer; means
system including a transformer having relatively
stationary windings and adapted to supply sec
adapted to control the starting of said motor
from the secondary side of said transformer by
controlling variations in- the amount of current
supplied to said motor, said means including an
electric circuit formed partly by the secondary 55
winding-oi‘ said transformer and adapted to be
controlled by means extraneous of the system,
ondary current, said transformer being normally
said circuit having means therein located at a
and rheostat means on the secondary side of said
transformer connected to control said secondary
current, the motor being controlled from the
secondary side of said transformer.
55
stationary windings and normally connected in
closed circuit relation with the current supply
5. As an article of manufacture, an electrical
connected in closed circuit relation with the cur
60 rent supply mains; an electric motor on the‘ pri
mary side of said transformer connected in series
with the primary winding of said transformer,
said primary winding being so proportioned with
respect to said motor that when the secondary
65 winding of the transformer is open circuited the
counter electromotive force set up in said pri
mary winding will prevent the passage of sum
cient current to said motor to operate the same;
a circuit connected to be energized by said sec
ondary current and having a variable resistance
70 therein
located at a distant point and adapted
to control said circuit.
6. As an article of manufacture, an electrical
system including a transformer having relatively
distant point adapted to open and close said cir
cuit without overheating the same.
10. The method of controlling an electric mo
tor assembled in an electrical system so that
the motor is on the primary side of a transformer
having energizing means common to the motor
and which transformer is normally connected 65
in closed circuit relation with said energizing
means and whose secondary winding forms part
of a secondary controlling circuit which com
prises controlling the current applied to the mo
tor by means of said secondary circuit so that
the current is gradually applied to the motor 70
but without varying therelative position of the
windings of the transformer.
EDGAR EARLE mm.
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