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Патент USA US2129341

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Sept- 6, 1938-
' Filed Aug. s, 192e
Patented Sept. 6, 1938
Leon J. Willien, Chicago, „Ill., and Louis Stein,
Minneapolis, Minn., assignors to The United
Gas _Improvement Company, Philadelphia, Pa.,
a corporationv of Pennsylvania
Application August 3,~ 192s, yserial No.' 297,24?. 3 Claims.
(ci. >4ax-20s)
a substantially constant volume of gas is gen
'I'his invention relates to the production of
erated by the gas-making set.
According to the present invention, oil of the
above type is added tothe steam, passing through
the superheater and carburetor prior to passage
thereof through the fuel bed in the generator, the
resultant mixture being passed through the fuel
bed and the resultant gas passed directly fromv
the generator'to the wash box. The oil may be
combustible gas and more particularly to a proc
ess and apparatus for making carbureted water
gas. This application is a continuation in part
5. of our prior application Serial No. 187,876, ñled
April 30, 1927.
One object of this invention is Vto provide a
process for manufacturing carbureted blue water
gas such as is commonly used for illuminating,
v10 heating and various other purposes, having a
substantially lower speciñc gravity than is com
introduced into the superheater simultaneously
with the introduction of steam thereinto. By
the practice of our process carbureted water gas
monly obtainable by the practice of present proc
of a greater B. t. u. value, low gravity gas and/or
Another object of this invention is to' provide a . a greater yield of gas is obtainable.
In the operation of water gas sets there are
process for making carbureted water gas which
may be practiced in existing gas-making sets frequent temporary demands for increased gas
vand heretofore, to accommodate such demands,
comprising a generator, carburetor, superheater
and wash box connected in series, or in existing
sets that can readily and easily be modified for
the purpose of practicing our invention. By the
practice of this process there is periodically ob
it has been necessary to provide a spare installa
tion for the generation of the increased gas to
meet such temporarydemands or peak loads.
According to our invention, carbureted water gas
normal operation. Accordingly," by the practice
introduced into the superheater and thev mixture
sets are operated as is customary to meet' the
tained a higher B. t. u. gas and/or more- gas so
that irregular, temporary, _peak or unusual de ' normal demands but when it is necessary to gen
mands for gas from a given gas installation may erate more gas to accommodate increased or
be met without the use of a spare'installation or `peak demands in enriching constituent such as 25
25 additional equipment, _or without having the gas oil, as hereinbefore pointed out, is added to the
set of greater capacity ~than that Írequired for gas-making steam of the back run, for -example
of our process, there is effected an economy in
the equipment necessarY‘AÍfOr- generating gas to
meet both the usual and unusual demands there
bed so that more gas and/or gas of higher B. t. u.
‘ value is próducible. It will be noted that accord
Our inventionv involves an improvement in the
`process of making carbureted water gas in a
of steam and oil is passed into and through the
fuel bed in the generator down through the fuel 30
three-shell set including a generator, carburetor
and superheater, which comprises a blast to heat
the fuel bed to incandescence and store heat in
the carburetor and superheater, one combustible
ing to our is possible to meet the
incidental and irregular or temporary demands
for increased gas without having a spare installa 35
tion, or without having a gas set with a greater
capacity than that required for normal opera
In the accompanying drawing there has been
disclosed a structure designed to carry out the 40
various objects of the invention, but it is to be
understood that the invention is not conñned to
ly petroleum oil, the enriched gas being passed ‘the exact features shown, as various changes
into and through the superheater and wash box may be made within the' scope of the claims
and the usual purifying and gas treating devices which
In the accompanying drawing forming part of
gas-making run wherein steam is passed through
40 the fuel bed of the generator and the resultant
gas passed into and through the carburetor where
it is enriched with the customary oil, name
into a holder, and a second combustible gas gen
erating run commonly known as the back-run, '
consisting in introducing steam at any convenient
point into the set, preferably into the superheater,
and then passing the steam through the set into
the generator and through the fuel bed therein,
the resultant gas being passed into the wash
box and thence into and through the purifying
this specification;
Figure l is ,a vertical sectional view of a form
of apparatus for manufacturing carbureted blue
water gas, showing the invention applied thereto; 50
Figure 2 is a sectional plany view `on the line
2--2 of Figure 1; and
with the combustible gas made in a previous cycle.
Figure 3 is an enlarged detailed sectional view
on the line 3_3 of Figure 2, showing a form of
oil spray nozzle.
The gas manufacturing apparatus illustrated
According toÍ such processes, carburetcd water
in Figure l comprises the usual water gas gen- '
and gas treating devices and usually admixed
gas of a B. t. u. valueequal to the mean B. t. u.
‘ value of the gas obtained from both combustible
erator 5, carburetor 6, and the superheater 1.
The water gas generator and carburetor are con
gas generating runs of the cycle is produced' and -nected together by means'of a pipe 8 and the
carburetor and superheater are similarly con
nected together ,at their lower portions by means
of a conduitA 9. The carburetor and superheater
have provided therein the usual checker brick II ,
as is customary in structures of this kind. A
fgrate I2 is provided in the generator 5 beneath
which is the usual ash pit I3, having an air supply
pipe I4 connected therewith for blasting the fuel
bed. A valve I5 controls the flow of air to the
generator. A steam pipe I6 is also connected
with the ash pit I3 and has a control valve I‘I
for regulating vthe flow of steam delivered to the
apparatus during the process of making the gas.
A gas take-oir connection I8 is provided at the i
15 upper end of the superheater 1 and has one end
connected with a valve mechanism, such as the
three-way valve I9, Ashown in Figure 1, for con
trolling the flow of gas from the superheater to
the usual wash box 2|. 'I-'his wash box has a
20 connection 22 leading to a suitable gas storage
means, not shown. A connection 23 connects the
three-way valve I9 with the ash pit I3 of the
generat‘cr. A valved steam intake pipe 24 is also
provided in the gas take-off I8, whereby the gase
25 ous flow through the apparatus may be reversed,
as will subsequently be described. The super
heater is further provided with the usual stack
valve 25, which is opened during the air blasting
od of time, thesupply of steam to the generator is
shut off, and the three-way valve I9 is moved to
.the dotted line position shown in Figure 1, to
close the gas take-off I8. Steam is then prefer
ably introduced into the upper portion of the su
perheater from the pipe 24, and flows downward
ly through the superheater, 4thence upwardly
through the carburetor and over into the genera
tor and down through the fuel bed therein, and
thereby generating water gas which passes into 10
the ash pit, from which it flows through the con
nection 23, back to the three-way valve I9, and
into the wash box 2|. It is understood that the
steam may be introduced at any point in the set
prior to the fuel bed. The above described oper 15
ation is commonly known as the back-run method
of operation.
In the above described process of ,
manufacturing carbureted water gas, oil is not
introduced into the gases during the back-run or
analogous ru'n of the gas-making operation, but
during the‘up-run and subsequent to the passage
of the steam through the fuel bed. We have
found, however, from actual experimenting, that
by introducing an enriching ñuid, preferably oil,
into the gases, prior to their passage through the 25
generator fuel bed, the hydrogen content of the
resultant gas is increased, thereby lowering the
specific gravity of the gas and increasing the vol
operation of the fuel bed and is closed during -ume of gas generated so that more gas is pro
30 the gas-making portion of ea'ch cycle of operation. duced. 'I'hevimproved'process featured in this
The usual voil spray nozzle 26 is shown mounted invention consists in thus introducing into the 30A
in the upper portion of the carburetor 6, and a gases, prior to their passage through the genera- ,
fuel door 21 is provided in the top of the gen
tor fuel bed, a suitable enriching ñuid.
erator for fueling the generator when necessary.
In order to carry out our invention we mount
In a gas manufacturing set or apparatus, such one or more spray nozzles 28, such as in the 35
as above described, steam is introduced into the ‘ upper portion of the superheater wall, as shown
generator from the pipe I6, after the fuel bed has
in Figure 1. When a plurality of oil spray noz
been blasted in the usual manner and the checker
brick `II in the carburetor and superheater have
zles 28 are employed, they are preferably con
nected, as shown in Figure 2, to obtain their
40 been heated to the desired temperatures.
steam, in passing through the incandescent fuel
supply of o'il from a pipe 29, having a connection v40
with a suitable source of supply, not shown. A
bed, is decomposed and forms water gas which
passes through the connection 8 into the upper
portion of the carburetor, thence downwardly
control valve 3| may be interposed in the pipe
29 for controlling the ñow of oil to the nozzles.
through the checker-brick therein, and through
the connection 9 into the bottom of the super
heater. From the bottom of the superheater the
water gas passes upwardly through the checker
brick therein and is discharged therefrom through
50 the gas take-off I8, into the wash box 2I, from
which it passes through the pipe 22 to a suitable
storage means, such as a relief holder, not shown.
In order to produce a carbureted blue water gas
that is adaptedfor use for commercial purposes,
55 it is necessary'that the gases inthe apparatus,
before reaching the wash box 2|, be enriched by
The oil spray nozzles shown in the drawing are
of the injector type, having a connection with a 45
steam pipe 32, connected with a supply >pipe 33,
having a connection with a steam source, not
shown. A valve 34 is provided in the supply pipe
33 for controlling the supply of steam to the
nozzles 28.l Figures 2 and 3 illustrate a con 50
ventional form of oil spray nozzle of the injector
type, in which the small pipe 35 is connected
with the oil supply pipe 29 by means of a pipe
36. The relatively large pipe 31 comïnunicates
with the steam pipe 33. Thus, when the valve 55
34 is opened, the ñow of steam through the re
stricted passage in the nozzles 28 will draw oil
a suitable enriching fluid„such as oil, for the pur
pose of increasing the caloriflc value of the result »from the pipes 35, assuming that the valve 3| is
ant gas. In the usual process of manufacturing
open, which will be delivered into the upper
60 carbureted blue water gas, as above described, oil ^portion of the superheaterJtogether with the
is introduced into the apparatus, usually at the steam. This mixture of the steam and oil will
' top of the carburetor, by means of the oil spray
then pass downwardly wthrough the heater
nozzle 26 and after the steam has passed through checker-brick in the superheater, as a result of
the generator fuel bed and water gas has been the down flow of steam from the pipe 24, thence
65 formed, the oil is added to the water gas while
through the connection 9, thence upwardly 65
- passing through the carburetor.
'I'he type of apparatus illustrated in Figure 1
is of the up-and-down or back-run type, wherein
the flow of steam or gases through the apparatus
70 may be reversed, that is, for the up-run the steam
is introduced into the apparatus in the lower por
tionn of the generator, and is discharged in the
form _of gas through the take-off I8 at the upper
' portion of the superheater. After the up-run fiow
75 of steam has continued for a predetermined peri
through the checker-brick in'the carburetor and
over into the top of the generator and down
wardlyy through the fuel bed. By introducing the
oil in the upper portion of the superheater the
oil will be substantially vaporized or gasiñed be 70
fore it reaches the generator fuel bed _and as
the steam or gases and oil vapors pass through
the generator fuel bed, the gasifled oil is decom
posed simultaneously with the’decomposition of
steam, producing hydrogen and other gases, to 75
form a low gravity, carbureted blue water gas « and fractions known commercially as heavy oil.
which is passed through the usual gas treating The term “petroleum oil” as used in the claims
and purifying device into the holder where it is v specificallyI excludes other hydrocarbon `oil such»
as tar. _
admixed with the gas produced during the pre
We claim:
ceding. gas-making run. Inasmuch as there is
l. The process of making carbureted water gas
produced in the back run, hydrogen and car
of low specific gravity, which, when practiced in
bureted blue water gas, it follows that the hydro
carbon oil is not completely decomposed but is a set including-a single generator, a single car
partially decomposed or cracked into hydrogen buretor, a single superheater, in individual de
tached shells, and a washbox, connected in se-, 10
10 andy volatile hydrocarbons orv ñxed oil gas by
ries, comprises internally preheating the carbu
`means of .which the blue water gas, simul
retor and superheater solely by air blast gas from
tice of our process there is obtainable a higher the generator, making 'carbureted water gas by l,
B. t. u. gas and/or more gas and the gas produced _forward steaming and carbureting, introducing
during the back run is of lower specific gravity petroleum oil into the back run steam, and gen 15
than 'the gas produced when steam alone is erating gas comprising carbureted water gas and
hydrogen' and of lower specific gravity than the
employed during this run.
forward run carbureted water gasand of lower
In the drawing we have also shown an oil
spray nozzle 38 mounted in the upper portion of specific gravity than would `be the case in the
absence of the introduction of the petroleum oil 20
20 the generator so that, if desired, oil may also be
introduced at this point. In some instances, it by passing the mixture of steam and oil down
may be found desirable to introduce a portion of > through the rfuel bed partially decomposing the
the oil >in the superheater and a portion in the petroleum oil .to hydrogen and to oil gas which
latter carburets the water gas simultaneously gen
generator, or it may be found desirable to intro
taneously generated, is carbureted. By the prac
duce all of the oil in the upper portion of the
generator. In each case, however, theA oil must be
erated‘ in the fuel bed.
2. In a process for making carbureted water
introduced into the steam, prior to their passage
through the generator fuel bed.
gas, which, when practiced'in a carburetedwater
gas set comprising a single generator a single car
It is well known that the demand for gas from -bureter and a single superheater in lindividual
a given gas installation is not- constant over a detached shells and connected in series, includes 30
period of timesuch as a day or more. The loads a blast for bringing the fuel bed up to tempera
ture and for .heating the set, an up-run with
, or demands for gas from given gas installations
fluctuate, there being a substantially constant steam during which petroleum oil is introduced
demand throughout the major portion _of the into said set’ for carbureting the up-run water
35 period and demands for more or increased gas I gas, and a back_-run during which steam is passed 35
in a reverse direction through said set, the
: at intervals during such period of time. ¿Here
tofore, to meet such demands- for increased gas, step of introducing petroleum oil into said set
or peak loads it has been the practice to operate during said back-run for Jpassage through the
.fuel bed along with the steam whereby said pe
a certain number of sets of the installations sub
40 stantially continuously and at full'or normal
capacity to meet the normal or- substantially
constant demands and to maintain other spare
or additional sets'which were operated only at
certain intervals to generate additional gas to
45 accommodate.- the peak loads.` By the practice
of our invention, as herein disclosed, the neces
sity for such additional sets is eliminated and
all the“ combustible gas equipment is operated
troleum oil is decomposed to hydrogen and hy 40
drocarbon gas -for carbureting Vthe back-run
water gas, the extent of decomposition of said
last mentioned petroleum oil being such as to
make the back-run gas of lower specific gravity
.than said up-run carbureted water gas and of 45
'lower specific gravity than would bethe case in
the absence of the introduction 4of petrbleum oil
-into said set during said back-run.
3. A process for making carbureted water 5gas
efficiently, economically and substantially con
tinuously to meet both normal loads and peak or in a carbureted water gas set, comprising a single»
increased demands\_for gas.4 '
I generator a single carbureter and a single super- I
From the foregoing it will be seen that when ' heaterin individual detached shells and con
our invention is employed, the- gas made 'dur
ing the back-run is of lower _speciñc gravity
55 than either the carbureted water gas made dur
ing the up-run, or blue water gas made during
nected in series, which includes in a cycle the
following steps, a blast for bringing the fuel 4
bed up to temperature and for heating the set, an 55
up-run with steam during which petroleum oil is
a back-run when our invention is not employed. introduced into said set for _carbureting the up
Therefore, the term “low specific gravity” refers i run Vwater gas, a back-run with steam during
more particularly to gas made during the back
60 run when our invention is employed than to the
which petroleum oil is introduced into said set
for cai‘bureting the back-run water gas, said last
_mixed gas in the vholder which, as will be readily' mentioned petroleum oil passing through the fuel
bed wherein _it is decomposed to a_considerably
seen, may or may not be of low gravity depend
lng upon the relative amounts of the various greater extent than said first mentioned pe
troleum oil so as to make the backïrun gas ofy
gases present. In any event, however, and -pro
lower specific gravity than the up-run carbureted
holder gas is of lower specific gravity than ~it water gas and of lower specific gravity than would
i be the case in the absence of the introduction of
would be if our invention were not employed.
Wel use the term"‘oil” in’the specification in
the way that it has heretofore been universally
used in the gas industry, namely-to mean “pe-'
70 troleum oil”, that is crude oil or a fraction ob-~
tained inthe renning thereof, such- as petroleum
4naphtha, gas gil, residuum oil, and `the crudes
petroleum oil into said'set during saidback-run,
and then combining said up-run carbureted water
gas and said back-run carbureted water gas.
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