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Sept. 6, 1938. H. R. CRAGO 2,129,526 CONTROL SYSTEM AND APPARATUS FOR HEATING Fil'ed Feb. 16, 1935 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 LI Fig. I. _ Inventor“ 1 by Harry R. Crago, 815 His ?ber-‘neg. Sept. 6, 1938. . H. R. CRAGO 2,129,526 CONTROL SYSTEM AND APPARATUS FOR HEATING Filed Feb. 16, 1935 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Inventor‘? Harry R. Crago, b9 NW7 5.8M His Att/OT‘T‘IGH. Sept. 6, 1938. H. R. CRAGO 2,129,526 CONTROL SYSTEM AND APPARATUS FOR HEATING Filed Feb. 16, 1935 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 .lnventor'i Harry R.Cr~ o,_ by WW7 219M212“ His Attorney . Sept. 6, 1938) 2,1_ 29,526 H. R. CRAGO CONTROL SYSTEM AND APPARATUS FOR HEATING 4 Sheets-sheet 4 ‘ Filed Feb. 16, 1935 Fig.4. /60 H455 31458 _ $458 (11-159 31-159 31-59 a I57 '56 /57 13. /57 5a I55 A’ I56 I56‘ I57 1‘; /55 A2 A3 56 f5 /55 . 157 ' L /55 A4 <EA5 As Inventor: Har‘rg R. Cr <20, b9 His Attorney. 2,129,526 Patented Sept. 6, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE. 2,129,526 CONTROL SYSTEM AND APPARATUS FOR ' HEATING Harry B. Crago, Schenectady, N. Y., assignor to General Electric Company, a corporation of New York Application February 16, 1935, Serial No. 6,829 14 Claims. (CL 236-—1) The present invention relates to control sys tems and apparatus adapted for controlling the operation of a plurality of automatic combustion heaters supplying a variable heating load, par ; ticularly a plurality of electrically operated on ?red boiler furnaces for supplying steam to a variable pressure load although certain features of the invention are not necessarily limited thereto. - - One of the principal objects is to control auto matically the number of heaters in operation in accordance with predetermined variations of the heating load. In this way the number of elec trically operated oil ?red boiler furnaces in op 15 eration may be varied in accordance with the variations in pressure of the steam load. 10 Another object is to obtain selectively differ ' ent starting sequences for the plurality of heaters and thereby distribute the operating duty more which Fig. 1 schematically shows a preferred form of the improved control systems and apparatus of the present invention applied to a plurality of automatic combustion heaters supplying heat to a common heating load; Fig. 2 is a circuit dia gram showing more clearly the details of the boiler furnace portion of the improvedvheater. control system and apparatus of Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a circuit diagram showing the details of the forced draft portion of the improved heater con 10 trol system and apparatus of Fig. 1, the diagrams of Figs. 2 and 3 being complementary; and Fig. 4 is a circuit diagram showing the details of the in dicating signal light control arrangement shown schematically in Fig. 1. Referring to Fig. 1, several groups of boiler fur naces G1 to G3 are shown in the preferred form of the invention connected to supply steam to ' conditions a predetermined time delay in the the steam main I0 although the present invention is not limited to group operation. The boiler furnaces F1 to F5 comprising group G1 as well as the boiler furnaces comprising the other groups are shown interconnected by improved grouping means, more fully described and claimed in the .25 starting of successive heaters into operation even though excessive increase of the heating load should occur. This prevents hunting action due copending application of Clyde C. Colby, Serial No. 758,276, ?led December 19, 1934, and assigned to the assignee of my present invention. to starting and then immediately stopping the heaters upon temporary load ?uctuations. A further object is to provide for rapid suc 30 cessive starting of the heaters into operation without anytime delay under predetermined con Each of the boiler furnaces F1 to F5 as well as the other furnaces in Fig. 1 are illustrated as of 20 uniformly among the various units without exces sive wear and tear falling on any particular . heater or groups of heaters. It‘ is also an object to provide under normal ditions such as excessively low steam pressures. Another object is ,to effect the stopping of op 35 eration of any heater only upon a decrease of the heating load greater than the increase of the heating load required to effect the starting of operation of the heater. This also serves to stabilize the number of heaters maintained _in 4O operation under quickly ‘varying load conditions. automatic heater. Each boiler furnace is pro vided with suitable automatic electrically oper ated oil burner mechanism and control. The ar rangement is such that upon energization of the control combustion is established automatically 40 A still further object isv to provide for remov in the boiler furnace and upon deenergization of ing any boiler furnace from its normal operat the control the combustion is stopped. One form of electric oil burner control apparatus suitable ing sequence and at the same time provide safety protection for each individual boiler furnace so 4 the automatic electrically controlled oil ?red type 30 described and claimed in the copending applica tion of Harry S. Woodrui’f, Serial No. 676,651, ?led June 20, 1933, and‘ assigned to the assignee of my present invention although the present in vention may be used with any suitable type of removed as well as for the group of boiler fur naces remaining in sequential operating condi tion. ' Another object is to provide a forced draft for a plurality of sequentially operated combustion 50 heaters which is varied in accordance with the number of heaters operating and in addition pro vide for maintaining the draft substantially uni form independently of atmospheric conditions. Further objects will appear from the following 55 description of the accompanying drawings in ‘ for this purpose is disclosed and claimed in the copending application, Serial No. 735,103, of John Eaton, ?led July 14,1934, and assigned to the as signee of my present invention. Briefly, with the furnace grouping means shown, each of the furnaces F1 to F5 is connected to supply steam to the ‘common steam drum l I 50 at the center of the group, which drum is con nected to the steam main III ‘by the steam feeder l2 having the manual ‘shut-off yalve I3 therein. The steam main l0 may be connected to supply steam to any variable load such, for exampleyas 55 2 2,129,626 the steam heating radiators of a large building or of several smaller buildings. In suchheating service, the condensate may be returned from all of the radiators through the return water line l5 which is connected through the pipe IS with the of the dial arm 42 through the corresponding offset positions P6 to P10. A manually operable sequencing switch S1 is provided for selectively varying the operating sequence in which the groups of boiler fur naces G1 to Gs are started into operation under of boiler furnaces with the manual cut-off valve . the control of the dial switch 42. I! located in pipe l6. Return water line 15 may The reversible motor 4| drives the dial arm 42 be similarly connected to the other groups of through suitable speed reducing gearings 45 and common return water drum I‘! for the group G1 10 furnaces. the sprocket chain 46. ' The main flue pipe 20 having the electric motor driven forced draft fans M21 and M22 as well as the reversible electric motor operated draft regulating damper Mm located therein is 15 connected to the common ?ue pipe 25 of the group G1 of boiler furnaces with the manually operable draft cutoff gate 26 located in the common ?ue pipe 25. Each of the other groups of furnaces G: to Gs is connected to the main 20 ?ue‘pipe 20 in a similar manner. A master steam pressure responsive control device 30 is connected to operate in response to variations in the pressure of the steam main [0 due to variations in the heating load. The 25 control panel 3| contains electrical controlling apparatus shown in detail in Fig. 2 which is op erated under the control of the master controller ll so as to start and stop operation of the vari ous groups of boiler furnaces G1, G: in accord ance with the varying demands of ‘the heating load. The control panel 82 contains the elec trical control apparatus illustrated diagram matically in Fig. 3 which is electrically connected A cam 41 is also driven through the reduction gearing 45 so as progres sively to raise or lower the pivoted arm 48 upon the end of which the contacts 37 and 38 are carried. In this way the dial arm 42 is operated to each of the different positions P1 to P10 when 15 the pressure responsive device 30 responds to different pressure values in the steam main Iii. Forced draft control Before operation of any group of the boiler 20 furnaces can be started, it is necessary that proper draft conditions be established in the main ?ue 20 by operation of one or the other of the electric motor-driven forced draft fans 2i and 22. As shown in Fig. 3 the manually. oper able selective switch S2 is provided for ‘starting operation of a selected one of the motor driven draft fans. The electric driving motors Mai and M22 of the fans are shown in Fig. 3 as of the three-phase variable speed type having the 80 several groups of speed regulating resistors R1 to Rs in their secondary circuits. The forced draft fan motors M21 and M2: are controlled by the two line switches 5i and 52 with the control apparatus of panel II so as to operate the forced draft blowers Mn and Mn and having the cooperating relays 53 and 54 to gether with the timing relay 55 and the speed re the draft regulator M2: to maintain proper draft conditions as the number of groups of furnaces sponsive switches 2M and 262 arranged so that whenever one of the forced draft fan motors operatingis varied in accordance with the heat is operating, upon failure thereof the other ing load. The indicating panel 81 contains a number forced draft fan motor is automatically started _ of groups of indicating electric lamps 11 to I: which correspond in position and in arrange ment with the various furnaces in the groups G1 to (is. In the manner explained hereinafter, the center light of each group is illuminated whenever the corresponding group of boiler furnaces is started into operation and the outer lights of each group are illuminated as the cor responding furnace in the group starts opera tion. Furnace group control The multiple furnace control apparatus shown in the diagram of Fig. 2 is controlled by the master steam pressure responsive device 30. This device is shown as of the type having a pressure responsive diaphragm inside of the cus ing 35 which raises and lowers the movable switch contact arm 36 upon an increase and decrease of the steam pressure in the steam main III. A pair‘ of spaced-apart contacts 31, I0 cooperate with contact arm I. to energize the electromagnetically operated reversing switches 39 and M for the reversible electric motor ll. ‘ The motor ll rotates the dial switch arm 42 in each direction through the series of operat ing positions P1 to P10 in which a series of elec tromagnetically operated switches C1 to Co are into operation. The indicating lights L21, Lu, and L2: are provided to show the operating con dition of the forced draft fans, either of the lamps L21 or L2: being illuminated when the cor responding forced draft fan 2| or 22 is started into operation under the control of the selective switch So. The lamp L2: is illuminated when ever an automatic changeover has been effected due to failure of one of the forced draft fans. Operation Electric power is supplied from the three-phase lines L1, La, L: with the neutral line N providing a suitable lower voltage for the control and in dicating lamp circuit. To initiate operation of the electrically operated oil fired multiple boiler furnace steam plant illustratedin Fig. 1, the selective switch S1 shown in Fig. 2 is moved either to the right or the left to establish the desired sequence of operation of the groups of boiler furnaces G1 to Gs. The selective switch S2 shown in Fig. 3 is then thrown either to the right or to the left to select either one of the forced draft blowers 2i or 22 for operation. With selective switch 8: moved to the left, an energizing circuit for the operating winding of the line switch SI for the forced draft motor Mn is established. This circuit extends from the supply line L: through conductor 60. blade SI of the selec tive switch S2, the circuit protecting fuse 82, con 70 ductor 03, the movable contact arm N of the tim~ ing switch 55, the blade 65 of selective switch S2 in its left hand position, conductor 66 ‘and thence through the operating winding of the line switch 70 controlled for starting and stopping operation of the various groups of boiler furnaces G1 to G. in sequence. The furnaces are started into op eration in sequence‘upon movement of the dial arm 42 through positions P1 to PI and are 75 stopped successively upon the return movement V II and the left hand one of these three phase Tl 2,129,526 conductors 61 to the supply line L1. Line switch 5| immediately closes to energize the motor M21 from supply lines L1, L2, L3. At the same time the operating winding of relay 53 is energized from conductor 66 in parallel with the operating wind ing of line switch 5| and the relay 53 therefore closes; ‘ ‘ In order to insure rapid acceleration of vthe motor M21, provision is made for cutting out the 10 section R1 of the speed controlling resistor until the motor M21 has accelerated to running speed. This is accomplished in the following manner. When conductor 66 is energized to close the line switch 5|, a circuit extending through conductor 15 'IDand the contact of the speed responsive switch 6| in its right hand position as shown in the draw ings, conductor ‘II and the operating winding of the electromagnetic accelerating switch ‘I2 to supply line L1 is established. 20 ‘ ‘ Upon closure of accelerating switch ‘I2, an ener gizing circuit for the operating winding of the electromagnetic switch ‘I3 for short circuiting the resistors R1, R4 is established. This circuit may be traced from the supply line L2 through con 25 ductors 80, 8|, 82, the middle contact of relay 53, conductor 84, the contacts of switch 12, conductors 85 and 86, the winding of switch 13, conductor 61, and thence through conductor 88 to the neutral supply line. The resulting closure of switch 13 30 short circuits the resistors R1 and thus enables the motor M21 to accelerate quickly to running speed. Draft fan changeover operation When selective switch-S2 is moved to the left to 35 energize the line switch 5| for the forced draft fan motor M21 through a circuit including the conductor 63, at the same time the operating electromagnet 90 of the timing device 55 is ener gized, the circuit extending from conductor 63 40 through the winding of the electromagnet 90 and conductors 9| and 80. Likewise, the energizing Winding of the induction disk timing motor 92 is energized from the midtap of electromagnet 90, conductor93, movable contact arm 94 and con 45 ductor 63, the motor energizing winding being connected in parallel with a portion of the wind ing of the operating electromagnet 20. Energiza tion of the operating electromagnet 90 attracts the armature 95 and thereby sets up a force to 50 engage the gears 98 and also tends to move the contact arms 64 and 94 from the positions in which they are shown in the drawings. This latter, how ever, is prevented by the pivoted latch- 96. How ever, after the induction disk motor 92 has been 55 energized for the predetermined time interval sufficient to rotate the trip pin 91 through the agency of the speed reducing gears 98, latch 96 Will be released and both contacts 64 and 94 will be operated from their position shown, the con 60 tacts 94 thereupon deenergizing the motor 92. During the time interval required for operation of the timing device 55 to move the contact 64 . from the position in which it is shown to its other 65 position, the motor M21 has had an opportunity to start from rest and accelerate up to running speed due to the resistor R1 being short circuited. As soon as motor 2| reaches running speed, the speed responsive switch 26I which is shown as of the -70 centrifugal type operates its contact from the right hand position shown to the left hand posi tion. The movement of switch 26I from the right hand position deenergizes the electromag netic switch ‘I2 and thereby effects deenergization 75 of the switch ‘I3 so as to reinsert the resistor R1 in 3 . the motor circuit and thereby maintain the motor at the minimum running speed. When the speed responsive switch 26| is'moved to its left hand position, a circuit is established extending from line L2 and conductor 60 through blade 6| of selective switch S2, fuse 62 and blade I00, conductor IOI, switch 26I in its left hand position, conductor 10, and thence through con-v ductor 66 and the operating winding of line switch 5|. This circuit maintains the operating winding 10 of the line switch energized preparatory to the contact 64 of the timing device 55 being moved from the position in which it is shown after the predetermined time interval of operation of motor 32 mentioned above. Thus, after this interval, in 15 case the fan motor M21 should stop operation for any reason so that the speed responsive switch 26| is returned from its left hand position indi cating normal running speed of the motor, the line switch 5| will immediately be deenergized. 20 When line switch 5| is deenergized due to stop ping of the motor M21, it operates to close its auxiliary contact I02. This immediately estab lishes an energizing circuit for line switch 52 so as to immediately start motor M22 into operation. 25 This circuit may be traced from line L3 and con ductor 60 through blade 6|, fuse 62, conductor 63, contact 64 of timing device 55 in its right hand position, blade I03 of the selective switch S2 in its left hand position, conductor I04, auxiliary con tact I02 and thence through the operating wind ing of the line switch 52 to the left hand conductor 61 and line L1. Upon the energization of the operating winding of switch 52, the winding of relay 54, is energized in parallel therewith through the conductor I05. Thus when motor M22 is initially energized, the speed responsive switch 262 in its position shown serves to complete a circuit from conductor I05 through conductor I06 to energize the electro 40 magnetic switch I0'I. Closure of switch |0‘| serves to energize the resistance controlling switch 13 in. substantially the same manner as previously described. The indicating lamps L21, L22, and L2: are con nected so that when the selective switch S2 is moved to the left to initiate operation of the forced draft blower motor M21, a circuit extend ing from supply line L1 through conductors 80, 8|, blade IIO, lamp 2| and conductors 81 and 88 is established. This results in illumination of the lamp L21 to indicate that the forced draft fan ~ motor M21 is in operation. In case motor M21 stops and line switch 5| and relay 53 are de energized in the manner described above, the changeover indicating lamp L23 is illuminated, the energizing circuit therefor extending through blade IIO, conductor III, the lower contact of relay 53, conductor “2, lamp L22 and thence through conductors 81 and 86 to the neutral sup ply line. This enables an attendant to inspect the motor driven draft fan M21 and determine the cause of the automatic changeover. Whenever the selectiveswitch S2 is moved to the right hand position instead of left hand as previously assumed, the forced draft fan motor M22 and indicating light L22 are energized in sub stantially the same way as the motor M21 and light L21 with the speed responsive switch 262, contactor |0‘| and‘the timing device 55 function 70 ing in practically the same manner as previously described. Also upon any failure resulting in stopping of the motor M22, the speed responsive switch 262 serves to eifect automatic changeover to the motor M21 in practically the same way as 4 2,129,526 previously described, at the same time causing illumination of the changeover indicating light Lu. Furnace operation Before starting operation of the boiler fur naces, one of the forced draft fan driving motors M21 or M22 must be in operation and the corre sponding one of the relays 53, 54 energized in the manner previously described. Also, a safety con 10 trol circuit must be established from the line L1 through conductors 80, H3, I I4, the dial switch arm 42 in the off position shown, conductors H5 and H6, blade III of the selective switch S1 in either of its positions, conductor H9 and the 16 upper contact of one of the relays 53 or 54, con ductor II9, contact I20 of the draft responsive device DR, contact I2I of the steam pressure re sponsive safety switch shown in Fig. 1 connected to the main steam line I0, the manually operable emergency switch E which must be in the closed position and thence through the operating wind ings of electromagnetic switches I30 and HI in parallel and through conductors I32, I33 and 89 to the neutral supply line. 26 " In this way, it is insured that both the line contactor I30 and the master control contactor I3I can be closed only under the following con so ditions: (1) One of the forced draft fans M: and M21 must be in operation, (2) value (3) main (4) The draft must be above a minimum safe as determined by the draft regulator DR, The pressure existing within the steam I0 must be below the maximum safe value, The manually operable emergency switch E must be in the closed position, ’ (5) The manually operable sequence selecting switch S1 must be operated to one of its circuit 40 closing positions, \ (6) The dial switch arm 42 must be in the off position as shown in Fig. 2. - As soon as the master control contactor I3I is closed the upper contact thereof shunts the con tact controlled by the dial switch 42 in the off 45 position. This maintains the continuity of the safety control circuit traced above when the dial switch arm 42 is operated from the off position to start the groups of furnaces into operation. In this way, undervoltage protection is provided 50 since the contactor I3I will drop out upon volt-v age failureor reduction of ‘the voltage to an un safe value and thereby require the return of the dial switch arm 42 to the of! position before the safety control circuit can again be completed. 55 Assuming after a shut down of all the furnaces, there is no pressure in the steam main I0. Hence, the pressure responsive device 30 will maintain the contact arm 36 into engagement with the cooperating contact 31. This estab 60 lishes an energizing circuit for the electromag netic switch 39 to operate the control motor H in thedirection to move the down switch arm 42 in a counter-clockwise direction so as to start a group or groups of the boiler furnaces into opera tion to supply steam. I The circuit for switch 39 may be traced from the supply line L1 through conductors 90, H3, I30, the middle contact of the master control 70 switch I3I in its upper position, conductor. I39, ' switch arm 39, contact 31, the contacts of the electromagnetic limit switch I31, the timing con I tact I49 of the timingdevice “I, the upper con tacts of the electromagnetic switch 40, the wind ing of electromagnetic switch 39 and conductor I33 to the neutral supply line N. Upon the re sulting closure of electromagnetic switch 35, the motor M is energized from the supply lines L1, L2, L3 through the line switch I30, and the dis connecting switch I42 in the closed position. Thereupon motor 4| operates to move the dial switch arm 42 from the off position in the counter-clockwise direction. The electroresponsive timing device MI is energized at the same time as the winding of the electromagnetic switch 39, being connected in parallel therewith through the timing contact I40. In the preferred form shown the timing device “I is a self-starting synchronous motor driving the timing cam I43. After a relatively short time interval of operation of the timing cam I43, the timing contact I40 is disengaged from its lower co-operating contact and operated into engagement with its upper co-operating contact by the biasing spring I44, thus maintain ing the timing device I“ energized. 2.0 In connection with the timing device, it should be noted that the timing cutout contact I50 is maintained in the open position shown by means of the steam pressure responsive device I5I only 25 when the pressure in the steam main I0 is above ‘a predetermined minimum value. Thus, after normal operating conditions are established, the operation of the timing contact I40 from its lower position will deenergize the electromagnetic switch -30 39 and thereby stop operation of motor 4 I. How ever, the timing device I4I will be maintained energized and continue to operate timing cam I43 so as to reengage the timing contact I40 with its lower contact after a predetermined time interval has elapsed. This will reenergize electromagnetic switch 39 and restart the operation of motor 4| to advance the dial switch arm 42. In this way, under 'normal conditions, the timing device U will continue to operate the timing contact I40 so 40 as to periodically interpose a time delay in the advancement of the dial switch arm 42 in the clockwise direction. ' However, in starting operation, when the pres sure in the steam main I0 is below the predeter 45 mined minimum value, the timing cutout contact I50 is maintained closed. This renders the timing device I4I entirely ineffective to interpose the time delay in the operation of the dial switch arm 42 in the counter-clockwise direction since 50 the electromagnetic switch v39 is maintained ener gized through contact I50 even though the timing contact I40 is operated to its upper position. Thus in starting, the dial switch arm 42 is rapidly advanced to position P1. Thereupon, the 55 relay C1 is energized, the circuit extending from L1 through conductors 90, H3, H4, segment I52, contact P1, conductor I53, the winding of relay C1, resistor R11, and conductor I33 to the neutral supply line N. Upon closure of relay C1, the upper contact thereof establishes a holding circuit for the relay C1 directly to conductor H4 and in dependent of the dial switch arm 42. Upon closure of relay C1, two groups of the elec- trically operated oil fired boiler furnaces are 65 started into operation, the particular groups de pending upon the position of the selective switch $1. With the switch S1 in its left hand position, the furnace groups (1’! and Ga are energized upon 70 closure of the relay C1. Group control circuits Fig. 4 illustrates diagrammatically a control circuit arrangement suitable for the automatic .15 2,129,526 furnaces in each group. In this arrangement, 5 of the furnaces F1 to F5 in parallel circuit. Each of the control mechanisms I56 at once starts motor operated oil burner mechanism I55, a con operation to run the electric motor driven oil trol mechanism I56, and a combustion responsive _ burner mechanism I55 so as to establish com device I51. These may be of any ordinary type bustion in the corresponding furnace F1 to F5. although the forms shown are intended to repre As soon as combustion is successfully established sent diagrammatically apparatus such as dis in each furnace, the combustion responsive closed in the copending application, Serial No. switch I51 of that furnace responds to energize 735,103, of John Eaton, ?led July 14, 1934, and the corresponding one of the individual furnace ~ each of the furnaces is provided with an electric 10 assigned to the assignee of, my present invention. Each furnace control mechanism includes a pair of safety switches I58 and I59. While not shown in detail the safety switch I58 is arranged under normal conditions to remain in the closed position as shown but to be operated to the open position to 'deenergize the burner mechanism I55 upon the occurrence of excessive or dangerous pressures in the combustion chamber of the oil furnace. Such a safety switch arrangement is 20 disclosed and claimed in Patent 1,987,447 of W. O. Lum, granted January 8, 1935, and assigned to the assignee of my present invention. The safety switch I59 also under normal con-‘ indicating lights A1 to A5. These individual fur nace indicating lights are arranged around the central furnace group indicating lights As so as 1,0 to correspond to the physical arrangement of the furnaces’ F1 to F5 as shown in Fig. 1. Thus as each of the lights A1 to A5 is lighted, the 15 operator knows that the corresponding furnace has established combustion and is in proper op eration. In case one of the lights A1 t0_As fails to light, the operator at once knows that the corresponding furnace has failed to establish 20 combustion. This facilitates an immediate in spection of any defective furnace to determine the cause of failure and the necessity of repairs ditions remains in the closed position as shown [or adjustments. The group of furnaces Gs is connected and ar but is operated to the open position to deenergize the burner mechanism I55 upon the occurrence of ranged to be energized upon closure of relay C1 excessive steam pressure in the boiler furnace. in substantially the same way as the group of Any ordinary form of safety pressure switch may furnaces G1 indicated in Fig. 4. be employed. Group sequemrinp . As shown in Figs. 1 and 4, each group of boiler If the heating load conditions are such that furnaces is provided with a draft damper safety switch I66. This switch is normally maintained voperation of the two groups of furnaces G1 andv Ga will supply su?icient steam to the steam main in the closed position as shown .as long as the damper remains in the fully open position. When II! to balance the demand, thenthe pressure the draftdamper in the common ?ue pipe 25 for responsive device 35 will operate to disengage the the group of boiler furnaces is closed, switch I60 contact arm 36 from the contact arm 31. This is opened. Thus, the draft damper safety switch opens the circuit extending from the contact prevents operation of any furnace in the group 31 through the limit switch I31 to the timing except when the common ?ue pipe draft damper device “I. However, as long as the timing con tact I40 remains in engagement with its upper 40 is opened. I Also as shown in Figs. 1 and 4, one of the boiler co-operating contact, the timing device “I will furnaces in each group is provided with a low continue to operate until the timing cam I43 is water level safety switch I6I. As long as the rotated to move the timing contact I40 out of water level in the boiler gr'oup remains at or above engagement with its upper contact. Thereupon normal value, switch I6I is maintained closed. the timing motor I.4I is deenergized and the When the water level falls to a dangerously low furnace groups G1 and G8 continue to supply value, the switch I6I is opened. This either stops the load requirements of steam main III. In case the load increases, the pressure in the or. prevents operation of the oil burner mecha steam main ID will be decreased. As a result, nisms of all furnaces in the group. the steam pressure-responsive switch contact 36 Thus, with the group control circuit arrange ment shown in Fig. 4, when relay C1 is closed upon is reengaged with contact 31. Thereupon the operation of the dial switch arm 42 to position P1, timing motor MI and the control motor H are the group of boiler furnaces G1 is started into again energized in the manner previously de operation provided all of the safety switches I58, scribed. The control motor 4I immediately 25' 30 35 45 I59, I60 and I6] associated therewith are in the starts to advance the dial switch arm 42 from position P1 in the counter-clockwise direction, closed position indicating normal operating con ditions. To energize the furnace group G1, the When the dial switch arm 42 reaches the posi conductor I65 is connected through switch blade tion P2, relay C2 is energized in substantially I66 of the selective switch S1 in its left-hand the same way as previously described in connec position, the middle contact of relay C1 and the tion with relay C1. Thereupon, the timing de 60 upper contacts of line switch I30 to the supply vice I4I disengages contact I40 from its lower line L1. The conductor I6'I is connected directly co-operating contact and thus temporarily stops ' further advance of the dial switch arm 42 in the to the neutral supply line N. counter-clockwise direction by deenergizing the When, as shown in Fig. 4, the group of fur switch 39 and the control motor 4!. The tim 65 ' naces G1 is started into operation, an energizing circuit is established through conductors I65 and ing cam I43 is formed so as to permit the con 'I6'I for the group signal light As. This light is tact I40 to remain in engagement with its lower located in the center of the indicating group I1 co~operating contact only ‘for the‘. time interval as shown in Fig. 1. Thus, the lighting of the required for operation of the dial switch arm 42 ~ from one position to the next adjacent position. 70 group indicating light A6 indicates to the opera~ tor that the corresponding group of oil furnaces Thus, after a predetermined time delay, the tim G1 has been called into operation. At the same ing device “I reengages the timing contact I40 time a circuit is established from conductor I65 ‘with its lower co-operating contact to reenergize the control motor 4I and advance the dial switch through the safety switches I60 and I6I to en ergize the electric control mechanism I56 of each arm 42 to the next adjacent position. 2,129,520 6 In this way, relays Ca, C4, C5 are succemively energized when the dial switch arm 42 is ad~ vanced after successive time delay periods to positions P3, P4, P5, provided the pressure in the steam main I 0 continues to remain below the value required for the pressure~responsive de vice 35 to disengage pressure switch 36 from contact 31. The provision of the time delay after advancement of the dial switch arm be 10 tween adjacent positions reduces hunting action as it enables each group of furnaces to start 15 20 26 30 40 dial switch arm 42 in the clockwise direction. In case the dial switch arm 42 has been oper ated in the counter-clockwise direction to posi tion P5 to energize the relay C5, this relay will remain energized until dial switch arm 42 is returned in the clockwise direction to position Pa. 1c deenerglzation of relay C5 is accom 10 plished by short circuiting the relay windings. into operation and contribute to the supply of The resistor R15 serves to limit the current where steam to the steam main in for a predetermined the relay winding is short circuited. Similarly, time interval before the next group of oil fur~ as positions P7, Pa, P9, and P10 are reached by the clockwise movement of the dial switch arm 16 naces is started. The successive energizatlon of relays C1, Ca, t2. the corresponding relays C4, Ca, Ca, and C1 C1, C4, and C5 serves to bring successively all will be successively deenergized by short circuit groups of the oil furnaces into operation. The ing the operating winding of the relay. particular sequence of starting the groups of Referring speci?cally to relay C1, this relay furnaces into operation is determined by the was energized when the dial switch arm 42 was position of the selective switch S1. With the voperated in a counter-clockwise direction to posi¢ selective switch S1 in its left hand position, relay tion P1, the energizing circuit extending from con~ 01 controls the furnace groups G1 and Gs; relay ductor H4 through the segment I52, dial switch C: controls furnace group G3; relay Ca controls arm 42, contact P1 and conductor I53 and thence furnace group G5; relay C4 controls furnace through the winding of relay C1 and resistor R11 groups G4 and Go; and relay C5 controls furnace to the conductor I 33. When relay C1 closes, the groups G: and G1. With the selective switch S1 upper contact thereof establishes a holding cir in its right hand position, relay C1 controls fur cuit directly from conductor H4 through the re~ lay winding and resistor R11 to conductor I33. nace groups G: and G1; relay C2 controls fur nace group G4; relay Ca controls furnace group Upon the movement of the dial switch arm 42 (in; relay C4 controls furnace groups G: and G5; in the clockwise direction to position Pin, the and relay Ca controls furnace groups G1 and Ga. winding of relay C11 is short‘ circuited through It is important to note that as the dial switch a circuit extending from the conductor H4, the arm 42 is advanced through the series of posi segment I52, contact Pm, conductor H! to the tions P1 to P: the cam 41 operates to lower the midpoint between the relay winding and the re arm 48 in steps corresponding to the positions sistor R11. When relay' C1 opens due to the short of the dial switch arm 42, thereby decreasing the circuiting of the operating winding thereof, the value of the steam pressure in main ID at which upper contact of the relay interrupts the holding the pressure contact arm ‘38 is operated out of circuit through which the relay has previously engagement with the contact 31. As a result, been maintained energized. The short circuiting the pressure in the steam main I0 is changed of the other relay windings is accomplished in from a maximum operating value to a minimum substantially the same way. With the relay energizing and short circuiting operating value. For ordinary heating service these values may be assumed to be eight pound arrangement Just described, the dial switch arm steam pressure for the minimum value and eleven 42 is operated through one series of positions to pound steam pressure for the maximum value energize the relays and through an entirely dif although other values may be employed as de— ferent series of positions to deenergize the relays. This arrangement prevents temporary increases scribed. With the 8 to 11 pound normal oper ating range of steam pressures for device II, the in the pressure in the steam main ID from causing timing cutout pressure switch Iii may be set groups of the oil furnaces to be shut down as it to close its contact at the subnormal pressure requires a considerable interval of time for the of seven pounds and the excess pressure switch dial switch arm 42 to be operated by the control III may be set to open its contact at twelve motor 4| from the position at which any par pounds. ., The safety steam pressure switches I" for the individual boiler furnaces may be set to open at fourteen poinds. ‘Then the pop valves ordi— narily provided under safety rules on each in dividual boiler furnace may be set to open at 60 ductor I33 to the neutral supply line. The re sulting closure of switch 40 energizes motor 4| for operation in the direction required to rotate the fifteen pounds. In case the heating load on the steam main l0 decreases, the pressure in the steam main will rise due to the fact that the number of furnaces then in operation will supply more steam than is required to balance the load demand. As soon as the steam pressure rises sufficiently for the pressure responsive device 35 to operate the pressure contact 36 into engagement with the upper co-operating contacts )8, a circuit is es tabllshed from supply line L1 through conduc tors 80, “3, I35, upper contacts of switch It“, conductor I36, switch contact 36 and 38, limit switch I10 in the closed position, conductor I'll, the upper contact of switch 39, the operating 75 winding of switch 40 and thence through con ticular group of furnaces is started into opera tion to the different position at which the par ticular group is shut down. If during this inter val the steam pressure returns to its initial value, the movement of the dial switch arm 42 in the counter-clockwise direction is stopped so that the deenergizing position for the particular group of furnaces concerned will not be reached. Draft regulation As the number of groups of furnaces supplying steam to the steam main Ill is varied automati cally to meet the load demands, the volume of the products of combustion from the furnaces supplied to the main flue pipe 20 is varied corre spondingly. Hence, to maintain proper operating conditions, it is desirable that the forced draft be 70 controlled substantially in accordance with the number of furnaces operating and that the draft never be permitted to fall below ‘a predetermined minimum value. As shown in Fig. 1, the draft regulator DR is 7 2,129,626 connected by the main pipe I15 and the four branch pipes I16 so as to be responsive to draft conditions at a plurality of symmetrically lo cated points in the ?ue piping system for the furnaces. This provides an indication of the average draft condition for all the furnaces. When this average draft condition falls below The two time delay auxiliary contacts I14 are pro vided in order to prevent immediate closure of resistance controlling switch 15 in case selective switch S2 is thrown quickly from one position to the other with the draft fan operating at maxi mum speed. The delayed closure of switch 15 in the minimum operating valve, the draft regulat ing device DR. operates to open the contact I20. 10 With contacts I20 open it is impossible to com plete the safety circuit through which the con trol contactor I3I and the line switch I30 for the furnace groups are energized. In the arrangement shown in the drawings, the 15 low speed operation of either forced draft fan is sufficient to maintain the draft above the mini mum operating value as long as no more than two groups of furnaces are operating. Thus when the relay C1 is closed to start operation of fur 20 nace groups G1 and G8 or G2 and G1 depending upon the position of the selective switch S1,'the forced draft fan continues in operation at the minimum speed. However, when relay C2 is energized to start operation of an additional group of furnaces, the draft fan speed control relay C12 is energized. This relay in turn energizes the electromagnetic switch 13 to short circuit speed regulating re sistors R1, R4 and thereby increase the speed of 30 the forced draft fan. Relay C12 is energized through a circuit extending from the neutral supply line, conductor 81, the winding of relay C12, conductor I11, the lower contact of relay C2 in the closed position to supply line L2. The re sistor controlling contactor 13 is energized by a circuit extending from the neutral supply line, conductor 81, the winding of contactor 13, con ductor 88, the contacts of relay C12, conductor 88, the middle contact of one of the electro magnetic switches 53 or 54, and thence through conductors 82, 88 and 80 to supply line L1. The increased draft in the main flue pipe 20 due to the increased speed of the draft motor is then sufficient to take care not only of the group of furnaces added by closure of relay C2 but also the additional group of furnaces added by closure of relay Ca. However, when relay C4 is closed to start two additional groups of furnaces into operation, the relay C14 is energized. Relay C14 in turn energizes the speed resistor controlling switch 14 so as to short circuit the resistors R2 and R5 and thereby further increase the speed of ' sures that neither draft fan motor can be started with all the secondary resistance cut out. As the relays, C5, C4. C2, arev energized or de energized to start and stop operation of the 10 groups of boiler furnaces controlled thereby, it will be seen that the speed of the forced draft ‘fan is varied substantially in accordance with the number of heaters operating. This serves to maintain the draft above'the minimum operating 15 condition at all times. . In order further to control draft conditions, the reversible motor M23 is provided for operating the draft gate I18 to maintain the draft between de?nite operating limits. The reversible motor 20 M22 is controlled by the draft circulating device DR. Whenever the draft increases to the maxi mum operating value, the switch arm I80 is moved _ into engagement with the contacts I8I so as to operate the reversible motor M23 in the direction required to close the‘gate valve I18. The circuit controlled by switch I80 extends from the supply line L1 through conductors 80, I I3, I35, the lower contact of switch I3I in its upper position, con tacts I8I and thence through the operating wind ing of the electromagnetic switch I82 and con~ ductor 81 to the neutral supply line. Closure of said switch I82 energizes the motor M22 through the field winding I83 to effect operation thereof in the direction tending to close the gate valve As the' valve ‘closes the draft is restricted ' I18. and the draft regulator at once responds to dis engage the contact I80 from the contact I8I and thereby stop operation of the motor M23. Whenever the draft decreases to the minimum operating value, the contact arm I80 is operated into engagement with the contact I84 to energize the electromagnetic switch I85. Closure of switch I85 energizes the motor M23 through the ?eld winding I86 to effect operation of the motor in the direction tending to open the gate valve I18. Thus in addition to the variation of the speed of the forced draft fan in accordance with the num ber of furnaces operating, the draft is further controlled by the gate valve I18 at each operating 00 speed of the forced draft motor so as always to maintain the draft within the proper operating the forced 1draft fan which is operating. The draft due to the increased fan speed is then suffi cient to take care of the two additional groups of furnaces controlled by relay C4. Likewise, when limits. What I claim as new and desire to secure-by 55 Letters Patent of the United States is: l. The combination of a plurality of boiler relay C5 is closed to start the remaining two groups , furnaces connected to supply steam to a common of furnaces into operation, relay C15 and electro header and each boiler furnace having an elec magnetic switch 15 are energized to effect the trically operated oil burner mechanism for short circuiting of the resistors R2, R6 and thereby establishing combustion to generate steam there 60 increase the speed of the draft fan to the maxi in, means operable responsively to predetermined mum value. As the energizing circuits for re variation of the steam pressure in said header, lays C14 and C15 are substantially the same as for sequencing switch mechanism including a re relay C12 and as the energizing ‘circuit for re versible motor operated sequencing switch con sistance controlling switches 14 is substantially trolled by said pressure responsive means, a series the same as for switch 13, these circuits will be of separately operable electromagnetic switches apparent from the drawings without tracing in de~ controlled by said sequencing switch, and a multi tail. ' The energizing circuit for the resistance con 70 trolling switch 15 extends through the contacts of relay C15, conductor I13, and either one of the 'two time delay auxiliary contacts I14 with which the electromagnetic switches 53 and 54 are pro vided and thence through the operating winding 75 of electromagnetic switch 15 to conductor 18. ple contact reversing switch interconnected with said electromagnetic switches for controlling the energization of said oil burner mechanisms to 70 start and stop operation thereof in reversible sequences to regulate the steam pressure. 2. In combination, a plurality of automatic combustion heaters connected to a common heat ing load,‘ control means responsive to predeter 75 8 2,129,526‘ mined variations in said heating load and hav ing load, means responsive to predetermined var ing a sequencing device controlled thereby for' iations in said heating load and having a mov starting and stopping operation of said heaters able control member operable through a series in a predetermined sequence and a timing device of control positions, and control means operable periodically starting and stopping operation of upon movement of said member in one direction said sequencing device, and automatic means for to each control position for energizing a corre rendering said timing device ineffective in the sponding heater and operable upon movement sequential starting of said heaters upon a pre~ of said member in the reverse direction from determined abnormal variation in said load. predetermined control positions past adjacent 10 3. In combination, a plurality of devices for control positions for deenergizing the heaters 10 supplying a common load, timed sequencing con trol means responsive to predetermined varia tions in said load for starting and stopping op eration of said devices in a predetermined timed 15 sequence, a separate timing means for interpos ing an additional time delay in the sequential starting of said devices, and means for render ing said separate time delay means ineffective upon a predetermined abnormal variation in said 20 load. 4. In combination, a plurality of boiler fur naces connected to supply steam to a common steam header and each having an automatic burner mechanism for establishing combustion to generate steam therein, means responsive to predetermined'variations of the steam pressure in said header, timed sequencing means con trolled by said pressure responsive means for starting and stopping operation of said auto matic burner mechanism in a predetermined timed sequence, a separate timing means for in terposing an additional time delay in the se quential starting of said automatic burner mech anism, and pressure responsive means operable when the steampressure in said header is below a predetermined value for renderingv said sep arate timing means inoperative. 5. In combination, a plurality of electrically corresponding to said predetermined positions. 9. The combination of a plurality of automati cally operable oil tired boiler furnaces connected to a common steam header and each having a sep arately operable electromagnetic switch for auto 15 matically starting and stopping operation of the corresponding furnace, control switch mechanism operable responsively to predetermined variations of pressure in said steam header and having a member movable through a series of circuit con 20 trolling positions for successively energizing said electromagnetic switches to start operation of said furnaces in a predetermined sequence, and means whereby movement of said movable member in the reverse direction from predetermined circuit 25 controlling positions beyond the next adjacent position is required to deenergize the electromag netic switch corresponding to said predetermined positions. ‘ 10. In combination, a plurality of separately op erable electromagnetic switches, a dial switch having a contact arm movable in one direction over one series of stationary contacts for ener gizing said electromagnetic switches in a prede termined sequence and movable in the opposite direction over another series of contacts in offset relation with said one series of contacts for de energizing said electromagnetic switches in the controlled automatic combustion heaters con nected to a common heating load, switch :mecha nism having an off position and a plurality of reverse sequence at a different position of said movable contact arm.’ circuit closing positions for selectively connect ing said heaters for operation in diiferent se quences, automatic means responsive to prede termined variations in said heating load, and electrically operated switching means controlled by said automatic means and electrically inter sponsive devices, each having current limiting 11. In combination a plurality of electro-re means in the energizing circuit thereof, a master switch having a series of circuit making positions for energizing said electroresponsive devices in a predetermined sequence, switching means oper ated by each device for maintaining the device en locked with said selective switch mechanism to ergized independently of said master switch be rendered e?ective upon operation of said se mechanism, said master switch mechanism hav 60 lective switch mechanism from the oiT position - ing a second series of circuit making contacts for to one of said circuit closing positions for start short circuiting said electroresponsive devices in ing and stopping operation of said heaters in the opposite sequence. the sequence determined by said selective switch 12. The combination of ‘a plurality of automati ing means. ‘ 55 6. In combination, a plurality of automatic combustion heaters connected to a common heat ing load and a load responsive control device having means for starting said heaters in oper ation sequentially as the load increases through a predetermined series of values and having means for stopping operation of the heaters se quentially as the load decreases through a lower predetermined series of values. 7. The combination of a plurality of electrical 65 ly controlled combustion heaters connected to a common heating load, a, movable switch mem ber having one series of circuit controlling con— tacts for energizing said heaters in, a prede termined sequence and a separate series of co 70 operating circuit controlling contacts for de energizing said heaters in reverse sequence, and means responsive to variations in said heating load for operating said member. 8. In combination, a plurality of automatic 75 combustion heaters connected to a common heat , cally ?red boiler furnace units for supplying steam to a common header and each having a separably 55 operable valve for disconnecting the unit from said common steam header, automatic means re sponsive to predetermined variations in the steam pressure of said header for starting and stopping operation of said units in sequence, separate 60 means responsive to the steam pressure of each boiler furnace unit with the corresponding dis connecting valve closed for automatically stop ping operation thereof when said pressure reaches an excessive value, and means responsive to pres sure in said steam header for automatically stop ping operation of all of the units when the steam pressure reaches a predetermined lower value. 65 13. In a heating system, the combination of a plurality of automatically operable electrically 70 controlled oil ?red boiler furnace units for sup plying steam to a common header and each hav ing a separately operable valve for disconnecting the unit from said common steam header, auto matic means responsive to variations of the steam 75, 9 2,129,526 pressure of said header between predetermined limits for starting and stopping operation of said unit in sequence, safety means responsive to steam pressure of said main above said upper limit for automatically stopping operation of all of said units, and separately operable means responsive to generation of a still higher value of steam pres sure in each of said units when the corresponding 10 disconnecting valve is closed for ‘automatically stopping operation of said unit independently of the control of said safety steam pressure respon sive means. I 14. In a heating system, the combination of a heating load, a common ?ue for said combustion units havinga variable speed electric motor driven fan for inducing a draft therein, control means for initiating operation of said fan at low speed, automatic means responsive to the variations in said heating load and rendered e?ective upon op eration of said control means for starting and stopping operation of said combustion units in a predetermined sequence and means under the control of said automatic means for increasing 10 and decreasing the operating speed of said fan _ - upon the starting and stopping respectively of predetermined units in the sequence. plurality of automatic ignition combustion units '15 operable in sequence for supplying a variable HARRY R. CRAGO. CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION. Patent No . 2,129, 526. ‘September 6,‘ 1958. HARRY a. CRAGO. It is herebyr certified‘ that error appears in the printed specification "of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 5, first _ column, line 211,, for the reference character "L2" read L1; page 6, second column, line 52, for "C11" read C1; page 7, first column, line 8, for the word "valve"_ read value: and that the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case‘ in the Patent Office. ” Signed and sealed this 22nd day 61" November, A. D. 1958. Henry Van Areclale‘v (Seal) Acting Commissioner of Patents.