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Патент USA US2129804

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Sept. 13, 1938.
T. E. M. 'WHEAT
2,129,804
MOTOR VEHICLE
Filed June 19, 1935
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
.(55
/
a: 7
IN VENTOR.
.4 TTORNEYS.
Sept. 13,~1938..
T.
2,129,804
M. WHEAT
MOTOR VEHICLE
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
Filed June' 19, 1935
IN VENTOR.
77027745 .2?’ /)/. (4/&aaii
BY
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/
g 2.9 ( i2 % r"
I
'
,
ATTORNEYS;
Sept. 13, 1938.
"r. E. M. WHEAT
2,129,804
MOTOR VEHICLE
Filed June 19, 1935
‘
‘
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
' INVENTOR_.
'7302745 I M W?eai
BY
ATTORNEY?
.
Sept-“13, 19-38-
T: E. M. WHEAT
I
2,129,804
MOTOR VEHICLE
Filed June 19, 1935
'5 Sheets~Sheet 4
IN VEN TOR. '
7207745 .ZT/V. l/l/?edi‘. v
Sept. 13, 1938.
‘
I
T. E. M. WHEAT,
‘'
2,129,804
MOTOR VEHICLE
Filed June 19, 1935
625/‘
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
6/
.
~
_
J
INVENTOR.
770774612.’ )7. Wieai
'
BY
Patented Sept. 13, 193s
‘2,129,804
UNITED STATES
PA'I'IINTv
".I
Fl CE "
2,129,804‘:
MOTOR VEHICLE
Thomas E. M. Wheat, Highland Park, Mich, as
signor to Chrysler Corporation, Highland Park,
Mich, a corporation of Delaware
»
Application June 19, 1935,’ Serial No. 27,287
24 Claims. (@l. 280-495)
. This invention relates to motor vehicles and‘ whereby to provide improved steering'differential
refers more particularly to improvements in mo
of the \steering wheels.
tor vehicles having independently sprung steer- v
ing ground wheels.
.~
proved steering mechanism for independently
,
’
I
provision of means for maintaining the desired
relative toe-in position of the steering wheels 5-_
One object of my invention is to provide im
sprung ground wheels.
,
Another feature'of my invention resides in the
during steering, especially in conjunction with
'
an independent wheel suspension system of the
A further object is to provide a relatively
' character aforesaid.
simple steering mechanism in conjunction with
'
Further objects and advantages of my inven
10. an independent wheel suspension wherein the ' tion will be more apparent from the following il- 10
steering mechanism is less costly to manufacture lustrative embodiments thereof, reference being
than steering mechanisms used heretofore.
had to the accompanying drawings in which:
Another object of my invention is to provide
--Fig. l is a top plan view of the forward right
improvements in steering mechanisms for inde
portion of a motor vehicle chassis showing my
15 pendently sprung wheels which will lessen wheel invention applied thereto.
15
tire wear, eliminate undesirable steering wheel . Fig. 2 is a front elevational view of the Fig. 1
rotation or “wheel ?ght”, provide ‘and maintain. chassis but illustrating the forward left portion
‘ greater accuracy in the steering geometry espe
cially as the wheels rise and fall as well as when
Fig.‘ 3 is a detail sectional view taken as indi
20 the steering mechanism is operated to steer the , cated by line 3-3 of Fig. 2.
thereof.
vehicle.
_
~ It has been heretofore proposed to articulate
the tie rods directly between the wheel knuckle
Fig.
steering arms and the steering gear arm or pit
-
_
>
1.
'
l
‘
type of motor vehicle front wheel suspension and
since the reduction gear mechanism is usually
steering mechanism.
located to one side of the vehicle difficulties have
Fig. 6 is a ‘sectional planview along line 6-6
‘ of Fig. 5.
ently sprung wheel systems; as well as in the
Fig. '7 is a. diagrammatic plan ‘view of the Fig.
30‘ more conventional axle-connected‘ types of front
wheel suspensions, ~owing principally' to the dif
5 steering mechanism.
30
Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic elevational view of
the Fig. 5 wheel suspension and steering mecha
ference in length. of the tie rods. Ti'iis inherent
-
an undesired steering movement to be imparted >
nism.
>
35 to the wheels as they rise and fall resulting in
‘excessive tire‘ wear, “wheel ?ght,” vibration of
Fig. 9 is a diagrammatic elevational view of
a suspension system similar to Fig. '8 but illus
trat'ing a further slightly modi?ed arrangement
the motor vehicle and generally undesirable
‘ of steering mechanism in association therewith.
steering geometry.
’
'
'1
'
I
.
" My invention provides a simple and effective
40 remedy for the foregoing di?iculties and disad
vantages and may be realized without the addi
4
tion .of complications or added mechanism and
cost. In’ carrying out my inventionin its, pre
ferred embodiment, the pitman arm is con
Fig. 10 is a diagrammatic plan view of a‘ steer
ing mechanism like Fig. 7 but illustrating a fur
ther modi?ed construction.
40
Fig. I1 is a diagrammatic elevational view of
my wheel suspension‘ incorporating the Fig. 10
steering mechanism.
'Fig. 12 is a diagrammatic plan view of the
structed to provide tie rod ball-pivotsat different . . motor
elevations, preferably by forking the swinging
_ end of the pitman‘arm, the steering- knuckle ar'm
. ball ‘pivots being located in conjunction with the
50 pitman arm'ballpivots to compensate for the ob
‘ jectionable characteristics otherwise inherent in
‘the system.
a
‘
As a further feature of my. invention the ball
points may'be also longitudinally spaced when
viewed in plan to describe‘ differing arcs of travel
20
Fig. 5 is a front elevational view of a modi?ed
25 man arm of the reduction gear mechanism but
characteristic renders it impossible to prevent
'
Fig. i is an elevational diagrammatic view of
the wheel suspension and steering mechanism of
.
arisen, especially in connection with independ
_
vehicle.
-
‘
.
_
45
In the/drawings I have illustrated my improved
steering mechanism in conjunction with a. leaf
spring type-of independent wheel suspension in
Figs. 1 to 4, and in conjunction with‘ a rigid link
type of wheel suspension in Figs. 5 to 8, Fig. 9, 50
and Figs. 10 to 12, it being understoodthat these‘
types of suspension may be further varied within
keeping of the principles of my-invention.
Referring particularly to Figs. 1 to 4, reference
character l0 represents the vehicle frame side a
. 2,129,804
2 ,
ordinary installations and usually interferes with
other partsof the vehicle as pitman arm 31
swings for normal wheel steering. Thus, I have
rails and H a front cross member therefor. The
dirigible front supporting ground wheels l2, l3
'are each rotatably mounted on
a steering
effected a slight compromise which however so
knuckle spindle l4 swivelled about king pin l5
and having rearwardly“ extending steering
closely approximates theoretically ideal condi
tions that in practice pivots 4|, 42 need only
be separated vertically from approximately one
knuckle arms i6, i'l' respectively associated with
‘wheels I2 and I3.
'
to three inches, more or less separation giving
Each king pin is carried by a knuckle bracket
arm l8 guided through upper and lower pivot
results which are not generally important.
Furthermore, by employing a'linkage 22 of leaf 10
10 pins I9, 20 by upper and lower linkages 2| and‘
22. The upper linkage 2| is'illustrated in the spring type, the effective pivot of the spring is
‘form of a rigid link having inwardly diverged - different for upward and downward displacee
ments of the wheels from the normal wheel posi-4
tions. This difference arises from the spring le
arm portions pivotally supported at 23 by the
frame preferably through the intermediary of
hydraulic shock absorber 24 according to well ‘ vers separating or acting together as a wheel 15
known practice. The lower linkage 22 comprises moves, down or up. Thus, the effective are of
frame pivotal support for a spring linkage 22
is shorter for upward wheel movements than for
vehicle and rigidly secured mid-way thereof to, lower wheel movements. In one typical embodl-f 20
ment of my invention I have employed, by way
cross member I! as ‘by bolts 25 acting in con
junction with plates 26, 211. The leaf springs of example, a spring linkage of twenty-two inches
are maintained separated by side ?anges 23 of length from pivot 20 toXcentral plane 35. This
the cross member and ribs 23 of ‘plate 26. The has resulted, with a spring anchorage by bolts
linkages I9, 20 guide vertical displacements of 25, in an arc of upward swing of pivots 30, 3|
on a radius of about fourteen inches about pivot
-25 wheels l2 and i3, the ground contacting area of 43 and a lower are on a radius of nearly eighteen
the wheel tire tread rising and falling without
objectionable scutling owing to linkage 22having a inches about pivot 44. I prefer to locate points
a pair of longitudinally spaced leaf spring assem
blies which may extend across the front ‘of the
longer length than linkage 2i.
'
Steering arms H5, ill have terminal articulated
30 ball pivots 30, 3! with tie rods 32, 33 respectively.
30, 3| and 4|, 42 to favor the upper arc since
the wheel is vloaded by the vehicle to a much
greater extent ‘when the frame falls relatively to
The usual steering wheel (not shown), operates
shaft 34 conveniently positioned to one side of
the vehicle, the longitudinal vertical mid-plane
thereof being designated at 35. Shaft 34 operates
the usual reduction gearing at 36 to swing pitman
a wheel than when the wheel falls relative to the
frame. In other words,‘ in effecting a slight com
promise, pivots 30, 3| swing more nearly in an are
arm 31 about pivot 38.
when the wheel is displaced downwardly. In any
event. deviations in either direction are not of
'
.
The force transmitting end of the pitman arm
is forked at 39, iii]v to provide spaced articulated
ball pivots ‘4|, 42 respectively for the relatively
short tie rod 32 and long tie rod 33.
- .
Referring particularly to Fig. 4, I have illus
trated diagrammatically the suspension linkages
together with positions of the linkages in con
having centers at 4|, 42 respectively (which are
is the natural are determined by the wheel link
age) when the wheel is displaced upwardly, than
objectionable magnitude by reason of . my inven“
tion and normal wheel displacements (less than
to extreme limits) do not result in any appre
ciable lateral wheel displacements of steering
tendency.
.
In Fig. 4 arcs 45, 46 represent the travel of
pivots 30, 3| respectively under the in?uence of
wheel
movements.
It
will
be
apparent
that
the
45
movement of pivots 30, 3| and any point on arms the suspension linkage, while arcs 41, 43 represent
I8 is a function of the travel of pivots l9 and 2|) , corresponding travel'of pivots 30, 3| about pivots
guided by linkages 2|, 22. Undesired steering 4|, 42 of the tie rods.
Referring now to Figs. 5 to 8, I have illustrated
movements will occur, when the wheels rise and
fall with the vehicle travelling straight ahead, a generally similar arrangement of suspension
linkage and frame as indicated by similar refer
whenever the arcs of movement of pivots 30, 3|
as determined by the wheel suspensions deviate ence characters. Corresponding parts for the tie
appreciably from the arcs of movement of pivots rods andparts connected thereto,- as well as the
30, 3|‘ about the relatively ?xed pivots 4|, 42 lower rigid link, arev indicated by primed numer
for tie rods 32, 33 respectively. With pivots 33, 3| als which correspond in function and operation to
similar unprimed numerals for parts aforesaid.
and 4 |, 42 positioned according to prior art prac
In addition, a coil spring 49 is associated with
tice, such deviation is so great that the wheels struction lines for the extreme upper and lower
are subjected‘ to lateral swinging‘ on their‘ king
each wheel suspension acting to "support the
movement of the suspension linkages.
spring linkage 22 of Fig. 1.
pins as they rise and fall, such’ swinging being of frame between upper seat 50 and lower seat 5| on
lower linkage 2|’, this coil spring taking the
60 an objectionable magnitude even for wheel-disi
placements well. within the normal [range of place of the-yielding support provided by the
\
My invention, in part, includes spacing pivots
4|, 42 vertically, the lower pivot12 being provided
for longer tie rod 33. Furthermore, to more
clearly eliminate such wheel steering on vertical
V
"
.
k In Figs. _'l and 8, the pitman'arm 31’ pivots
about an inclined axis 33'. and is forked to provide
spaced ball pivots 4|"and 42’ which describe
arms 52 and 53 respectively, these arcs being
wheel displacements, I have further elevated piv ‘longitudinally spaced when viewed in plan‘. .The
ots 30, 3| over their conventional locations, pivot limiting positions of steering movement of pivots
3| being higher than pivot 30. If pivots 4|, 42 4|’ and 42' for steering ‘to the right are respec
tively designated ,at 53, 54 while the opposite 70
70 are vertically spaced still further, for the approxi- . . direction limits are at 55, 53 respectively, from
mate relationships of parts illustrated; the arcs
of pivots 30, 3l-under the in?uences of the‘tie which it will be noted that arcs 52, 53 overlap
rods and suspension linkages may be made to circumferentially with respect to axis '38’ as a
exactly agree as illustrated in Fig. 9. _ This re
quires flve ,or six inches of spacing in average
center of swing of ball pivots 4|’ and 42'. This
arrangement provides improved steering of the 75.
3
2,129,804
wheels whereby the wheels have a differential of ‘ 9 there is no wheel ?ight to any degree even at the
steering movement to compensate for their rela
tively varying distance from any center of turning
movement. This is indicated by the extreme
positions of steering for ball pivots 3t’ and 3|’
during extreme right and left turns. For ex
treme right turns pivots 30', 3I'_ respectively
move to 51, 58 while left turns move these pivots
to 59, 60 respectively.
10’
_
In Fig. 8 ball pivots 30', 3|’ describe arcs flfi’,
' 46' respectively, due to the suspension linkage
15
2|, I8, 22' while these pivots tend to vmove in
arcs 41', 88,’ about they tie rod pitman arm pivots
4|’, M’ respectively. Obviously the error or de
viation in these arcs is extremely small, by reason '
of my invention. The pivots‘3il’, ill’ both lie
above the level of the associated lower linkage
22' while pivots if’, M’ lie below their associated
lower linkage 22’ in this embodiment of my in
vention. It will be apparent that some further
variations .in' the spacing of pivots M’, M'- may
be desired and in dilierent installations the ratios
of the various linkage parts will often require
further changes in the illustrated relationships
but from my disclosure of the principles involved
it is possible to easily adapt my invention to any
type of suspension.
extreme movements of, the pivots 30'', iii" in
moving along arcs/.45", Hi". The more nearly
ball pivot 30’v in Fig. 8 approaches the position of
pivot 30" of Fig. 9, for the normal positions there
of, the/more nearly ‘do arcs 45', I'll’ coincide,
pivotdl' being at the same time moved to M".
In Fig. 9 further reference characters are the
same as in Fig. 8 since their functions are similar.
10
.
Throughout the several embodiments of my in
vention the pitman arm is illustrated as being
forked, as at 39, M] in Fig. l, to provide the
spaced tie rod ball pivots as this forking facili
tates the manufacture and assembly of the steer
15
ing mechanism.
Referr'ng now to the form of my invention
illustrated in Figs. 10 to 12, I have provided a
steering mechanism in conjunction with my
wheel suspension for eliminating undesirable 20
change in the toe-in of the steering wheels as
the wheels are moved to the right or left. The
desirability .of toe-in is generally well-known in
the art and in Fig. 12 I have illustrated the front
wheels i2, is inclined, in addition to their usual 25
caster and camber settings, forwardly toward
' each other as represented in greatly exaggerated
Referring particularly to Fig. 6, I have illus
. trated another of my improvements in the steeri
ing mechanism wherein the pitman arm balls
M’, 42' are illustrated as lying forwardly of a
transverse line b passing through the steering
arm pivots 30’, 3f’, it being customary hereto
fore to locate the tie rod or rods along such line;
By locating the pivots. ill’, d2’ ahead of line b I
prevent an undesirable loss in the overall steer
ing ratio especially to ‘any appreciable extent
within the major part of the swing of pitman arm
31' from its normal positionfor straight ahead
form by the converging wheel planes bl, 6112.
Where the pitman arm forked tie. rod ball pivots
are laterally separated, as in the foregoing em 30
bodiments of my invention, the steering geometry
while greatly improved is subject to a criticism
applicable to many other forms of steering de
vices. This resides in the fact that when the pit
man arm swings to the right or left, the dis 35
tance between the pitman arm balls becomes less
when measured laterally of the car. This has the '
elTect of ‘bringing the pitman ‘arm ball points to
gether as the pitman arm swings.
The actual
vehicle travel. Ordinarily such loss is appreci- ' relative position of ' the pitman arm balls does 40
able to an undesirable extent just as soon as any _ not of course change, but measured laterally this
steering takes place because initially the effective '
lengths of the steering arms are greatest or sub
stantially so with the pitman arm in the normal
ball separation diminishes. in proportion to the
at the initial position of pitman arm 31' but grad
ually approaches this maximum and gradually.
together which obviously changes the relative
toe-in of the wheels during steering. ‘This intro
recedes therefrom as steering movement of the
duces an error in the steering, undue wear at the
pitman arm takes place resulting. in a wide~ range
of pitman arm swing with substantially constant
characteristics.
swing of the pitman arm to the right or left.
Now, it is desirable to provide the front wheels
position, any steering movements heretofore with a normal toe-in as illustrated in exaggerated
progressively lessening the effective steering arm‘ form in Fig. 12 where the wheels are straight
lengths as these arms are swung about their king forward.
When steering takes place, the effect ‘of the
pins and as the angles of the tie rods change. With my construction, the maximum e?ective aforesaid foreshor'tening of the distance between
length of the steering arms it’, ll’ is not realized the pitman arm balls is to bring the ball points 50
overall steering gear-ratio.
.
Thus in Fig. 6 I have illustrated a typical con
dition at wheel l2. Normally tierod 32' for ex
ample lies along‘line 0 between pivots W", M’,
resulting in an effective length of am It’ as
shown at d, somewhat less than. the actual maxi¢
mum effective length of arm i6’ represented at e.
As pitman arm 31' swings to the dotted position,
tie rod 32' moves to axis ,0’ resulting in an effec~
tive lever ar_m d’ for ‘arm 16’. During the
greater part of this movement the effective length
of arm I6’ will remain close to a constant value.
.The ‘same advantageous condition is realized at
the wheel I3 ‘steered by tie'rod 33'.
~In Fig. 9'I have illustrated a wheel suspension
as in Fig. 8 with the pitman arm ball pivots 4|",
42" forked the maximum amount to provide .00
incidence of the arcs45', 41' and 46', 48' of'Fig.
8, the steering knuckle arm pivots 30", 3|" being
located to permit this coincidence. __ Thus in Fig.
wheel tread, tire squeal, and other undesired
Furthermore, this error at the 55
pitman arm balls is multiplied by the ratio of
the steering knuckle arm length and the rolling
radius of the wheel and tire.
>
In Figs. 10 and 11, the pitman arm 3'!“ pivots
about axis 388 so that the ball pivots M85628 are 60
vertically spaced on axis 63 parallel to axis 38,
without lateral spacing of the ball pivots. If
desired the axis 388‘ may be inclined.
In any
event, pivots Me, 42* preferably lie in a plane
parallel to mid-plane 35 during at least one posi 65
tion of swinging movement of pitman arm 37“.
It will be apparent that swing of the pitman arm
to the dotted positions of Fig. 10 will not alter
the relative positions of the inner ends of the tie
rods laterally of the vehicle and the relative'toe-in 70
of the wheels will be preserved during steering.
In Fig. 11, the vertical spacing of pivots Ma,
423 and theirrelationships with the outer vtie
rods pivots 30“, 3|?‘ is preferably such- that wheel
?ght is substantially eliminated according to the 75
4
2,129,804
other embodiments of my invention. Such rela
tionship is illustrated by the pairs of arcs 45“,
£178 and d8“, 488 which~respectively correspond
to pairs of arcs 45, M and 45, 48 of Fig. 4; and
65’, M’ and 46’ and 48' of Fig. 8. Other refer
ence characters in Figs. 10 and 11 are the same
as in Figs. 7 and 8 since the parts may be of
similar structure and operation.
What I claim is:
llii
'
‘
1. In a motor vehicle, the combination with a
means for articulating the other ends of said tie
rods to said forked portions respectively.
4. In a motor vehicle, the combination with a
vehicle frame structure, of a pair of steerable
road wheels disposed adjacent one end of the
frame at opposite sides thereof, means support
ing each of “said wheels on said frame for rising
and falling movements with respect to said frame
independently of the other wheel, said means
including linkage intermediate the frame and 10
each of said wheels for guiding said wheel move
ments and a steering knuckle swivelly connecting
each of said wheels to its said linkage, tie rods
articulated at one of. their ends respectively to
said steering knuckles, steering gear disposed to
vehicle frame structure, of a pair of steerable
road wheels disposedvadjacent one end of the
frame at opposite sides thereof, means supporting
each of said wheels on said frame for rising and
lid falling movements with respect to said frame in
dependently of the other wheel, said means in ' one side of the longitudinal vertical mid-plane of
cluding linkage intermediate the frame and each the vehicle,‘ means for articulating the other ends
of said wheels for guiding said wheel movements of said tie rods to said steering gear for pivotal
and a steering knuckle swivelly connecting each ‘movement relative thereto during said wheel
movements, one of said tie rods being of substan
of said wheels to its said linkage, tie rods articu
lated, at one. of their ends respectively to said tially greater length than the other, the points
steering knuckles, steering. gear disposed to one _of articulation of said tie rods 'to said steering
side of the longitudinal vertical mid-plane of the gear being relatively vertically and laterally
vehicle, means for articulating the other ends of spaced and so constructed and arranged that
ment relative thereto during said wheel move
ments, one of said tie rods being of substantially
tendency of said steering knuckles to swivel dur
ing said wheel movements is substantially pre
vented when the vehicle is travelling approxi
greater length than the other, the points of
mately straight ahead.
articulation of said tie rods to said steering gear
being relatively vertically spaced and so con
structed and arranged that tendency of said
steering knuckles to swivel ‘during said wheel
5. In a motor vehicle, the combination with
a vehicle frame structure, of a pair of steerable
said tierods to said steering gearforpivotal move
25
'
road wheels disposed adjacent one end of the '
frame at'opposite sides thereof, means supporting
movements is substantially prevented when the ' each of said wheels on said frame for rising and
vehicle is travelling approximately straight ahead. falling movements with respect to said frame
2. In a motor vehicle, the combination with a independently of the other wheel, said means in 35
vehicle frame structure, of a pair of steerable roa-.,
wheels disposed adjacent one end of the frame at
opposite sides thereof, means supporting each of
said wheels on said frame for rising and falling
movements with respect to said frame independ
ently of the‘other wheel, said means including
linkage, intermediate the frame and each of said
wheels for guiding said wheel movements, and a
‘eluding linkage intermediate the frame and each
steering knuckle swivelly connecting each of said
wheels to its said linkage, tie rods articulated at
one of their ends respectively to said steering
of said wheels for guiding said ‘wheel movements
and a steering knuckle swivelly connecting each
of said wheels to its said linkage, tie rods articu
lated at one of their ends respectively to said
steering knuckles, steering gear disposed to one
side of the longitudinal vertical mid-plane of
the vehicle, said steering gear including a steer
ing gear arm, and means for articulating the
other ends of said tie rods to one end of said
steering gear arm at relatively vertically and
_ knuckles, steering gear disposed to one side of
laterally'spaced points located approximately at
the longitudinal vertical mid-plane of the vehicle,
, said steering gear including a steering gear arm.
the respective centers of arcuate paths of move
ment of the points of said articulation of the tie
and means for articulating the other ends of said
tie rods to one end of, said steering gear arm at
rods to the steering knuckles during said wheel
movements when the vehicle is travelling ap
‘relatively vertically spaced points located ap
proximately at the respective centers of arcuate
paths of movement of the points of said articula
proximately straight ahead.
each of said wheels on said frame for rising and
falling movements with respect to said frame in
dependently of the other wheel, said means'in
eluding linkage intermediate the frame and each
passing through‘ the points of articulation - of
tion of the tie rods to the steering. knuckles during
said wheel movements when the vehicle is travel
ling approximately straight forward.
.
J 3. In a motor vehicle, the combination with
a vehicle frame ‘structure, of a pair of ‘steerable
road wheels disposed adjacent one end of the
frame at opposite sides thereof, means supporting
65
6. In a motor vehicle, a pair of dirigible ground
wheels at the forward end of the vehicle adja
cent opposite, sides thereof respectively, means
for pivotally supporting each of said wheels for
steering movements and including a rearwardly
extending steering knuckle arm for each wheel,
a laterally swinging steering movement impart
ing member, and a tie rod articulated between
each of said steering arms and said swinging
member, the points of articulation of said tie rods
with said swinging member being disposed sub
stantially forwardly of a vertical transverse plane
of said wheels for guiding saidlwheel movements .said tie rods with said steering arms, lines be
and a steering knuckle swivelly connecting each tween the points of articulation of each of said
tie rods respectively defining an obtuse angle'with
of said wheels to its said linkage, tie rods articu
lated at one of their ends respectively to said lines perpendicular withthe axes ,of wheel pivot
70 steering knuckles, steering gear disposed to one ing and passing through the associated points of 70
side of the longitudinal vertical mid-plane of the articulation of said steering arms with said tie
vehicle, said steering gear including a swinging rods, when said swinging member is positioned
pitman arm having a forked steering force trans
for straight ahead vehicle travel.
mitting end, the forked portions of said pitman
7. In a motor vehicle, the combination with a
76 arms being relatively vertically disposed, and
vehicle frame structure, of a pair of steerable
5
2,129,804
‘road wheels-disposed adjacent one’end of the 5 point of’ articulation of the longer tie rod with
frame at opposite sides thereof, means support
said pitman arm being disposed at a lower ele
ing each of said wheels on said frame for'rising'
and falling movements with respect to said frame
independently of the other wheel, said means
vation than the corresponding point of articula
tion of the shorter tie rod.
10.,In a motor vehicle, the combination with
including linkage intermediate the frame and a vehicle frame structure, of a pair of steerable
each of said wheels for guiding said wheel move-v ,road wheels disposed adjacent one end of the
ments and a steering knuckle swivelly connecting frame at opposite sides thereof, means support
each of said wheels to its said linkage, tie rods ing each of said wheels on said frame for rising
10 articulated at one of their ends respectively to and falling movements with respect to said frame
said steering knuckles, steering gear disposed to independently of the other wheel, said means
one side of the longitudinal verticalv mid-plane of including linkage intermediate the frame and
the vehicle, means for articulating the other ends - each of said wheels for guiding said wheel move
of said tie ‘rods to' said steering gear for pivotal ments and a steering knuckle swivelly connect
15 movement relative thereto during said wheel ing each of said wheels to- its said linkage, tie
rods articulated at one of their‘ends respectively
movements, one of said tie rods being of substan
tially greater length than the other, the points to said steering knuckles, steering gear disposed
of articulation of said tie rods to said steering to one side of the longitudinal vertical mid-plane
vgear being relatively vertically spaced and so 'of the vehicle, means for articulating the other
20 constructed and arranged'that tendency of said ends of said tie rods to said-steering gear for
steering knuckles to swivel during said wheel pivotal movement relative thereto during said
movements is substantially prevented when the wheel movements, one of said tie rods being of
vehicle is travelling approximately straight
substantially greater length than the othenthe
ahead, the point of articulation of the vlonger tie
25 rod with said steering gear being disposed at a
points of articulation of said tie rods to said
lower'elevation than the corresponding point ‘of
ranged that tendency of said steering knuckles
to swivel during said wheel movements is sub
independently of the other wheel,
35
aid means
including linkage intermediate the v?grame and
each of said wheels for guiding said wheel move
ments and a steering knuckle swivelly connecting
each of saidwheels to its said linkage, 'tie rods
articulated at one of their ends respectively to
40 said steering knuckles, steering gear disposed to
one side of the longitudinal ‘vertical mid-plane
of the vehicle, said steering gear including a
, steering gear arm, and means for articulating
,thedother ends of said ‘tie rods to one end of
45 said steering ~‘gear arm at relatively vertically
spaced points located approximately at the re
spective centers of arcuate paths of movement of
the points of said articulation of the tie rods to
the’ steering knuckles during said- wheel move
50
mj‘nts when the vehicle is travelling approxi
15
20
steering gear being relatively vertically and ion 25
8. In a motor vehicle, the combination with a
vehicle frame structure, of a pair of steerable
frame at opposite sides thereof, means support
ing each of said wheels on said frame for rising
and falling movements with respect to said frame
10
gitudinally spaced and so constructed and ar
articulation of the shorter tie rod.
30 road wheels disposed adjacent one end of the
5
stantially prevented when the vehicle is travel
ling approximately straight .ahead.
30
11. In a motor vehicle, the combination with
a vehicle frame structure, of a pair of steerable
road wheelsv disposed adjacent one end of the
frame at opposite sides thereof, means supporting
each of said wheels on said frame for rising and 35
falling movements with respect to said frame in
dependently of the other wheel, said means in-v
cluding linkage intermediate the frame and each
of said wheels for guiding said wheel movements
and a steering knuckle swivelly connecting each 40
of said wheels to its said linkage, tie rods articu
latedat one of their ends respectively to said
steering knuckles, steering gear disposed to one
side of the longitudinal vertical mid-plane of the
vehicle, means for articulating the other ends'of 45
said tie rods to said steering gear for pivotal
movement relative thereto, during said wheel
movements, one of said tie- rods being of sub
stantially greater length than the other, the
points of articulation of said tie rods to said 50
m tely straight forward, the point of articulation steering-gear being relatively vertically, laterally
of the longer tie rodwith said steering gear arm and longitudinally spaced and so constructed and
being disposed at a lower elevation than the cor arranged that tendency of said steering knuckles
responding point of articulation of‘the shorter tie to swivel during said wheel movements is sub
stantially prevented when the vehicle is travel 55
55
rod.
-
'
.
9. In a motor vehicle, the combination with a
vehicle frame structure, of a pair of steerable
road wheels disposed adjacent one end of‘the
7 frame at opposite sides thereof, means supporting
80 each of said wheels on said frame for rising and
ling approximately straight ahead.
'
.12. In a motor vehicle, the combination wit
a vehicle frame structure, of a pair of steerable ‘
road wheels disposed adjacent one end of the
frame at opposite sides thereof, means support
ing each of said wheels on said frame for rising
falling movements with respect to said frame in
and falling movements with respect to said frame
dependently of the other wheel, said means in
cluding linkage intermediate the frame and each‘ independently of the other wheel, said means in
of said wheels for guiding said wheel movements cluding linkage intermediate the frame and each
65 and a steering knuckle swivelly connecting each of said wheels for guiding said wheel movements
and asteering knuckle swivelly connecting each
of said wheels to its said linkage, tie rods articu
lated at one of their ends respectively to said _. of said wheels to its said linkage, tie rods articu
steering knuckles, steering gear disposed to one lated at one of their ends respectively to said
side of the longitudinal vertical mid-plane of the steering knuckles, steering gear disposed to one
70 vehicle, said steering gear including a swinging side of the longitudinal vertical mid-plane of the
pitman arm having a forked steering force trans
vehicle, means for articulating the other ends of
mitting end, the forked portions of said pitman said. tie rods to said steering gear for pivotal
arm being relatively vertically disposed, and movement. relative thereto during said wheel
means for articulating the other ends of said movements, one of said tie rods being of substan
, tie rods to said forked portions respectively, the tially greater length than the other, the points
‘
65
_
to ‘Y
-
75
6
2,129,804
of articulation of said tie rods to said steering
gear being relatively vertically spaced and so
knuckles, means iproviding universal pivoting
connections relatively between said tie rods and
said steering knuckles and pitman arm, the piv
oting connections of said tie rods to said pitman
constructed and arranged that tendency of said
steering knuckles to swivel during said wheel
movements is substantially prevented when the ' arm being relatively vertically spaced.
16. In a motor vehicle having a frame, dirigible
vehicle is travelling approximately straight
ahead, said tie rod points of articulation to said
. steering gear being substantially aligned longi-'
tudinally of the vehicle for at least one of their
10 positions of movement by said steering gear.
13. In a motor vehicle, the combination with a
vehicle frame structure, of a pair of steerable
road wheels disposed adjacent one end of the
ground wheels each having a steering knuckle
providing a swivel mounting therefor, means in
termediate the frame and each of said steering
knuckles for supporting the frame and providing 10
rising and falling movements of each wheel in
dependently of the other, steering gear including
a swinging pitman arm, a tie rod between said
frame at opposite sides thereof, means support - pitman arm and each of said steering knuckles,
15 ing each of said wheels'on said frame for rising means providing universal pivoting connections 15
and falling movements with respect to said frame relatively between said tie rods and said steering
independently of the other wheel, said means knuckles and pitman arm, the pivoting connec
comprising a pair of upper and lower linkages tions of said tie rods to said pitman arm being
movably supported by said frame and positioned relatively vertically spaced and lying substan
tially in a plane, parallel to the longitudinal ver
20 at each side of the vehicle, a knuckle support
ing arm pivotally connecting each of said pairs tical mid-plane of the vehicle, for at least one
position of movement of said pivoting connec
of linkages, one of the linkages of each pair com
1‘
prising a spring assembly adapted to move the tions."
17. In a motor vehicle having a frame, dirig
pivot, thereof with said supportingv arm in rela
25 tively different arcs as the wheel associated
therewith moves upwardly and downwardly from
its normal position, a steering knuckle arm for
each of said wheels and adapted for rising and
falling movements therewith, tie rod means ar
ticulated to said knuckle arms, steering move
ment imparting means articulated to said tie rod
means, the points of articulation being relatively
vertically spaced and so constructed and ar
ranged that tendency of said wheels to steer is
substantially prevented when the vehicle is trav
elling approximately straight ahead during said
rising and falling wheel movements.
14. In a motor vehicle, the combination with a
vehicle frame structure, of a pair of steerable
road wheels disposed adjacent one end of the
frame at opposite sides thereof, means support
_ible ground wheels each having a steering 25
knuckle providing a swivel mounting therefor,
means intermediate the frame and each of said
steering knuckles for supporting the frame and
providing rising and falling movements of each
wheel independently of the other, steering gear 80
including a swinging pitman arm, a tie rod be
tween said pitman arm and each of said steering
knuckles, means providing universal pivoting
connections relatively between said tie rods and
said steering knuckles and pitman arm, the piv
oting connections of said tie rods to said pitman
arm being relatively vertically spaced, said piv
oting connections being so constructed and ar
ranged that tendency of said steering knuckles
to swivel during said wheel movements is sub
stantially prevented when the vehicle is travel
ing each of said wheels on said frame for rising ling approximately straight ahead.
18. In a motor vehicle having a frame structure,
and falling movements with respect to said frame
independently of ~the other wheel, said means a pair of steerable ground wheels, means for sup
comprising a pairv of upper and lower linkages , porting and guiding each of said wheels from said
movably supported by said frame and positioned frame structure for independent rising and falling
at each side of the vehicle, a knuckle supporting movements, said means including a supporting
arm pivotally connecting each of said pairs of member for swivelling each of said wheels about
linkages, one of the linkages of each pair com
an axisof steering movement, each of said sup
prising a spring assembly adapted to move the porting members having a steering arm, and tie
rod means articulated to‘ said steering arms for
pivot thereof with said supporting arm in rela
swinging said steering arms about said axes re
tively different arcs as the wheel associated there
of moves upwardly and downwardly from its spectively, said tie rod means and said steering
normal position, a steering knuckle arm for each - arms being normally relatively ang’ularly disposed
of said wheels and adapted for rising and falling to successively increase and then decrease the
movements therewith, tie rod means articulated effective length of said steering arms when said
to said knuckle arms, steering movement impart tie rod means operates to move said wheels from
ing means articulated to said tie rod means,‘ the their normal positions to steering positions, said
last vnamed points of articulation being relatively‘ tie rod means comprising a pair of tie rods of '
unequal lengths, and a swinging pitman arm artic
vertically spaced and so constructed‘and ar
ranged relative to the ?rst named points of'
articulation that tendency of said wheels to steer
ulated to the inner ends of said tie rods.
‘
‘
19. In a motor vehicle having a frame structure,
is substantially prevented when the vehicle is *a pair of steerable ground wheels, means for sup
travelling approximately straight ahead and dur
ing said rising wheel movements to a greater ex
tent than during said falling wheel movements, Y
4 15. In a motor vehicle having a frame, dirig
ible ground wheels each having a steering knuckle
porting and guiding each of said wheels relative
to the frame structure for independent rising and
falling movements, said supporting and guiding
means providing an axis of steering movement for
each of said wheels, tie rods of unequal lengths
providinga swivel mounting therefor, means in. respectively‘artlculated at their outer ends to the
termediate
the frame and each of said steering supporting means for each of said wheels for 70
70
knuckles for supporting the frame and providing swinging said wheels about said axes respectively,
and a steeringymember articulated to the inner
rising and falling movements of each wheel in
ends of said tie rods at points of relatively differ
dependently of the other, steering gear includ
ing a'swinging pitman arm, a tie rod between v ent elevations located approximately at the cen
said pitman arm and each of’ said steering ters of arcs ‘respectively-de?ned by movement of 75
7
2,129,304
the outer ends of the tie rods during said rising
and falling wheel movements, for minimizin
‘ undesired wheel steering movements.
'
20. A motor vehicle according to claim 19, in
which the longer of said unequal length tie rods
has its point of inner end articulation disposed at
alower elevation than the corresponding point oi’
articulation of the shorter tie rod.
21. A motor vehicle according to claim l9, in
10 which’ the longer of said tie rods has its points of
articulation disposed at lower elevations'than the
corresponding points of articulation of the shorter
tie rod.
-
I
for minimizing undesired wheel steering move
ments, the longer 0! said tie rods having its point
of outer end articulation disposed at a lower ele
vation than the corresponding point of articula
tion of the shorter tie rod.
5
24. In a motor vehicle, the combination with a
vehicle frame structure, of a pair of steerable
road wheels disposed adjacent ‘one end of the
frame at opposite sides thereof, means'supporting
each of said wheels on said frame for rising and
falling movements with respect to said frame in
dependently of the other wheel, said means in
cluding'linkage intermediate the frame and each
22. A motor vehicle according to claim 19, in ' of said wheels for guiding said wheel movements
which the longer of said tie rods has its point oi.’ and a steering knuckle swivelly connecting each 10
outer end articulation disposed at a lower eleva
of said wheels to its said linkage, tie 'rods articu
tion than the corresponding point oi’ articulation ‘ lated at one of their ends respectively to said
oi.’ the shorter tie rod.
steering knuckles, steering gear disposed to one
23. In a motor vehicle having a frame structure, side 01' the longitudinal vertical mid-plane of the
a pair of steerable ground wheels, means for sup
vehicle, means for articulating the other ends of 20
porting and guiding each of said wheels relative said tie rods to said steering gear for pivotal
to the frame structure for independent rising and movement relative thereto during said wheel
falling movements, said supporting and guiding movements, one of said tie rods being of substan
means providing an axis of steering movement for tially greater length than the other, the points of
each of said wheels, tie rods of unequal lengths articulation of said tie rods to said steering gear
respectively articulated at their outer ends to the being relatively laterally- and longitudinally
supporting means for each of said wheels for spaced and so constructed and arranged that
swinging said wheels about said axes respectively, tendency of said steeringknuckles to swivel dur
and a steering member articulated to the inner
ing said wheel movements is substantially pre
ends of said tie rods at points located approxi
mately at the centers or arcs respectively de?ned
by movement of the outer ends of the tie rods
vented when the vehicle is travelling approxi 30
mately straight ahead.
during said rising and falling wheel movements,
THOMAS E. M, WHEAT.
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