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Sept. 13, 1938. E. B; 5mm ET AL 7 _ MANUFACTURE OF WROUGHT ’ ' ' IRON 2,129,711 ‘ ‘ Filed March 50, 1937 I . 7 \ 'ZSHTOAINOG _ l2) CONVERTS CUPQ-DLAS 14% ‘ INVENTJORS Bab/ward .BStory . fvard??est ~ .1 WM 2,129,717 Patented Sept. 13, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT ' OFFICE 2,129,717 MANUFACTURE OF WROUGHT IRON Edward B. Story, Dormont, and Evard P. Best, Edgeworth, Pa., assignors to A. M. Byers Com pany, Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Penn sylvania Application March 30, 1937, Serial No. 133,809 9 Claims. (CI. 75-47) This invention relates to the manufacture of fered with the speedy and uniform operation of wrought iron, and more particularly to the man ufacture of wrought iron by the now well known Aston process in which molten ferrous material 5 is admixed with molten slag to form a wrought iron sponge ball. ' . In carrying out the Aston process the speed at which the various operations are performed and the ability to maintain such speed uniform are 10 of great importance. The speed of operation and the uniformity of such speed are important both from the standpoint of economy and from the standpoint of temperature control, which is directly related to the quality of the product. For years A. M. Byers Company has been seek ing to increase the economy of the process by in creasing the speed of operation, but prior to the present invention the speed of operation has been undesirably slow. Moreover, the speed of 20 operation has to a considerable extent been non uniform due to conditions obtaining in the proc ess as heretofore practiced which have inevitably resulted in substantial time lags. Such time lags have detrimentally affected temperature control 25 and, consequently, the quality of the wrought iron produced. ' We have discovered that by utilizing an entirely different procedure than heretofore we can great ly increase the speed of operation of the Aston the process. We find that best results are obtained by em ploying fewer active slag receptacles than here tofore and reducing the number of processing or 5 shutting machines in operation. We prefer to employ only two processing machines and only two active slag receptacles. By “active slag re ceptacles” we mean receptacles which at any given time contain wrought iron sponge balls or 10 have such balls in the process of formation there in. We preferably manipulate. the two active slag receptacles in such a way that substantially at all times ferrous material is being introduced into at least one thereof to form a ball. When 15 optimum operation is obtained the ball-forming step is completed in one slag receptacle substan tially simultaneously with the arrival of the other slag receptacle at the processing station, and ball formation in the second slag receptacle com- 20 mences immediately, the ?rst slag receptacle be ing forthwith removed‘to the slag transfer sta tion. -By the time the ball-forming operation is completedin the second slag receptacle another slag receptacle (which may be the ?rst slag re- 25 ceptacle but which, as will presently be described, is- preferably a different slag receptacle substi tuted in place of the ?rst Slag receptacle) ar rives at the processing station and the cycle is thus repeated substantially continuously without 30 any appreciable time lag during which processing of speed, thereby at the‘same time increasing the is not taking place. economy of the process and insuring the neces The mode of operation above mentioned is sary close temperature control and, consequently,. -. found to considerably-increase the quantity of the production of wrought iron of uniformly high wrought iron produced during a given time. It 35 ‘ 35 quality. avoids time lags in the process, particularly in The basic features of the Aston process are the supplying of ferrous material. A much closer 30 process and also insure much greater uniformity adhered to,—that is to say,. we still admix molten ferrous material and molten slag to form a wrought iron sponge ball. We also preferably 40 follow the teachings of the earlier Aston patents by introducing molten ferrous material into a bath of molten slag to form the ball. The ‘molten ferrous material and molten slag are basically the same as those which have heretofore been 45 used, ‘but the manner of manipulating the slag receptacles and the handling and returning of the excess slag are entirely different. We have discovered that by shifting the slag receptacles temperature control is obtainable and a higher quality product produced. _ , Due to the increased speed of operation we 40 ?nd it desirable to take certain measures here tofore not employed to control the slag tempera ture,-that is, to prevent the slag temperature from rising to the point at which the proper temperature differential between the ferrous ma- 45 terial and the slag is no longer obtained. It has long been appreciated that a proper temperature differential is essential to production of wrought iron of high quality.’ With the speeded-up proc ess the slag temperature tends to increase be- 50 to and from the processing station in'such man ner that at least one thereof is disposed at the ' yond the proper temperature for admixture with the molten ferrous material, and we take certain processing station at all times so as to be avail able to receive ferrous material supplied from the source of ferrous material we can eliminate 55 time lags which heretofore have seriously inter novel steps to counteract this tendency. We prefer to maintain a supply of ‘slag re ceptacles in addition to the number of slag re- 55 2 2,129,717 ceptacles apparently required for carrying out the process, which slag receptacles are relatively cold as compared with those in use, and to substitute ‘slag receptaclesrfrom such supply for the slag Cl receptacles which have become highly heated in use. The frequency with which the slag recep tacles are thus changed and the number of slag receptacles in the supply above mentioned fur platform through which the procwsing ladles pour their contents during the processing oper atlon; Operating on the track ‘I is a single motive unit indicated diagrammatically as an engine 8 which may be a steam or electric engine in or other suitable motive unit operable in both directions as indicated by the arrow A. There are also provided four trucks or cars for carry nishes a de?nite control for the slag temperature. ing slag receptacles, such cars being designated 10 We ?nd it highly desirable when removing a slag receptacle from active use to allow the same to remain inactive and cool off during a plurality of cycles of the process. We may also employ either separately or in conjunction with the method‘just mentioned an generally by reference numerals 9a, 9b, 9c and other method of controlling the temperature of the slag, this being by incorporating with the molten slag quantities of cold solidi?ed slag inter mediate ball-forming operations as described and claimed in our copending application Serial No. 133,808, ?led of even date'herewith. On occa sions both the supplying of cold solidi?ed slag intermediate ball-forming operations and the re 9d, respectively. 1!) Such cars are disposed in two groups‘ of two each, the engine 3 being disposed between such two groups. One group comprises the cars to and 9b and the other group the cars 90 and 9d, as shown. Reference numeral Ill indicates an overhead crane operable on tracks l i and adapted to carry and manipulate a suitable transfer container such as a ladle to transfer the re?ned ferrous ma terial from the converters 4 to the processing 20 machine ladles. Reference numeral l2 desig nates a press into which the wrought iron sponge balls are dumped as will presently be described. placement of heated slag receptacles by rela Reference numeral l3 designates a pair of slag tively cold slag receptacles as above explained is furnaces for supplying molten slag suitable for 25 found desirable to obtain the proper slag tem admixture with the molten ferrous material sup perature control. plied by the converters' d to form wrought iron Other details, objects and advantages of the sponge balls. Reference numerals M and i5 invention will become apparent as the following designate respectively a pair of overhead cranes 30 description of certain present preferred embodi operating on tracks it for purposes to be pres- ' ments thereof and certain present preferred ently. described. Reference numeral l'l desig methods of practicing the same proceeds. nates generally a supply of slag receptacles dis In the accompanying drawing we have shown posed at a convenient location within the oval diagrammatically a present preferred plant track ‘l and adapted for use in a manner to be arrangement for carrying out the invention. described. I The general layout of the plant, as indicated As mentioned above, the general plant layout diagrammatically in the drawing, is similar to that,described in detail in the copending appli cation of Herman A. Brassert, Serial No. $26,984:, 40 ?led July 30, 1932, which has matured into Patent 2,095,965. .We shall describe herein only the more important apparatus, the auxiliary appa _ ratus and the details of operation of the plant being described in said Brassert application. The ferrous material for making the wrought 45 iron is supplied by three cupolas designated generally by reference numeral 2. The molten ferrous material from the cupolas is transported . is substantially the same as that disclosed in said Brassert application and therefore minor de tails are being omitted from the present descrip tion. We shall now proceed to describe our pre ferred method of operation whereby the advan 40 tages above pointed out are obtained. Assuming that the two converters 4 are tapped alternately, the re?ned ferrous material de livered by each is transferred in a transfer con 45 tainer such as a ladle, which may, for example, be moved on a buggy along the track 3 to a position generally opposite the platform 5, where it may be lifted by the overhead crane Hi. In our preferred method of operation we utilize only the two outside processing machines to and 66 of on a track 3 to one or both of a pair of Bessemer 50 converters 61 into which it is charged. The con verters may be used alternately or one of them only may be used during a given operating period, ' the group of ?ve, the three interior processing re?ned ferrous material suitable for the manu facture of wrought iron being supplied by the 55 converter or converters in batches at substan tially uniform intervals. . There is provided a processing or shotting sta machines 6b, 6c and 611 not being used. The entire group of ?ve is shown simply because the plant is in general the same as is disclosed in said 55 Brassert application and was designed for ?ve machines; moreover, under certain circumstances tion at which is an elevated platform 5 having . we may utilize more than two machines as will mounted thereon ?ve processing or shotting mag 60 chines designated generally by reference nu merals 6a, 6b, 6c, 6d and 6e, respectively. The be explained below, although this is not at present preferred. We ?nd that the best results are obtained by using only the two outside proc processing station and the processing machines essing machines. ,. are preferably substantially as described in said At the beginningjof a run a portion (for ex Brassert application and in Wille Patent No. ample, half) of the contents of the transfer con 65 1,933,577 and hence will not herein be described ' tainer is poured, let ussay, into the ladle of the 65 in detail.v Each processing machine preferably left-hand processing machine 60. At such time comprises a lip-pour ladle which, as it pours, the two cars 9a and 9b to the left of the engine oscillates angularly and also longitudinally of the 8, operatively speaking, and considering the plant machine. There is an opening in the platform 5 as shown in the drawing, are disposed at the 70 through which each of the processing machine processing station with one of such cars, for ex 70 ladles pours its contents during the processing ample, the car 9a beneath the processing ma; operation. chine 6a and carrying a slag‘receptacle contain At a level below. the level of the platform 5 is ing a bath of molten slag at proper temperature an oval track 1 a portion of which passes beneath for admixture with the molten ferrous material 75 the platform and beneath the openings in the supplied from the converters for formation of a 75 . 3 2,129,717 wrought iron sponge ball. As soon as the portion of the contents of the transfer container above mentioned has been transferred to the ladle of the processing machine 6a such processing ma (Fl chine commences operation, pouring such ferrous material into the slag bath in the slag receptacle slag receptacle containing the ball just formed beneath the processing machine 6e and decants the excess slag into the slag receptacle which has just been set down on the car 9d. tents into the ladle of the right-hand process ing machine lie. The transfer. container is then returned to receive the re?ned ferrous ma_ terial tapped from the converter other than that just previously tapped. As soon as the processing machine 6a has com 15 pleted itsoperation the engine pushes the two cars 9a and 9b toward the left to a position ad jacent the press [2 as shown in the drawing. As soon as the train stops the overhead crane It sets 20 down on the car 91), which is initially empty, an empty slag receptacle. The overhead crane then picks up from the car So the slag receptacle con taining the ball, and which also contains excess slag in accordance with the normal operation of 25 the» Aston process, and decants the excess slag containing the decanted slag is spotted under neath the processing machine 6e. The ball is 10 dumped into the press as before. As will be seen from the above description, our preferred method of procedure can apparently be carried out using only three slag receptacles, that is, if no question of temperature control ‘were involved, three slag receptacles would be 15' sufficient. The slag receptacles in which a ball is formed in one processing operation at one of the process’ng machines may be used to receive into the empty slag receptacle which it has just set down on the car 9b. Immediately upon com pletion of the decanting operation the train moves back to a position with the car 9b under 30 neath the processing machine 6a. During the movement of the train from the processing sta tion to the position adjacent the press, the de canting operation and the return movement of the train, the transfer‘ container has brought an-' 35 other charge of molten ferrous material from one of the converters and has transferred a portion of its contents into the ladle of the processing ma-_ chine (id, as previously described. This transfer operation is completed about the time the train I returns to the processing station so that substan tially as soon as the car 9b containing the slag receptacle with the decanted slag in it is spotted ‘ under the processing machine 6a such machine 45 commences operation to repeat the cycle. Meanwhile, the overhead crane I4 dumps the wrought iron sponge ball from the slag receptacle used for the ?rst processing operation into the press 12, wherein the sponge ball is compressed into a bloom, after which the bloom is removed 50 to the blooming mill. At the same time as this is‘ happening, and also during the movements of the train previously described, the processing ma chine Be is in operation pouring the contents of its ladle into a slag receptacle containing a slag C! iii bath positioned on one of the two right-hand cars 90 and 9d, for example the car So, which is spotted underneath the processing machine 6e. Such processing machine completes its operation about the time the car 9b with the slag receptacle 60 containing the decanted slag is‘ spotted under the processing machine (in. After such car is spotted the engine is uncoupled from the two left-hand cars, moved toward the right, viewing the draw ing, a short distance to enable it to be coupled 65 to the two right-hand cars, and it is then coupled to such cars and the train comprising the engine and the two right-hand cars is then moved toward the right to a position adjacent the slag furnaces. _ The overhead crane l4 sets down on the empty 70 car 9d an empty slag receptacle, which may be the slag receptacle from which the previously mentioned ball was dumped into the press or one of the slag receptacles from the ‘supply located within the oval track, as will presently be ex 75 p-lained, and then picks up from the car 90 the in immediately moves back to the processing sta tion and the car 9d carrying the slag receptacle above mentioned. The transfer container then immediately moves over and pours another por tion (for example, the remainder) of its con As soon as the decanting operation is‘completed the train the decanted slag from the succeeding processing operation at the other processing machine and 20 thus alternate in ball-forming operations be tween the two processing machines. Theoreti- . cally, disregarding the question of temperature control, each of the three slag receptacles would be used in the same way and the process would go 25 on inde?nitely. ' , - ‘ Due, however, to the. increased speed of the operation, the fact that the slag is from time to time replenished with additional molten slag, as will presently be described, and the relatively 30 large size of the balls which are produced, the slag receptacles heat up undesirably and the increased temperature of the slag receptacles results in the gradual building up of the tempera- ‘ ture of the slag bath. The molten ferrous ma 35 terial which is poured into the slag is at a. tem perature substantially higher than the slag and heats up the slag. Heretofore the time ‘lags have generally been sufficient to allow the slag to cool off so. that its temperature does not build up undesirably,—-that is to say, the heat losses in the slag due to the slowness of the operation have compensated for the heat gains from vthe molten ferrous material. However, as pointed out above, the process was unsatisfactory from the standpoint of economy and the speed of op eration was not uniform, resulting at times in the production of wrought iron of poor quality which could not be used. ‘ The tendency of the slag receptacles to heat 50 up is preferably counteracted by substituting from time to time a relatively cold slag receptacle from the supply H for one of the slag receptacles which has become heated. When it-is desired to make such a substitution the heated slag recepta cle after the ball has been dumped therefrom is preferably set down on the ?oor and .one of the relatively cold slag receptacles from the supply I‘! is picked up and used in its place, the process otherwise continuing exactly as above described. 60 If desired the excess slag from a slag receptacle containing a ball may be decanted directly into a relatively cold slag receptacle while still in place at the location of the supply l1, after which the ball may be dumped, the receptacle 65 from which the ball was dumped set down at the location of the supply I‘! and the receptacle into which the excess slag was decanted picked up and set on the train. However, we find it preferable to set the relatively cold slag recepta 70 cle from the supply I‘! on the train before de canting and to decant into it when in position on the train. This saves one manipulative step, as the crane can be ready with the relatively cold slag receptacle and set such receptacle down on 75 2,129,717 the train as soon as the train stops at the slag transfer station. It will be appreciated that a regular procedure can be worked out to control the slag tempera ture for any particular speed of operation em ployed. The frequency with which the heated slag receptacles are replaced by relatively-cold slag receptacles and the number of slag recepta cles in the supply I‘! can be such that the total 10 numberof slag receptacles can be continuously rotated in use. If, for example, a total of eleven by employing a somewhat greater‘ number of processing machines and active slag ‘receptacles at the same time, as, for example, four. However, when four active slag receptacles are employed; simultaneously continuity of the operation will be, at least to some extent, interrupted, especially during decanting, as a greater time is required to decant excess slag from two slag receptacles than from one. Moreover, it is only feasible to employ a single overhead crane in the decanting 10 and ball-dumping operations and such crane can slag receptacles is employed, three of these will only handle one slag receptacle at a time, so it The other eight will , is inevitable that the greater the number of active constitute the supply from which relatively cold slag receptacles employed. at any one time the 15 slag receptacles are taken. Each time a heated greater will be the time lagduring decanting and slag receptacle is replaced by a relatively cold dumping of the vballs into the press. ' be in use at any one time. slag receptacle the heated slag receptacle may take its place in rotation and will go into active use again at the eighth change thereafter. 20 Meanwhile it will‘ be cooling off so that when it again'goesinto active use it will be relatively cold as the term is employed herein. As mentioned above, the slag is from time to time replenished by additional molten slag from 25 the slag furnaces 13. This slag is preferably de livered in a ladle carried by the crane l5. Or dinarily it is most convenient to effect replenish ment by delivering the replenishing slag into an .empty slag receptacle,. which may be a slag re 30 ceptacle from which a ball has justbeen dumped or a relatively cold slag receptacle from the sup ply l'l. This may be done during the time inter val between the dumping of the ball formed in the preceding processing operation at one of the 35 processing machines and the decanting into the slag receptacle of the excess slag from the next processing operation at the other processing ma chine. Slag replenishment may, however, be ef fected at any convenient point in the cycle. 40 For example, the replenishing slag may be intro duced into a slag receptacle after processing therein and before decanting, or it may be in troduced simultaneously with decanting, or it may be introduced into a slag receptacle contain ' 45 ing decanted slag after decanting. Also, as mentioned above, the process of tem perature control disclosed in our said copending application may be employed either alone or in conjunction with the method of temperature con 50 trol above described. In our said copending ap plication there is described and claimed a method While we have shown-and described'certain present preferred embodiments of the'invention , and certain present preferred methods of practic ing the same, it is to .be'distinctly understood that the invention is not limited thereto, but may be otherwise variously embodied and prac ticed within the scope of the following claims. We claim: ' - 1. In the manufacture of wrought iron by th 25 Aston process wherein molten ferrous material is introduced into receptacles containing molten slag at a processing station to form wrought iron sponge balls, the steps comprising alternately moving slag containing receptacles to the process 30 ing station along' di?erentpaths and so that at. least one thereof is disposed at the processing station at all timeaintroducing ferrous material into said ‘receptacles at the processing station, re moving said receptacles from the processing. sta- ' tion after introduction of the ferrous material thereinto and removing the balls therefrom.' 2. In the manufacture of wrought iron by the Aston process wherein molten ferrous material is introduced into receptacles containing molten 40. ' slag at a processing station to form wrought iron‘ sponge balls, the steps comprising supplying molten ferrous material to said processing sm tion in a container, transferring a portion'of'the molten ferrous material in said container into a pouring receptacle at the 'processing' station, simultaneously with said transference pouring ferrous material from another pouring receptacle at said processing station into a slag receptacle containing a bath of molten slag, and thereafter ‘transferring another portion of the moltenv of temperature control which comprises incor ferrousmaterial in said container into said sec-. porating with the molten slag quantities of cold ond mentioned pouring receptacle, and simul solidi?ed slag intermediate ball-forming opera taneously with said second mentioned trans 55 tions. If balls of comparatively large size are ferenceepouring the ferrous material previously being produced and the process is being operated transferred into the ?rst mentioned pouring re at high speed it may be desirable to combine both ceptacle into another slag receptacle containing methods of temperature control. a bath of molten slag and also simultaneously with The lower portion of the oval track 1, viewing, said second mentioned pouring step removing the 60 the drawing, is not used at all in our preferred ball from the ?rst mentioned slag receptacle and method of operation. It is shown in the draw I providing a bath of molten slag for the succeed ing because it is a part of the track actually em ing pouring operation from said second men ployed at the Ambridge plant of A. M. Byers tioned pouring receptacle. . Company. It may on occasion be used to cope 3. In the manufacture of wrought iron by the Aston process, the steps comprising admixing mol 65 with particular situations which may arise. As explained above, the use of only two active ten ferrous material with quantities of molten slag slag receptacles at any one time is preferred be cause this has been found to give the highest efficiency. When only two active slag receptacles 70 are employed at one time and the process is prop erly synchronized as above described, processing into one or the other of the two active slag re ceptacles will be substantially continuous. If for any reason it is found necessary to slightly re 75 duce the speed of the operation this can be done more than su?icient to form with theferrous mate rial wrought iron sponge balls and thereby forming wrought iron sponge balls_with excess molten slag, separating the balls and excess slag, utilizing the excess slag in preparation of baths of molten slag 70: and subsequent ball-forming operations and maintaining the slagbaths at such temperature as to insure proper ball formation by cooling the, same by substituting intermediate ball-forming 75 ' 2,129,717 5 operations relatively cold receptacles for the re ceptacles containing the slag baths and which have become undesirably heated due to the heat of the molten slag and ferrous material. tioned receptacle to form said second mentioned wrought iron sponge ball. 7. In the manufacture of wrought iron by the Aston process wherein molten ferrous material - 4. In the manufacture pf wrought iron by the’ Aston process wherein molten ferrous material is introduced at ‘a processing station into recep tacles containing quantities of molten slag more than 'su?icient to form with the ferrous material tacles containing quantities of molten slag more wrought iron sponge balls, the steps comprising than sufficient to form with the ferrous material 10 wrought iron sponge balls and thereby forming wrought iron sponge balls with excess molten slag, the steps comprising shifting said recep tacles to and from the processing station in such manner that at least one thereof is disposed 15 at the processing station at all times, introducing ferrous material into said receptacles at the processing station, separating the balls and ex cess slag, utilizing the excess slag in preparation of baths of molten slag for subsequent ball 20 forming operations and ‘maintaining the slag baths at such temperature as to insure proper ball formation by cooling the same by substitut ing intermediate ball-forming operations rela tively cold receptacles for the receptacles con 25 taining the slag baths and which have become undesirably heated due to the heat of the molten slag and ferrous material. 5. In the manufacture of wrought iron by the Aston process, the steps comprising admixing in 30 a receptacle molten ferrous material with a quantity of molten slag more than suf?cient to form with the ferrous material a wrought iron sponge ball and thereby forming a wrought iron is introduced at a processing station into recep shifting said receptacles to and from the process ing station in such manner that at least one 10 thereof is disposed at the processing station at all times, introducing ferrous material into said receptacles at the processing station, providing a supply ‘of receptacles in addition to the number of receptacles apparently required for carrying 15 out the process, separating the ball formed in one of said ?rst mentioned receptacles and the slag in such receptacle not incorporated in they ball, utilizing such slag‘ as at least a part of a quantity of molten slag for admixture with fer 20 rous material in a subsequent ball-forming oper ation and, prior to such subsequent ball-forming operation, disposing such quantity of molten slag in a receptacle from said supply which has re mained unused during a plurality of cycles of 25 the process. 8. In the manufacture of wrought iron by the Aston process wherein molten ferrous material H is introduced into receptacles containing molten slag at a processing station to form wrought iron 30 sponge balls, the steps comprising moving at least one slag containing receptacle to the proc essing station along one path,. introducing molten ferrous material into said- receptacle at said sta sponge ball with an excess of molten slag, sepa rating the ball and the slag in the receptacle not ' tion, before removing said receptacle from said 35 35 incorporated in the ball, utilizing such slag as at least a part of a quantity‘ of molten slag for admixture with ferrous material to form another wrought iron sponge ball, disposing such quantity 40 of molten slag in a receptacle which is relatively cold in comparison with said ?rst mentioned re ceptacle, admixing .molten ferrous material with such slag in said second mentioned receptacle to form said second mentioned wrought iron sponge .45 ball and allowing said ?rst mentioned receptacle to cool during a plurality of cycles of the process vvbefore returning it to use. 6. In the manufacture of wrought'iron by the Aston process, the steps comprising admixing in station moving at least one other slag containing receptacle to said station along another path for another ball-forming operation, and then re moving said ?rst mentioned receptacle from said station‘. 9. In the manufacture of wrought ‘iron by the Aston process wherein molten ferrous material . is introduced into receptacles containing molten slag at a processing station to form wrought iron sponge balls, the steps comprising supplying a 45 quantity of molten ferrous material to a pouring receptacle at the processing station, simultane ously with said supplying step pouring the fer rous material from another pouring receptacle 50 a receptacle molten ferrous material with a quan- . at said processing station into a slag receptacle tity of molten slag more than su?icient to form containing a bath of molten slag, and thereafter with the ferrous material a wrought iron sponge supplying another quantity of molten ferrous ball and thereby forming a wrought iron sponge material to said second mentioned pouring re ball with an excess of molten slag, providing a ceptacle, ‘and simultaneously with said second 55 supply of receptacles in addition to the number mentioned supplying step pouring the ferrous of receptacles apparently required for carrying material previously supplied to the ?rst men out the process, separating the ball and the slag tioned pouring receptacle into another slag re in said ?rst mentioned receptacle not incorpo ceptacle containing a bath of molten slag and rated in the ball, utilizing such slag as at least also simultaneously with said second mentioned pouring step removing the ball from the ?rst 60 a part of a quantity of molten slag for admix ture with ferrous material to form another mentioned slag receptacle and providing a bath ' ,wrought iron sponge ball, disposing such quantity of molten slag for the succeeding pouring oper of molten slag in a receptacle from said supply ation from said second mentioned pouring recep which has remained unused during a plurality of tacle. cycles of the process, and admixing molten fer EDWARD B. STORY. EVARD P. BEST. rous material with such slag in said last men-'