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Патент USA US2129735

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2,129,735
Patented Sept. 13, 1938
UNITED STATES "PATENT OFFICE
2,129,735
HYDROFORMED SOLVENT COMPOSITION
Robert T. Haslam, West?eld, N. J., assignor to
Standard-I. G. Company, a corporation of Del- '
aware
No Drawing. Application August 28, 1936,
Serial No. 98,341
21 Claims.
(Cl. 134—79)
The present invention relates to improved sol
vents and solvent compositions and more specif
ically comprises a synthetic hydroformed solvent
derived from petroleum and liquid distillation
5 ‘or extraction products thereof and also comprises
new coating compositions in which the improved
solvent vehicle is incorporated. This application
is a continuation of my prior applications Serial
No. ‘583,703, ?led December 29, 1931 and Serial
No. 640,670, ?led November 1, 1932, and relates
especially to coating compositions containing ‘the
improved solvents. My invention will be fully
understood from the following description of the
method of manufacture and use of the improved
'
solvents.
It is known‘ that hydrocarbon oil distillates,
such as those obtainable from petroleum, may
be hydroformed by destructive hydrogenation at
elevated temperatures anr‘ pressures to produce
products essentially different from those pro
duced by simple hydrogenation or even by de
structive hydrogenation at lower temperatures.
For :example, the hydro'jorme‘d products when
used .as motor fuels possess antiknocking’char
'acteristics to a much greater degree than shown
I; til
by the original oils or by products of other types
. of hydrogenation. These hydroformed products
are produced from hydrocarbon oil distillates
such as burning oil and gas oil and in- general
30 :from hydrocarbon oils of a boiling ‘range in'clud- .
' ing that of gasoline and extending up to about
‘650 to 700° Fxor somewhat higher. vThese-dis
range of the charging stock. A greater propor
tion of hydrogen may be used with suitable vari
ation in feed rate, temperature and pressure as
is known in the art. The feed rate depends upon
the reaction temperature, and other operating
conditions such as the partial pressure of hydro
gen and may be suitably about 1.5 to 4 volumes
of oil per volume of catalyst ?lled reaction space
per hour. The catalysts preferably comprise the
oxides or sul?des of the metals of the VI group
of elements with suitable promoters of the alka
line earth or earth oxides. Such catalysts-are
insensitive to sulfur poisoning and are suitably
classi?ed as sulfactive.v '
The product of such a destructive hydrogena
15
tion process possesses highly desirable solvent X
properties throughout its boiling range. ' Frac
tions of desired volatility of these hydroformed
distillates may. be ‘generally used in vehicles for
resins, varnish gums, drying oils and nitrocellu 20v
lose in varnish lacquerand paint iormulae wher
ever aromatic Jhydrocarbon solvents such as
benzene, toluene, xylene, turpentine oils and high
flash coal tar'naphthas and the like are suitable,
and may be substituted, either partially or en—_' 25
tirely for' such hydrocarbons. Other solvents,
made by other processes, if substantially identical
with the solvents made by the-'hydroforming
process, may also be used in the present inven-.
tion.
'
"
,
'
.
30
Fractions suitable for use in this invention in
clu-de'both the lowéboiling‘relatively volatile frac
tions which evaporate readily from surfaces un
.der
atmospheric conditions and the di?icultly
hydrogen ov‘er suitable catalysts'at a'pressurein I
volatile fractions :which evaporate more slowly
3;, excessof-ZO atmospheres and preferably ‘50*to and
are ‘used for applications where tempera
200 atmospheres .or‘ higher-and at a temperature‘
tures
atmosphericare available’ ‘for the
,
above about 900°;F.- andpreferably within the dryingabove
or setting oft-he compositions. The still
‘ range of~1 about 930 ‘to '-l050°‘F. with a suitable
higher boiling‘ fractions in the des'tructively 'hy-'
‘partial pressure of hydrogen and time of contact
drogenated
product may be recycled in the hydro
4". to secure a destructive hydrogenation without the
tillateoils are passed in vapor phase with free
formation‘of appreciable amounts of polymerized
Tor coky material. "The ' hydrogen supplied is
‘ {preferably within the range of about 1,000 to
I ',4,000~cubic feet per barrel-of feed oil, the amount
40
genation process and converted into. the-lower
boiling-solvent ‘fractions.
'-.'The lower limit forthe boiling‘ rangeiof the
hydroformed solvents ‘for most commercial pur- ‘
;:, generally depending upon the gravity and boiling . poses is ?xed vpreferably at about'122” E, as ‘frac- . .
.2
9,129,785
tions boiling below this point are so volatile as
to constitute explosion hazards during applica
tion of the lacquers, etc. in which they are used.
The lower boiling fractions may also cause the
lacquer to show brush marks or moisture blush
and hence, although their solvent power is excel
lent, these fractions should be used either in
small amounts or with considerable precautions.
As the relatively volatile fractions are used pri
10 marily in surface coating compositions such as
lacquers, varnishes, paints and the like, from
which the solvent should readily evaporate, higher
boiling fractions which cause a greasy or very
slow drying coat are preferably eliminated.
The fractions of relatively low volatility in
15
clude those boiling above about 280 to 300° F.
and up to about 550 to 600° F. and having a flash
point above about 80 to 100° F. These fractions
represent improved high ?ash solvents which may
20 be used in substitution for high ?ash coal tar
naphthas, turpentine, xylol, dipentene and the
like, in preparing surface coating compositions.
Examples of such coating compositions are en
amels, varnishes,4lacquers, paints and the like.
25 The high ?ash hydroformed solvents are espe
cially suitable for use in coating compositions
the feed to the system is 2,200 cubic feet of hy
drogen per 42¢gallon barrel of oil. The speci?ca
tions of the feed stock are as follows: >
Gravity, °A. P. I ___________ ___ _________ __ ' 25.9
I. B. P., °F
Percent
Percent
Percent
Percent
342 5
at 374° F ______________________ __
at 400°F______________________ __
at 420° F______________________ ..
at 460° F _____________________ __
Percent at 500° F__________ __-_. _________ __
3.0
9.0
16.5
31.0
68.0 m ‘
Percent at 550° F______________ __;____‘____ 91.0 '
Percent at 600° F_____________________ __.v _ 97.0
F. B. P., °F
Sulfur
602
percent" 0.554
Aniline point "F___i_,_ _________________ __
'79 15
The speci?cations of the product are:
Gravity, °A. P. I ________________ _; ____ __
I. B. P., “F
.
,7 43.4
140
Percent at 158° F________________ __’_____
2.0 2°
~Percent at 212° F ____________________ __
Percent at 284° F_____________________ __
Percent at 356° F_______ ___;. __________ __
19.5
56.0
69.5
Percent at 374° F_____ __'______________ _..
F. B. P., °F
.
.
‘
95.0
392 25
for “force”. or bake drying or for applications in
exposure to direct sunlight.
The solvent power» of the hydroformed solvents
Refractive index at 20° C_____-______ __-___ 1.4625
depends not only'upon the operating conditions
used in the destructive hydrogenation process but
Color
Doctor and corrosion ___________ __,______ Passes 30.
also to some extent upon the source of the hydro
carbon oils‘ used as feed stocks. Operating con
Aniline point °F____ -1 ____________ __-__.._
39
Dimethyl sulfate value ______ __percent.._
31.5
ditions in the destructive hydrogenation process
Kauri-butanol value _____ _._' _________ __i__’
Sulfur ______________________ "percent"
Gum (porcelain dish) __________ __mgs__
0.025
3.0
+25
57
being equal, hydroformed solvents produced
from California crudes possess higher solvent
The dlmethyl sulfate absorption test is made 35
power for oxygenated hydrocarbons, such as py-' by shaking 10 cc. of dimethyl sulfate with 10
cc. of the vehicle. The increase in volume of the
roxylin or kauri gum, than corresponding sol
dimethyl sulfate layer is expressed in per cent
vents from Mid-Continent crudes, while solvents of the original volume of'the vehicle. The di
40 from naphthenic base crudes possess even higher
solvent power. Cracked cycle gas oils, especially methyl sulfate absorption value for hydrocarbon 40
such oils from asphaltic or naphthenic base distillate vehicles prepared from petroleum by
crudes, form desirable feed stocks. Extraction distillation, cracking or liquid phase hydrogena
products such as those produced in refining oils tion varies between about 4 and 10%.
The kauri-butanol value is determined accord
45 with solvents having a selective solvent action ing to the method given in. Gardner's “Physical 45
for non-paraf?nic hydrocarbons, such as phenol
or liquid sulfur dioxide, are preferred feed stocks and Chemical Examination of Paints, varnishes
and Colors.” This value is the number of cos.
for the production of these solvents by destruc
tive hydrogenation, and hydroformed solvents of the vehicle that produces a definite cloud point
superior even to pure aromatic hydrocarbons when added at 77° F. to 20 grams of a standard
solution prepared by dissolving 100 grams of 50'
such as toluene and xylene and to coal tar naph
thas may thereby be produced. Hydroformed kauri gum in 500 grams of pure butanol. This
value for petroleum: oils not treated by the de
solvents prepared by destructive vapor phase hy
structive hydrogenation process usually ranges
drogenation under the operating conditions de
from about 25 to 40.
\
55 fined above, are far superior to the correspond
A lacquer of the following composition is pre 55
ing straight run or cracked naphthas from the
pared using the above hydroformed solvent. The
same crudes. In addition to possessing superior parts
are by weight:
solvent power, the hydroformed naphthas are
hydrunsulfed during the destructive hydrogena
60 tion process and the sulfur content of even high
sulfur oils is reduced below that at which bad
- e?‘ects on lead pigments and the like are noticed.
The following examples are illustrative of one
method of preparing hydroformed solvents and
65 of a few uses towhich these improved solvents
:
Parts
Nitrocellulose (V2 sec.) -____,. _____________ __ 15
Ethyl alcohol___
'
~- 40 60
Hydroformed solvent _____________________ __ 40
Butyl acetate
Butyl alr-nhnl
Ethyl acetate---
4
80
{
20
-
9
1 65
may be put, but my invention is not to be limited Castor Oil
thereto.
‘The above formula gives a good lacquer with
Example 1.-Cracked cycle stock from a Cali
highly desirable drying and film characteristics.
fornia crude is destructively hydrogenated over vThis lacquer compares favorably with a corre
a sulfactive catalyst at a pressure of 3,000 pounds sponding lacquer prepared by the same formula 70
per square inch and an average catalyst tempera
except that benzene is used in place of the hy
ture of 950° F. A fraction of the product having droformed solvent. The benzene formula may
an end point of 392° F. is removed from the proc
be diluted with 2.46 times its weight of benzene
ess and the higher boiling fractions are continu
before precipitation of .nitro cellulose takes place.
75 ously recycled. The ratio of hydrogen to oil in A considerably greater amount of hydroformed 75 I
I.
3
9,129,786
of the coal tar hydrocarbons. The hydroformed
naphtha may be used in the above formula than
the amount there shown, and the naphtha for
mula may be diluted with 1.7 times its weisht
solvents also have none ,of the irritating and
smarting effects on the eyes which have made
coal tar hydrocarbons so objectionable.
Example 4.—An especially suitable lacquer sol
vent may be prepared by destructively hydro
genating the oil fraction obtained by extracting
burning oils with liquid sulfur dioxide. A hydro
formed product obtained by this method has the
of 'hydroformed naphtha without precipitation
of nitro cellulose, giving the hydroformed naph
tha a diluent power equal to 69.2% of that of hen
zene for this lacquer. Under similar conditions
ordinary petroleum naphthas or “mineral turps"
possess a diluent power of only about 40 to 50% of
following speci?cations:
10 that of benzene.
The hydroformed solvent is also fractionated
into three parts as follows:
1. Fraction boiling below 167° F.
Gravity, °A_ P. I ______________________ __
2. Fraction boiling between 167° F. and 239° F.
117.3
Hydroformed sol
may be prepared by this method.
Example 5.-A varnish of the following compo 25
sition is prepared using the hydroformed solvent
described in Example 1. The parts are by weight:
stock has a gravity of 37.8“ A. P. I. and boils be
tween 435 and 629° F. It contains 0.179% sulfur
and has an aniline point of 159° F. The product
.
has the following specification:
Parts
Kauri gum
'
118'
7.0
Percent at 212° F________________ _;..___
68
93
97
F. B. P., °F_; ________________________ __
Refractive index at 20° C ____________ __
388
1.4310
Sulfur __________ __' _________ __percent.._
0.020
Gum (porcelain dish) __________ __mgs__
Color
'
~ 2.5
+27
Doctor and corrosion ____ ___ ___________ __ Passes
Aniline point, ° _____________________ .._
Kauri-butanol value _________________ __
91
41.7
45 Dimethyl sulfate value______ __percent__
16.5
30
20
Linseed oil -
116
Tung oil (raw) _______________________ .._
Lime-
33.5
Percent at 284° F ____________________ __
Percent at 356° F____________________ __
Percent at 374° F___________________ __‘_ v
' 80
Rosin
54.9
Percent at 158° F____________________ __
15
vents with kauri-butanol values even above 150 Y
drogenated under substantially the same condi
25 tions as those described in Example 1. The feed
40
Kauri-butanol value __________________ __
and kauri-butanol values.
from a Mid-Continent crude is destructively hy
-
522
1 100
described, as indicated by the dimethyl sulfate
‘
Example 2.—A cracked hydrocarbon distillate
I. B. P., °F
150 '
F. B. P., "F
v
Dimethyl sulfate value _______ “percent”
Hydroformed solvents of suitable boiling range
may be readily prepared from this product by dis
tillation, and possess greatly improved solvent
properties over the hydroformed solvents already 20
Lacquers corresponding to the above formula are
prepared with each of these fractions and are
all satisfactory. No blushing takes place on ap
20 plication and drying of the lacquer even when
Gravity, °A. P. I _____________________ __
19.7
~ I. B. P., °F
15 3. Fraction boiling above 239°‘F.
using the lowest boiling fraction.
10
40
‘
2
Lead oxide
2.5 35
Manganese acetate ____ __n_______. _____ .__
0.5
Hydroformed solvent __________________ __ 200
This varnish contains 40% by weight of vola
tile and 60% by weight of non-volatile material
and is highly satisfactory. A similar varnish in 40
which half of the hydroformed solvent is substi
tuted by turpentine and a third in which turpen
tine entirely replaces the hydroformed solvent
are both of no betterquality than the first.
The following table indicates the superiority
of the high ?ash hydroformed solvents over coal
tar naphthas and other solvents of similar boil
ing range. The solvent power, as indicated by the
This hydroformed solvent when used in the
lacquer formula given in Example 1 also gives a
good lacquer comparing favorably in all char ' kauri-butanol numbers, increases with increase 50
in boiling point for ‘the hydroformed solvents,
50 acteristics with the same lacquers made with while it decreases for the coal tar naphthas.
benzene or the California hydroformed solvent.
Example 3.-A lacquer of the following com
position is prepared using the hydroformed sol-
_
vent of either Example 1 or Example 2, above.
65 The parts are by weight:
-
.
.
Solvent‘
ggggfggggggggg: g:
tured alcohol) ________________________ __
Ester gum-
mum.
range.
F‘
butanol
numb"
1'0
44
Dibutyl phthalate ----------------------- --
5
Butyl alcohol
8
Ethyl acetate-“,1----------------------- -- 32
Butyl acetate-
193g ?g:
gig
200
419-550
88:0
266-358
94,0
268-285
82.7
¥§.';§.°££?R‘???:::::::: "'"a' 2&3‘;
it“
£33233 iéff??f?‘.?i‘:.'i‘f?::::::
33 »
gygr€iorn1ledsclvent#3.,-..
60 Hydroformed solvent ____________________ __
>
":1
_
o (lutaai‘iis?ezgliglstoluol ________ .. ____________ __
Commercial xyloL
Petroleum naphtha---
311-413
1% 233328
55
29.8
16
These lacquers are also satisfactory in all re
spects as compared with the same lacquers made
with aromatic hydrocarbon solvents.
-
The toxicity of the above compositions is great
70 ly decreased by. the substitution of hydroformed
solvents, which are substantially non-toxic,‘ for
the coal tar aromatic hydrocarbon solvents which
are known to have toxic properties.
Boning
Jig.‘
Parts
Nitrocellulose (‘/2 sec., wet with 30% dena-
65
m h
_
The odor of the hydroformed solvents is quite
different
from and much more pleasant than that
75
65
There is no commercially available hydrocar
bon solvent boiling above 420° F. with solvent
properties even approaching those of the'Hydro
formed Solvent #3 of the above table. The hy
droformed solvents boiling above about 420° F. 70
and having kauri-butanol values above 60 to 80,
accordingly representan entirely new series of
solvent products, the exact chemical composi
tions of which are unknown except in that they
are composed of liquid hydrocarbons.
76
4
2,129,735
Example, 6.-A petroleum kerosene or "water
white" fraction is extracted with liquid sulfur
dioxide and the fraction of the extract boiling
between 3171 and 592° F. is used as feed stock for a
destructive hydrogenation process. This extract
fraction has a gravity of 31.7° A. P. 1., an aniline
sensibility point of 32° F. and a sulfur content
leum naphtha even after addition of 10% of
butyl alcohol.
The solubility of blown castor oil, recom
mended for use in the lacquer industry to re
place synthetic plasticizers, is also higher in the
hydroformed solvents than in high ?ash coal tar
naphthas. This is indicated in the following
of 0.640%. It is destructively hydrogenated over
a sulfactive catalyst at a pressure of 3,000 pounds
table showing comparative tolerances of blown
castor oil solutions for petroleum naphtha thin
10 per square inch and an average catalyst tempera
ture of 979° F. The product is treated with sul
ner. The “tolerance” is determined by adding 10
petroleum naphtha to a solution‘ of ten parts by
furic acid, neutralized with caustic soda, washed
with water, and then separated into the follow-v
ing fractions by distillation.
volume of blown castor oil (Bakers #15) in
twenty parts 01’ the solvent until a turbid solu
tion results.
15
15
Solubility of blown castor oil
Fraction
1
Gravity, "A. P. I _____________________________ .. 33. 7
20
‘
Aniline point, “F ............................. _.
v 19
Kauri-butanol number. _
2
3
27. 5
17. 7
22
42
74
78
88
Initial, °F ........... . _
276
359
421
5% oil‘, "F ........... ..
300
370
436
326
385
60% oil’, °F_.
464
95% 011, "F ______________________ _-
378
426
543
Fi
398
468
582
, °
_____________________________________ __
Solvent
Solubility “Tolerance
Petroleum naphtha thinner ............. _- Insoluble
High ?ash coal tar naphtha ............. .. Soluble _._
0
4
Hydrolormed solvent A.___
Hydrolormed solvent B.
7
9
____.Do_.__Do____
Hydroformed solvent 0.
_._ Do._..
Hydroiormed solvent D..__
20
12
23
The hydroformed solvents may also be used 25
in lacquer preparations in admixture with lac
quer vehicles generally, such as those containing
The hydroformed solvents may be used in var
nish preparations generally, alone or in admix
ture with drying oils and with other suitable sol
vents for the gums and resins customarily used.
The following table indicates the solubility of a
30
number of cemmercially available resins in ordi
aliphatic alcohols, ketones, and fatty acid esters
and are especially desirable when used with sec
ondary amyl, secondary butyl and isopropyl al
nary petroleum naphthas, coal tar solvents, and
the hydroformed solvents.
30
cohols and their acetic esters. Pyroxylin and
the other cellulose derivatives, plasticizers, gums
Resin-Relative solubility in solvent
Boiling
Solvent
range,
Damm.
°F.
Bats“;
Rezyl
Rezyl
Rezyl
ME
#12
#14
#19
‘
Rezyl Teglac Amberol Amberol Amberol
#1102
#15
F-7
K-12-A
801
40
Hydroiormed solvents:
Hyd. solv. A .... --
200-275 ________ ._
120
4
- 70
28
So].
180
260
220
Hyd. solv. B ____ -_
Hyd. solv. C ____ __
Hyd. solv. D ____ _.
Pet. naphtha ____ -_
275-365
365-419
419-550
311-413
So].
Sol.
Sol.
42
200
190
300
28
4
4
30
2
98
98
132
20
50
50
60
13
Sol.
S01.
Sol.
39
801.
Sol.
801.
23
Sol.
Sol.
Sol.
78
Sol.
Sol.
Sol.
31
Benz ____________________ _.
Toluol _____________________ _-
Sol.
S01.
Sol.
S01.
28
6
S01.
S01.
S01.
S01.
S01.
S01.
Sol.
Sol.
S01.
S01.
S01,
So].
High ?sh naptha.
Sol?
150
2
90
48
Sol.
, Sol.
320
A
'I‘
45 Coal tar solvents:
302-400
(Base solvent for resin). ________ __
50
T
T
TA
T
It is apparent from the above table thatathe
hydroformed solvents are much better solvents
for these resins than are the ordinary petroleum
naphthas. The fractions of the hydroformed
solvents boiling within and above the range of
55 high ?ash coal tar naphtha are better resin sol
vents than this coal tar distillate solvent.
The “relative solubility” in the above table is
expressed as the number of cubic centimeters of
the solvent that can be added to 20 grams of a
60 resin solution, containing 5 parts by weight of a
base solvent to one part of resin, before a turbid
solution results. The base solvent was butyl al
cohol (A) in all cases except that toluol (T) or
a mixture of toluol and butyl alcohol (TA) were .
65 used when butyl alcohol failed to dissolve the
resin.
'
Certain of these resins are soluble in the hy
droformed solvents alone. For example, 5 parts
by weight of each of the hydroformed solvents A,
70 B, C and D gives a clear solution with one part of
the Teglac 15 or the Amberol F-7 resins. These
same resins‘ give a. turbid solution or suspension
in ordinary petroleum naphtha solutions contain
ing 100 parts of naphtha and only 1/2 part of the
76 resin. These resins are insoluble in the petro
T
A
150
T
and resins, such as the synthetic and “modi?ed”
phthalic glycerides and phenol formaldehyde res
ins, dammar gums and others commonly known
to the lacquer industry may be used with these
vehicles in making lacquer compositions. For
example, a satisfactory lacquer may be prepared
with cellulose ether and a hydroformed solvent
as the only constituent of the vehicle. The hy
droformed solvents may also be used in homo
geneous vehicles containing drying oils suitable
for use alone and for admixture with pigments 60
for the preparation of paints and enamels.
These new synthetic petroleum distillates there
' fore provide highly desirable petroleum vehicles
of high solvent power for free use in coating com
positions of very wide and diverse character.
65
The hydroformed solvents have been separa
rated by distillation into a great number of frac
tions of very narrow boiling range and it has been i
found that all of these fractions show much
greater dimethyl sulfate or kauri-butanol values 70
than are shown by naphthas obtained by distil
lation, cracking, or other methods except de
structive hydrogenation, from corresponding
crudes. The fact that the improved solvent pow
er exists throughout the boiling range of the 75
2,129,735.
in an organic "vehl'c'leY‘con-iprlsing; allhydroca'rbon > '
’
hydroi'ormed solventyand‘ is not.~-restrictcd to the‘
"boiling; rangescor-rc'sponding'tozbenzene, toluene liquid vhaving a‘ kauri-‘butan'ol_'I.value"fabove40,
*boiling' within theapproxi‘ma'
or xylene indicates that thescnew, solvents-do‘;
not ‘depend upon thev presence 01.’ these aromatic
‘.419""F.;a-nd
,tion ofapetroleum
prepared-3b
o'iIi'n
'
apo
‘ phas
perature above about§900t ;F ‘and
UK ' compounds} for ' their ' improved‘ ' solvent Ycha'rac,»v
5 ‘-
d1‘
at‘a‘"
. ,_
m- s. -'
pressur ifn
a excess of 20 atmospheres.
This invention: antes. available a new, type or?
-
synthetic solvent ‘for preparing "surface coating
"
“ "
'
12. As a
baking varnish,v
-
_
d,
_
a drying oil and 84,1112‘ " ‘
.compositionsand the like,'>‘and has the added ad iprising
vehicle
comprisingiaj
volatile; hydrqcarborri-liquid '10
10 vantage over‘ coalrtarjsolventsl andpine oils that _
readily2 prepared in “substanf ‘ i havinga kauri-butanol'valueaboveawand-have'I
[this solvent may
‘>1tiallyunlimited-‘quantity, and at a much> cheaper ing a ?ash point above about80
destructive hydrogenation {of {a ;
’ “cost than that ofYcompetlngpsolverits even -ap
vapor phaseat a temperature'iabove'.lab.out;.900‘f
proaching it insolvent powen, . -, '
"
‘a
_
r
and a pressure in excess of ZQfatmospheres.
'r-yingoil?My invention is not to be limited to any illusi F; 13.
A baking enamel ¢omi>rismga<d
trative examples - nor ‘to any theory regarding
. Single;
a resin dissolved in: avehiclec
the, solvent Jcharacteristicsjof the‘ hydroformed ‘and
solvent of low volatility, boilifi 'jwith1." the 99-“ I
vprodujctbut only to the following claims in which
I claim:
-
_
_
" 'fpared'v by destructive
.
'. W‘
hydrogenationjqr Ia pens-{j _j
' leum'. oil-in vapor phase ata'; temperature'fjabove
V
F -
7
proximate limits of ‘20‘0Iand .600‘1‘FJ'andf‘gpre-'-.-' J .
“Irwish to'clairn all novelty as ifar asthc prior
art permits.’
~
f
‘about
'1' A coating composition‘containing ?lm-form.‘
900° F. and a‘ pressur'
atmospheres.
ing ingredients dissolved in‘ a vehicle comprising
' 'rnexcess
Lot,
'
"
'
‘20
"
'
14. As a lacquer, a'conipdsitio ‘
v‘oif
a solvent
a petroleum
prepared
distillate
by'destructive'
in vapor, phase
hydrogenation
at ‘a tem h solution of a soluble cellulosefjd
a volatileihydrocar-l » _
perature' above about 900° Faand a pressure in organic vehicle, comprisin
excess of 20 atmospheres.
‘
bon liquid, prepared by destructive, hydrogen-‘"11.
.
2. As a coating composition, a composition
comprising non-volatile coating substances which
ation of a petroleum 01.13;!!!’ Yapor{pha_se.'at'a.¢_
_
temperature above about 9009y'vF. and; a-"pressureiil
»:f_,
~.-s0
in excess of 20 atmospheres;
30 are soluble in organic solvents incorporated in
. 15,. As a lacquer, acornp siltiO
an organic vehicle comprising a hydroformed syn,
thetic solvent prepared from a petroleum distil
solution containing a‘solubl
_.
-liii‘lri'u'sing a, v
,
late by destructive hydrogenation in vapor phase _ dissolved in an organic vehicle‘cojnprising ai‘ivol'af' ‘ ‘
' tile hydrocarbon liquid-"boiling; ‘withingthe‘ ap- _‘
at a temperature above about 900° F. and a pres- having a ~35.
35,
sure in excess of 20 atmospheres.
.
v
H v
.proximate range of 200 and‘ 2759'
3. A coating composition comprising ?lm-form
ing ingredients dissolved in a vehicle comprising
a volatile hydrocarbon liquid, having a kauri
- butanol value above 40, and prepared by destruc
tive hydrogenation of a petroleum distillate in
vapor phase at a temperature above about 900°
F. and a pressure in excess of 20 atmospheres.
_, 4. Compositionaccordingto claim 3, in which
' 7- said petroleum distillate. is,a.~non-.para?lnic con‘
' 45.‘ icentrate; derived tfroma petroleum :oil- by treat-j
ment with a solvent having a selective action be
tween paraf?nic and non~para?inic components
thereof.
‘
-
‘llulose derivative
, "
'
'
’
kaurirbutanol value above 40. ‘and- prepared‘ by
destructive hydrogenationof a petroleum :oil in ~
vapor phase at a temperature abqye about; 900s
F. and a pressure in excess of'2'0’Iatmospheres.
a, i‘ '
‘
16. As a lacquer, a‘ composition. comprising 140.
pyroxylin dissolved-in. a:' vehicle. comprising ai- _
volatile organic solvent for pyroxylin or th'e'class -'
of aliphatic alcohols, and, their fatty. acid‘ esters, .
and a, volatile hydrocarbon liquid’prepared' by.
"destructive hydrogenation, of aj petroleum oil in! 45
vvapor phase at‘ aitemperatureabove,about 900?
,
.,
F. andfav pressure in excess of '20: atmospheres.,..f_g,
. 17..As a lacquer, a composition‘ comprising a:
-‘
of cellulose ether in an. organic vehicle
5. Compo'sitionaccording to claim 3, in‘which' 1 solution
comprising a volatile hydrocarbon liquid pre
saidv petroleum distillate is a non-para?inic con ‘ pared by destructive hydrogenation of a. petro
50' centrate secured by extraction‘. from‘ '_a petroleum
.4 oilwith‘, liquid sulfur
dioxide.
,
_
,
> ' 6. Composition according to-claim. 3, in which
said volatile hydrocarbon liquid ‘boils above about
55
122°
F.
I
'
'
'
7. Composition according to claim ‘3, in which
said solvent boils‘ within' the approximate limits
of 2'75 and 365° F.
leum- oil~ in. vapor phase at ‘a temperature above '*
about 900") F. and a pressure in excess of 20 "
atmospheres.
‘
18. As a lacquer, a composition'comprising a
soluble cellulose. de'rivat‘iveand blown castor oil ,
dissolved in a vehicle comprising a1 volatile hy--.
drocarbon liquid, having a kauri-butanol- value]
above 40, boiling-g above about‘ 122° ,F. and pre
8. Composition according to- claim 3, in which, pared by destructive hydrogenation ‘of a petro+ 60.
said solvent boils within the approximate limits. _ leum oil in vapor phase at a temperature ‘above
60
or 365and 419‘? F.
about 900‘?
and a pressure in excess of 20‘
9. Composition according to claim 3', in which‘ atmospheres' '
.
said solvent boils within the approximate limits‘
19. As a paint, a composition: comprising a
of 419 and 550‘? F. ‘
pigment admixed with an organic vehicle com 6.)
65
10. As‘ a varnish, a composition comprising an
prising a solution containing a drying oil and a
organic-substance of. the class of gums and resins , volatile hydrocarbon liquid prepared by destruc
which areisoluble inorganic solvents, dissolved tive hydrogenation of a petroleum oil. in vapor
in an organic vehicle comprising, a volatile hy-' phase at a temperature above about 900° F. and
drocarbon liquid prepared by destructive-hydro-= a pressurein excess of 20 atmospheres.
70
genation of a petroleum oil in vapor phase at a
20. As a paint, a composition comprising a ‘
temperature above about 900° F. and a pressure I pigment admixed with an organic vehicle, com‘
in excess of’ 20 atmospheres.'-- .
prising a solution containing a drying oil and a
11. As a varnish‘,~a composition comprising, an ‘ volatile hydrocarbon liquid,» boiling within the
organic substance of the class of gumsand resins
75. which are soluble in organic solvents, dissolved
approximate range ofv 365-"and:550$Fghavingra.
. V
, l
6
9, 129,785
kauri-butanol value above 40 and prepared by
destructive hydrogenation of a petroleum oil in
vapor phase at a temperature above about 900°
F. and a pressure in excess of 20 atmospheres.
21. A coating composition comprising ?lm
iorming ingredients dissolved in a vehicle com
prising a'hydroformed volatile hydrocarbon liq
uid, having a kauri-butanol value above 40, and
prepared by destructive hydrogenation of a pe
troleum distillate in vapor phase with a limited
proportion of hydrogen under conditions suitable
for forming anti-knocking motor fuels.
ROBERT T. HASLAM.
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