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Патент USA US2129717

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Sept. 13, 1938.
E. B; 5mm ET AL
7
_
MANUFACTURE
OF
WROUGHT
’
' '
IRON
2,129,711
‘
‘
Filed March 50, 1937
I
.
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'ZSHTOAINOG _
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CONVERTS
CUPQ-DLAS
14% ‘
INVENTJORS
Bab/ward .BStory
.
fvard??est
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WM
2,129,717
Patented Sept. 13, 1938
UNITED STATES
PATENT ' OFFICE
2,129,717
MANUFACTURE OF WROUGHT IRON
Edward B. Story, Dormont, and Evard P. Best,
Edgeworth, Pa., assignors to A. M. Byers Com
pany, Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Penn
sylvania
Application March 30, 1937, Serial No. 133,809
9 Claims. (CI. 75-47)
This invention relates to the manufacture of fered with the speedy and uniform operation of
wrought iron, and more particularly to the man
ufacture of wrought iron by the now well known
Aston process in which molten ferrous material
5 is admixed with molten slag to form a wrought
iron sponge ball.
'
.
In carrying out the Aston process the speed at
which the various operations are performed and
the ability to maintain such speed uniform are
10 of great importance.
The speed of operation
and the uniformity of such speed are important
both from the standpoint of economy and from
the standpoint of temperature control, which is
directly related to the quality of the product.
For years A. M. Byers Company has been seek
ing to increase the economy of the process by in
creasing the speed of operation, but prior to the
present invention the speed of operation has
been undesirably slow. Moreover, the speed of
20 operation has to a considerable extent been non
uniform due to conditions obtaining in the proc
ess as heretofore practiced which have inevitably
resulted in substantial time lags. Such time lags
have detrimentally affected temperature control
25 and, consequently, the quality of the wrought
iron produced.
'
We have discovered that by utilizing an entirely
different procedure than heretofore we can great
ly increase the speed of operation of the Aston
the process.
We find that best results are obtained by em
ploying fewer active slag receptacles than here
tofore and reducing the number of processing or 5
shutting machines in operation. We prefer to
employ only two processing machines and only
two active slag receptacles. By “active slag re
ceptacles” we mean receptacles which at any
given time contain wrought iron sponge balls or 10
have such balls in the process of formation there
in. We preferably manipulate. the two active
slag receptacles in such a way that substantially
at all times ferrous material is being introduced
into at least one thereof to form a ball. When 15
optimum operation is obtained the ball-forming
step is completed in one slag receptacle substan
tially simultaneously with the arrival of the other
slag receptacle at the processing station, and
ball formation in the second slag receptacle com- 20
mences immediately, the ?rst slag receptacle be
ing forthwith removed‘to the slag transfer sta
tion. -By the time the ball-forming operation is
completedin the second slag receptacle another
slag receptacle (which may be the ?rst slag re- 25
ceptacle but which, as will presently be described,
is- preferably a different slag receptacle substi
tuted in place of the ?rst Slag receptacle) ar
rives at the processing station and the cycle is
thus repeated substantially continuously without 30
any appreciable time lag during which processing
of speed, thereby at the‘same time increasing the
is
not taking place.
economy of the process and insuring the neces
The mode of operation above mentioned is
sary close temperature control and, consequently,. -. found to considerably-increase the quantity of
the production of wrought iron of uniformly high wrought iron produced during a given time. It 35
‘
35 quality.
avoids time lags in the process, particularly in
The basic features of the Aston process are the supplying of ferrous material. A much closer
30 process and also insure much greater uniformity
adhered to,—that is to say,. we still admix molten
ferrous material and molten slag to form a
wrought iron sponge ball. We also preferably
40 follow the teachings of the earlier Aston patents
by introducing molten ferrous material into a
bath of molten slag to form the ball. The ‘molten
ferrous material and molten slag are basically
the same as those which have heretofore been
45 used, ‘but the manner of manipulating the slag
receptacles and the handling and returning of
the excess slag are entirely different. We have
discovered that by shifting the slag receptacles
temperature control is obtainable and a higher
quality product produced.
_
, Due to the increased speed of operation we 40
?nd it desirable to take certain measures here
tofore not employed to control the slag tempera
ture,-that is, to prevent the slag temperature
from rising to the point at which the proper
temperature differential between the ferrous ma- 45
terial and the slag is no longer obtained. It has
long been appreciated that a proper temperature
differential is essential to production of wrought
iron of high quality.’ With the speeded-up proc
ess the slag temperature tends to increase be- 50
to and from the processing station in'such man
ner that at least one thereof is disposed at the ' yond the proper temperature for admixture with
the molten ferrous material, and we take certain
processing station at all times so as to be avail
able to receive ferrous material supplied from
the source of ferrous material we can eliminate
55
time lags which heretofore have seriously inter
novel steps to counteract this tendency.
We prefer to maintain a supply of ‘slag re
ceptacles in addition to the number of slag re- 55
2
2,129,717
ceptacles apparently required for carrying out the
process, which slag receptacles are relatively cold
as compared with those in use, and to substitute
‘slag receptaclesrfrom such supply for the slag
Cl
receptacles which have become highly heated in
use. The frequency with which the slag recep
tacles are thus changed and the number of slag
receptacles in the supply above mentioned fur
platform through which the procwsing ladles
pour their contents during the processing oper
atlon; Operating on the track ‘I is a single
motive unit indicated diagrammatically as an
engine 8 which may be a steam or electric engine in
or other suitable motive unit operable in both
directions as indicated by the arrow A. There
are also provided four trucks or cars for carry
nishes a de?nite control for the slag temperature.
ing slag receptacles, such cars being designated
10 We ?nd it highly desirable when removing a
slag receptacle from active use to allow the same
to remain inactive and cool off during a plurality
of cycles of the process.
We may also employ either separately or in
conjunction with the method‘just mentioned an
generally by reference numerals 9a, 9b, 9c and
other method of controlling the temperature of
the slag, this being by incorporating with the
molten slag quantities of cold solidi?ed slag inter
mediate ball-forming operations as described and
claimed in our copending application Serial No.
133,808, ?led of even date'herewith.
On occa
sions both the supplying of cold solidi?ed slag
intermediate ball-forming operations and the re
9d, respectively.
1!)
Such cars are disposed in two
groups‘ of two each, the engine 3 being disposed
between such two groups. One group comprises
the cars to and 9b and the other group the cars
90 and 9d, as shown.
Reference numeral Ill indicates an overhead
crane operable on tracks l i and adapted to carry
and manipulate a suitable transfer container
such as a ladle to transfer the re?ned ferrous ma
terial from the converters 4 to the processing 20
machine ladles. Reference numeral l2 desig
nates a press into which the wrought iron sponge
balls are dumped as will presently be described.
placement of heated slag receptacles by rela
Reference numeral l3 designates a pair of slag
tively cold slag receptacles as above explained is furnaces for supplying molten slag suitable for
25
found desirable to obtain the proper slag tem
admixture with the molten ferrous material sup
perature control.
plied by the converters' d to form wrought iron
Other details, objects and advantages of the sponge balls. Reference numerals M and i5
invention will become apparent as the following designate respectively a pair of overhead cranes
30 description of certain present preferred embodi
operating on tracks it for purposes to be pres- '
ments thereof and certain present preferred ently. described. Reference numeral l'l desig
methods of practicing the same proceeds.
nates generally a supply of slag receptacles dis
In the accompanying drawing we have shown posed at a convenient location within the oval
diagrammatically a present preferred plant track ‘l and adapted for use in a manner to be
arrangement for carrying out the invention.
described.
I
The general layout of the plant, as indicated
As mentioned above, the general plant layout
diagrammatically in the drawing, is similar to
that,described in detail in the copending appli
cation of Herman A. Brassert, Serial No. $26,984:,
40 ?led July 30, 1932, which has matured into Patent
2,095,965. .We shall describe herein only the
more important apparatus, the auxiliary appa _
ratus and the details of operation of the plant
being described in said Brassert application.
The ferrous material for making the wrought
45
iron is supplied by three cupolas designated
generally by reference numeral 2. The molten
ferrous material from the cupolas is transported .
is substantially the same as that disclosed in said
Brassert application and therefore minor de
tails are being omitted from the present descrip
tion.
We shall now proceed to describe our pre
ferred method of operation whereby the advan
40
tages above pointed out are obtained.
Assuming that the two converters 4 are tapped
alternately, the re?ned ferrous material de
livered by each is transferred in a transfer con 45
tainer such as a ladle, which may, for example,
be moved on a buggy along the track 3 to a
position generally opposite the platform 5, where
it may be lifted by the overhead crane Hi. In our
preferred method of operation we utilize only the
two outside processing machines to and 66 of
on a track 3 to one or both of a pair of Bessemer
50 converters 61 into which it is charged. The con
verters may be used alternately or one of them
only may be used during a given operating period, ' the group of ?ve, the three interior processing
re?ned ferrous material suitable for the manu
facture of wrought iron being supplied by the
55 converter or converters in batches at substan
tially uniform intervals.
.
There is provided a processing or shotting sta
machines 6b, 6c and 611 not being used. The
entire group of ?ve is shown simply because the
plant is in general the same as is disclosed in said 55
Brassert application and was designed for ?ve
machines; moreover, under certain circumstances
tion at which is an elevated platform 5 having . we may utilize more than two machines as will
mounted thereon ?ve processing or shotting mag
60 chines designated generally by reference nu
merals 6a, 6b, 6c, 6d and 6e, respectively. The
be explained below, although this is not at
present preferred. We ?nd that the best results
are obtained by using only the two outside proc
processing station and the processing machines essing machines. ,.
are preferably substantially as described in said
At the beginningjof a run a portion (for ex
Brassert application and in Wille Patent No. ample, half) of the contents of the transfer con
65 1,933,577 and hence will not herein be described ' tainer is poured, let ussay, into the ladle of the 65
in detail.v Each processing machine preferably left-hand processing machine 60. At such time
comprises a lip-pour ladle which, as it pours, the two cars 9a and 9b to the left of the engine
oscillates angularly and also longitudinally of the 8, operatively speaking, and considering the plant
machine. There is an opening in the platform 5 as shown in the drawing, are disposed at the
70 through which each of the processing machine processing station with one of such cars, for ex 70
ladles pours its contents during the processing ample, the car 9a beneath the processing ma;
operation.
chine 6a and carrying a slag‘receptacle contain
At a level below. the level of the platform 5 is ing a bath of molten slag at proper temperature
an oval track 1 a portion of which passes beneath for admixture with the molten ferrous material
75 the platform and beneath the openings in the supplied from the converters for formation of a 75
.
3
2,129,717
wrought iron sponge ball. As soon as the portion
of the contents of the transfer container above
mentioned has been transferred to the ladle of
the processing machine 6a such processing ma
(Fl chine commences operation, pouring such ferrous
material into the slag bath in the slag receptacle
slag receptacle containing the ball just formed
beneath the processing machine 6e and decants
the excess slag into the slag receptacle which has
just been set down on the car 9d.
tents into the ladle of the right-hand process
ing machine lie. The transfer. container is then
returned to receive the re?ned ferrous ma_
terial tapped from the converter other than that
just previously tapped.
As soon as the processing machine 6a has com
15
pleted itsoperation the engine pushes the two
cars 9a and 9b toward the left to a position ad
jacent the press [2 as shown in the drawing. As
soon as the train stops the overhead crane It sets
20 down on the car 91), which is initially empty, an
empty slag receptacle. The overhead crane then
picks up from the car So the slag receptacle con
taining the ball, and which also contains excess
slag in accordance with the normal operation of
25 the» Aston process, and decants the excess slag
containing the decanted slag is spotted under
neath the processing machine 6e. The ball is
10
dumped into the press as before.
As will be seen from the above description, our
preferred method of procedure can apparently
be carried out using only three slag receptacles,
that is, if no question of temperature control
‘were involved, three slag receptacles would be 15'
sufficient. The slag receptacles in which a ball
is formed in one processing operation at one of
the process’ng machines may be used to receive
into the empty slag receptacle which it has just
set down on the car 9b.
Immediately upon com
pletion of the decanting operation the train
moves back to a position with the car 9b under
30 neath the processing machine 6a. During the
movement of the train from the processing sta
tion to the position adjacent the press, the de
canting operation and the return movement of
the train, the transfer‘ container has brought an-'
35 other charge of molten ferrous material from one
of the converters and has transferred a portion of
its contents into the ladle of the processing ma-_
chine (id, as previously described. This transfer
operation is completed about the time the train
I returns to the processing station so that substan
tially as soon as the car 9b containing the slag
receptacle with the decanted slag in it is spotted
‘ under the processing machine 6a such machine
45
commences operation to repeat the cycle.
Meanwhile, the overhead crane I4 dumps the
wrought iron sponge ball from the slag receptacle
used for the ?rst processing operation into the
press 12, wherein the sponge ball is compressed
into a bloom, after which the bloom is removed
50 to the blooming mill. At the same time as this is‘
happening, and also during the movements of
the train previously described, the processing ma
chine Be is in operation pouring the contents of
its ladle into a slag receptacle containing a slag
C! iii bath positioned on one of the two right-hand cars
90 and 9d, for example the car So, which is
spotted underneath the processing machine 6e.
Such processing machine completes its operation
about the time the car 9b with the slag receptacle
60 containing the decanted slag is‘ spotted under the
processing machine (in. After such car is spotted
the engine is uncoupled from the two left-hand
cars, moved toward the right, viewing the draw
ing, a short distance to enable it to be coupled
65 to the two right-hand cars, and it is then coupled
to such cars and the train comprising the engine
and the two right-hand cars is then moved toward
the right to a position adjacent the slag furnaces. _
The overhead crane l4 sets down on the empty
70 car 9d an empty slag receptacle, which may be
the slag receptacle from which the previously
mentioned ball was dumped into the press or one
of the slag receptacles from the ‘supply located
within the oval track, as will presently be ex
75 p-lained, and then picks up from the car 90 the
in
immediately moves back to the processing sta
tion and the car 9d carrying the slag receptacle
above mentioned. The transfer container then
immediately moves over and pours another por
tion (for example, the remainder) of its con
As soon as
the decanting operation is‘completed the train
the decanted slag from the succeeding processing
operation at the other processing machine and 20
thus alternate in ball-forming operations be
tween the two processing machines. Theoreti- .
cally, disregarding the question of temperature
control, each of the three slag receptacles would
be used in the same way and the process would go 25
on
inde?nitely.
'
,
-
‘ Due, however, to the. increased speed of the
operation, the fact that the slag is from time
to time replenished with additional molten slag,
as will presently be described, and the relatively 30
large size of the balls which are produced, the
slag receptacles heat up undesirably and the
increased temperature of the slag receptacles
results in the gradual building up of the tempera- ‘
ture of the slag bath. The molten ferrous ma 35
terial which is poured into the slag is at a. tem
perature substantially higher than the slag and
heats up the slag. Heretofore the time ‘lags
have generally been sufficient to allow the slag
to cool off so. that its temperature does not build
up undesirably,—-that is to say, the heat losses
in the slag due to the slowness of the operation
have compensated for the heat gains from vthe
molten ferrous material. However, as pointed
out above, the process was unsatisfactory from
the standpoint of economy and the speed of op
eration was not uniform, resulting at times in
the production of wrought iron of poor quality
which could not be used.
‘
The tendency of the slag receptacles to heat 50
up is preferably counteracted by substituting
from time to time a relatively cold slag receptacle
from the supply H for one of the slag receptacles
which has become heated. When it-is desired to
make such a substitution the heated slag recepta
cle after the ball has been dumped therefrom is
preferably set down on the ?oor and .one of the
relatively cold slag receptacles from the supply I‘!
is picked up and used in its place, the process
otherwise continuing exactly as above described. 60
If desired the excess slag from a slag receptacle
containing a ball may be decanted directly into
a relatively cold slag receptacle while still in
place at the location of the supply l1, after
which the ball may be dumped, the receptacle 65
from which the ball was dumped set down at
the location of the supply I‘! and the receptacle
into which the excess slag was decanted picked
up and set on the train.
However, we find it
preferable to set the relatively cold slag recepta
70
cle from the supply I‘! on the train before de
canting and to decant into it when in position on
the train. This saves one manipulative step, as
the crane can be ready with the relatively cold
slag receptacle and set such receptacle down on 75
2,129,717
the train as soon as the train stops at the slag
transfer station.
It will be appreciated that a regular procedure
can be worked out to control the slag tempera
ture for any particular speed of operation em
ployed. The frequency with which the heated
slag receptacles are replaced by relatively-cold
slag receptacles and the number of slag recepta
cles in the supply I‘! can be such that the total
10 numberof slag receptacles can be continuously
rotated in use.
If, for example, a total of eleven
by employing a somewhat greater‘ number of
processing machines and active slag ‘receptacles
at the same time, as, for example, four. However,
when four active slag receptacles are employed;
simultaneously continuity of the operation will
be, at least to some extent, interrupted, especially
during decanting, as a greater time is required
to decant excess slag from two slag receptacles
than from one. Moreover, it is only feasible to
employ a single overhead crane in the decanting 10
and ball-dumping operations and such crane can
slag receptacles is employed, three of these will
only handle one slag receptacle at a time, so it
The other eight will , is inevitable that the greater the number of active
constitute the supply from which relatively cold slag receptacles employed. at any one time the
15 slag receptacles are taken. Each time a heated greater will be the time lagduring decanting and
slag receptacle is replaced by a relatively cold dumping of the vballs into the press. '
be in use at any one time.
slag receptacle the heated slag receptacle may
take its place in rotation and will go into active
use again at the eighth change thereafter.
20 Meanwhile it will‘ be cooling off so that when it
again'goesinto active use it will be relatively
cold as the term is employed herein.
As mentioned above, the slag is from time to
time replenished by additional molten slag from
25 the slag furnaces 13. This slag is preferably de
livered in a ladle carried by the crane l5. Or
dinarily it is most convenient to effect replenish
ment by delivering the replenishing slag into an
.empty slag receptacle,. which may be a slag re
30 ceptacle from which a ball has justbeen dumped
or a relatively cold slag receptacle from the sup
ply l'l. This may be done during the time inter
val between the dumping of the ball formed in
the preceding processing operation at one of the
35 processing machines and the decanting into the
slag receptacle of the excess slag from the next
processing operation at the other processing ma
chine. Slag replenishment may, however, be ef
fected at any convenient point in the cycle.
40 For example, the replenishing slag may be intro
duced into a slag receptacle after processing
therein and before decanting, or it may be in
troduced simultaneously with decanting, or it
may be introduced into a slag receptacle contain
'
45 ing decanted slag after decanting.
Also, as mentioned above, the process of tem
perature control disclosed in our said copending
application may be employed either alone or in
conjunction with the method of temperature con
50 trol above described. In our said copending ap
plication there is described and claimed a method
While we have shown-and described'certain present preferred embodiments of the'invention ,
and certain present preferred methods of practic
ing the same, it is to .be'distinctly understood
that the invention is not limited thereto, but
may be otherwise variously embodied and prac
ticed within the scope of the following claims.
We claim:
'
-
1. In the manufacture of wrought iron by th 25
Aston process wherein molten ferrous material is
introduced into receptacles containing molten
slag at a processing station to form wrought iron
sponge balls, the steps comprising alternately
moving slag containing receptacles to the process 30
ing station along' di?erentpaths and so that at.
least one thereof is disposed at the processing
station at all timeaintroducing ferrous material
into said ‘receptacles at the processing station, re
moving said receptacles from the processing. sta- '
tion after introduction of the ferrous material
thereinto and removing the balls therefrom.'
2. In the manufacture of wrought iron by the
Aston process wherein molten ferrous material is
introduced into receptacles containing molten 40.
'
slag at a processing station to form wrought iron‘
sponge balls, the steps comprising supplying
molten ferrous material to said processing sm
tion in a container, transferring a portion'of'the
molten ferrous material in said container into a
pouring receptacle at the 'processing' station,
simultaneously with said transference pouring
ferrous material from another pouring receptacle
at said processing station into a slag receptacle
containing a bath of molten slag, and thereafter
‘transferring another portion of the moltenv
of temperature control which comprises incor
ferrousmaterial in said container into said sec-.
porating with the molten slag quantities of cold ond mentioned pouring receptacle, and simul
solidi?ed slag intermediate ball-forming opera
taneously with said second mentioned trans
55 tions. If balls of comparatively large size are ferenceepouring the ferrous material previously
being produced and the process is being operated transferred into the ?rst mentioned pouring re
at high speed it may be desirable to combine both ceptacle into another slag receptacle containing
methods of temperature control.
a bath of molten slag and also simultaneously with
The lower portion of the oval track 1, viewing, said second mentioned pouring step removing the 60 the drawing, is not used at all in our preferred ball from the ?rst mentioned slag receptacle and
method of operation. It is shown in the draw I providing a bath of molten slag for the succeed
ing because it is a part of the track actually em
ing pouring operation from said second men
ployed at the Ambridge plant of A. M. Byers tioned pouring receptacle.
.
Company. It may on occasion be used to cope
3. In the manufacture of wrought iron by the
Aston process, the steps comprising admixing mol
65 with particular situations which may arise.
As explained above, the use of only two active ten ferrous material with quantities of molten slag
slag receptacles at any one time is preferred be
cause this has been found to give the highest
efficiency. When only two active slag receptacles
70 are employed at one time and the process is prop
erly synchronized as above described, processing
into one or the other of the two active slag re
ceptacles will be substantially continuous. If for
any reason it is found necessary to slightly re
75 duce the speed of the operation this can be done
more than su?icient to form with theferrous mate
rial wrought iron sponge balls and thereby forming
wrought iron sponge balls_with excess molten slag,
separating the balls and excess slag, utilizing the
excess slag in preparation of baths of molten slag
70:
and subsequent ball-forming operations and
maintaining the slagbaths at such temperature
as to insure proper ball formation by cooling the,
same by substituting intermediate ball-forming 75
'
2,129,717
5
operations relatively cold receptacles for the re
ceptacles containing the slag baths and which
have become undesirably heated due to the heat
of the molten slag and ferrous material.
tioned receptacle to form said second mentioned
wrought iron sponge ball.
7. In the manufacture of wrought iron by the
Aston process wherein molten ferrous material
- 4. In the manufacture pf wrought iron by the’
Aston process wherein molten ferrous material
is introduced at ‘a processing station into recep
tacles containing quantities of molten slag more
than 'su?icient to form with the ferrous material
tacles containing quantities of molten slag more
wrought iron sponge balls, the steps comprising
than sufficient to form with the ferrous material
10 wrought iron sponge balls and thereby forming
wrought iron sponge balls with excess molten
slag, the steps comprising shifting said recep
tacles to and from the processing station in
such manner that at least one thereof is disposed
15 at the processing station at all times, introducing
ferrous material into said receptacles at the
processing station, separating the balls and ex
cess slag, utilizing the excess slag in preparation
of baths of molten slag for subsequent ball
20 forming operations and ‘maintaining the slag
baths at such temperature as to insure proper
ball formation by cooling the same by substitut
ing intermediate ball-forming operations rela
tively cold receptacles for the receptacles con
25 taining the slag baths and which have become
undesirably heated due to the heat of the molten
slag and ferrous material.
5. In the manufacture of wrought iron by the
Aston process, the steps comprising admixing in
30 a receptacle molten ferrous material with a
quantity of molten slag more than suf?cient to
form with the ferrous material a wrought iron
sponge ball and thereby forming a wrought iron
is introduced at a processing station into recep
shifting said receptacles to and from the process
ing station in such manner that at least one 10
thereof is disposed at the processing station at
all times, introducing ferrous material into said
receptacles at the processing station, providing a
supply ‘of receptacles in addition to the number
of receptacles apparently required for carrying 15
out the process, separating the ball formed in
one of said ?rst mentioned receptacles and the
slag in such receptacle not incorporated in they
ball, utilizing such slag‘ as at least a part of a
quantity of molten slag for admixture with fer 20
rous material in a subsequent ball-forming oper
ation and, prior to such subsequent ball-forming
operation, disposing such quantity of molten slag
in a receptacle from said supply which has re
mained unused during a plurality of cycles of 25
the process.
8. In the manufacture of wrought iron by the
Aston process wherein molten ferrous material H
is introduced into receptacles containing molten
slag at a processing station to form wrought iron 30
sponge balls, the steps comprising moving at
least one slag containing receptacle to the proc
essing station along one path,. introducing molten
ferrous material into said- receptacle at said sta
sponge ball with an excess of molten slag, sepa
rating
the ball and the slag in the receptacle not ' tion, before removing said receptacle from said 35
35
incorporated in the ball, utilizing such slag as
at least a part of a quantity‘ of molten slag for
admixture with ferrous material to form another
wrought iron sponge ball, disposing such quantity
40 of molten slag in a receptacle which is relatively
cold in comparison with said ?rst mentioned re
ceptacle, admixing .molten ferrous material with
such slag in said second mentioned receptacle to
form said second mentioned wrought iron sponge
.45 ball and allowing said ?rst mentioned receptacle
to cool during a plurality of cycles of the process
vvbefore returning it to use.
6. In the manufacture of wrought'iron by the
Aston process, the steps comprising admixing in
station moving at least one other slag containing
receptacle to said station along another path for
another ball-forming operation, and then re
moving said ?rst mentioned receptacle from said
station‘.
9. In the manufacture of wrought ‘iron by the
Aston process wherein molten ferrous material .
is introduced into receptacles containing molten
slag at a processing station to form wrought iron
sponge balls, the steps comprising supplying a 45
quantity of molten ferrous material to a pouring
receptacle at the processing station, simultane
ously with said supplying step pouring the fer
rous material from another pouring receptacle
50 a receptacle molten ferrous material with a quan- . at said processing station into a slag receptacle
tity of molten slag more than su?icient to form containing a bath of molten slag, and thereafter
with the ferrous material a wrought iron sponge supplying another quantity of molten ferrous
ball and thereby forming a wrought iron sponge material to said second mentioned pouring re
ball with an excess of molten slag, providing a ceptacle, ‘and simultaneously with said second
55 supply of receptacles in addition to the number mentioned supplying step pouring the ferrous
of receptacles apparently required for carrying material previously supplied to the ?rst men
out the process, separating the ball and the slag tioned pouring receptacle into another slag re
in said ?rst mentioned receptacle not incorpo
ceptacle containing a bath of molten slag and
rated in the ball, utilizing such slag as at least also simultaneously with said second mentioned
pouring step removing the ball from the ?rst
60 a part of a quantity of molten slag for admix
ture with ferrous material to form another mentioned slag receptacle and providing a bath
' ,wrought iron sponge ball, disposing such quantity of molten slag for the succeeding pouring oper
of molten slag in a receptacle from said supply ation from said second mentioned pouring recep
which has remained unused during a plurality of tacle.
cycles of the process, and admixing molten fer
EDWARD B. STORY.
EVARD P. BEST.
rous material with such slag in said last men-'
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