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Патент USA US2129899

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Sept. 13, 1938.
‘I ‘J, YOUNG
2,129,899
ELECTRICALLY ACTUATED TOOL
Filed June '7, 1935
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2,129,899
Patented .Sept. 13, 1938
UNlTEDV STATES PATENT OFFICE
Z,129,899
ELECTRICALLY ACTUATED TOOL
John Young, Toledo, Ohio
Application June 7, 1935, Serial No. 25,481
13 Claims. (01. 115-265)
Figure 4 is a transverse sectionakview taken
substantially on the line 4-4 of Figure 1;
Figure 5 shows a form of frictional connection
for readily attaching the engraving device to a
current supply wire;
Figure 6 is a general arrangement showing
the method of using the engraving device of my
invention utilizing an especially constructed
This invention relates to electrically actuated
tools and more particularly to a method and.
means for performing work upon metals and
alloys by the use of electric currents.
The invention comprehends means using any
suitable source of electric energy, either alternat
ing or direct current, for marking metals and
alloys or causing etching, engraving or other op
eration thereon by utilizing a combined elec
trical and mechanical means, the arrangement
transformer in conjunction with a source of
alternating current;
cal circuit.
_
,
Figure 7 is a view showing a further method of
in itself serving to rapidly interrupt the'electri
utilizing the engraving device wherein direct
9
current isv used coupled with an adjustable re
sistance bridge as a current controlling means;
Figure 8 illustrates an arrangement wherein
the casing of the tool may be fabricated of metal
This invention has for one of its objects an
improved marking or engraving device which has
an electrode rapidly reciprocated by the electric
current ?ow therethrough.
Another object of the invention is to provide
and insulatingly supported from surrounding
a compact self-contained electro-magnet having '
structures.
a marking or engraving element, the winding of
the magnet serving as resilient or mechanical
one of the sections of the core is readily adjust
able for purposes of varying the intensity or
While I have illustrated the arrangement of
my invention as of a particular character and
size for use in carrying out usual engraving op
erations, it is to be understood that I contem
plate the arrangement of my invention for various
sizes of engraving devices usable for compara
tively heavy work, as for example, in marking
castings or in making comparatively deep serra
tions in metals or alloys of all kinds.
amplitude of the vibrating electrode carrying the
engraving ‘element.
designates a sleeve member fabricated of phenol
means to reciprocate the engraving element
when the current is interrupted.
A further object of the invention is the pro
vision of a device of this character which 0p
erates on comparatively low voltages and wherein
‘
, Referring to the drawing in detail, numeral l0
condensation product‘ or other suitable insulat
Still a further object is the provision of a
ventilated housing for an engraving arrangement
of this character whereby heat generated at the
point of arc and the current ?ow is readily dis
30
ing material which forms a housing for the in
terior mechanism as well as an adequate means
of holding the engraving device during engraving
sipated, and the invention further embraces a operations. Snugly ?tted within each end’ of the
friction connecting means whereby the engrav sleeve ID are the bushings l2 and I3 which may
ing device may be readily disconnected from the be of suitable material, as for example, bronze
current supply and placed in a liquid ‘cooling or a bearing alloy. The bushing I3 is arranged
to snugly receive a cylindrical member l5 having
- medium.
Further objects and advantages are within the a projecting reduced portion is centrally bored
scope of this invention such as relate to the and threaded as illustrated in Figure 1. This
threaded bore is adapted to receive a core mem
arrangement, operation and function of the re
lated elements of the structure, to various details ber of magnetizable material such as soft iron
of construction and to combinations of parts, or the like having a smooth cylindrical portion l9
and a threaded portion 20 which is received in
elements per se, and to economies of manufac
ture and numerous other features as will be the bore of member IS, a transverse kerf 2i being 45
arranged in the outer end of core member l8 so
apparent from a consideration of the speci?ca
tion and drawing of-a form of the invention, as to accommodate a screw driver or tool for
adjusting the core member with respect to cylin
which may be preferred, in which:
drical member IS. The sleeve or housing [0 is
Figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional view show
ing the arrangement of parts of the engraving
?xedly secured to member ii by means of a 50
rangement illustrated in Figure 1;
bore in the member 15 vas particularly shown in
screw 23- passing through ‘an opening in the
device of my invention;
Figure 2 is aside elevational view of the ar-, sleeve lllthrough bushing l3 and into a threaded
‘
Figure 8 is a transverse sectional view taken
substantially on the line H of Figure 1;
Figure
2.
'
.
-
Slidably received in the bushing ii‘ in the op
2
2,129,899
posite end of the sleeve in is a plunger 24 of
brass or suitable current; conducting material
which is provided with a longitudinal central
bore to receive an engraving element 26 or other
tool actuated by reciprocatory action with respect
to the work.
I have found that there are numerous mate
rials and alloys forming suitable engraving tools
but that tungsten or an alloy of copper and tung
10 sten have been found to be entirely satisfactory.
The engraving element or tool is held in place
in plunger 24 by means of a set screw 21.
The
plunger 24 is preferably polygonal in cross section
as indicated in Figure 3 and reciprocates in the
15 cylindrical interior of bushing I2. I have found
that a non-circular con?guration for the plunger
provides spaces between the plunger and the in
terior walls of the bushing so as to decrease the
friction between these parts and provide spaces
for the passage of air or other medium for the
purposes of cooling the electrode.
The inner end of plunger 24 is provided with
a portion 29 which may be a separate member
or may be integral with the plunger 24. This
member 29 is centrally bored to accommodate an
other core member 39 of magnetizable material
such as soft iron which forms another part or sec
tion of the core structure.
In the embodiment illustrated, the members l5
30 and 29 are joined together by means of a helix
or spiral element 32 which is of a current con~
ducting material. The extremities of the helix
are brazed or welded as at 33 and 34 to the mem
bers l6 and 29 so as to virtually form an integral
structure. I have shown the helical portion 32 as
constructed of material of rectangular cross sec
tion, but it is to be understood that any current
conducting material of suitable cross section, as
for example, a round section may be used without
40 departing from the scope of the invention.
As will be hereinafter further explained, the
core sections l6 and 36 are slightly separated to
form a gap 22 as illustrated in Figure 1 and this
gap may be varied by rotating core section II!
through the use of a suitable tool insertedin the
kerf ‘2|. The purpose of this separation is to
permit a reciprocating movement of core section
36, member 29, plunger 24 and engraving tool 26
and to change the magnetic gap. The sleeve I I
is perforated with openings ll so as to provide
ventilating means to facilitate cooling of the ar
rangement as the passage of current through the
helix or coil 32 and the voltaic are occurring at
the point of application of tool 26 to the work
plate 66, the tool and its holder conducts heat
generated by the arc into sleeve l9 and is dis
sipated through openings ii in the sleeve.
In the embodiment illustrated the lead wire to
the engraving device is connected to a bushing
‘III by inserting the end of the lead wire in bore
H thereof, the same being-held in place by means
of a set screw ‘I2. The bushing 10 is pressed into
a sleeve ‘I4 of Bakelite or other suitable insulat
ing material. The other end of the bushing ‘I6
is slotted longitudinally and bored substantially
the length of the slots as indicated at ‘I6 to ac
commodate the projecting portion ii of member
IS. The bore 16 is slightly smaller than the ex
terior diameter of portion l6 so that the side
70 walls of the bushing adjacent the slotted portion
are slightly expanded when the bushing is slipped
over the projection ll .so that the parts will be
held in close frictional contact to establish good
1b
electrical contact therebetween.
Figure 6 illustrates one arrangement in the
utilization of the engraving tool.
A source of al
ternating current supply 40 supplies electrical
energy which passes through the primary coil
4| of a transformer, the latter being provided
with spaced taps 42 cooperating with a switch
arm 43 for varying the effective number of turns
in the primary of the transformer thus varying
voltage obtainable from the secondary. The sec
ondary of the transformer 44 is provided with
taps 45, 46 and 41 providing the means for con
necting the secondary of the transformer to the
engraving tool and the element to be engraved
respectively. In the arrangement illustrated tap
45 is connected by means of lead 46 to a clip 49
adapted to be secured to a plate 59 or other ele
ment to be engraved, the tap 46 being connected
by means of a lead 52 to the removable connec
tion 10 of the engraving device.
If the leadwire 52 is connected to the tap 41
a different voltage is supplied to the engraving 20
took-that is, the voltage across the complete sec
ondary of the transformer. A further voltage
variation may be attained by connecting lead 44
to the tap 46. In addition to these taps for at
taining diiferences in voltage, a further voltage
may be obtained by connecting the switch arm 43
selectively with one of the taps of the series of
taps 42. In this manner a considerable adjust
ment of voltage may be obtained for various
classes of engraving.
30
In the operation of the arrangement of my in
vention, the engraving tool is utilized in the same
manner as when writing with a pencil, and as
suming that current is supplied to the primary
of the transformer and the element 26 of the en
graving tool touches the plate 56, the circuit is
completed and a current flows through the sec
ondary of the transformer the coil 32 of the
arrangement, thus in effect producing a solenoid,
35
magnetizing the iron core sections I 8 and 36 and
due to the gap 22 and the resiliency of the coil
32 the engraving point 26 will immediately be re
tracted from engagement with the work or plate
50. At the instant of this retraction, current ?ow
between the engraving tool and the plate is
broken causing a voltaic are leaving a serration
in the work and the retractile stress in the coil
32 drives the engraving point or tool 26 again into
the plate 56 at which time the circuit is again
completed and current ?ows through coil 32 and
the retracting action on tool 26 is repeated. At
each expansive movement of coil 32, the engrav
ing point 26 is driven into the plate 50 at which
time the circuit is again completed and current
flows through coil 32 and the retracting action _
on tool 26 is repeated. At each expansive move
ment of coil 32, the engraving point 26 is driven
into the plate aided by the inertia of the parts 24
and 29 as well as core section 36.
This recipro
catory action of the engraving point 26 is very
rapid and I have found from experience as many
as 180 impulses a second are imparted to the en
graving point. Thus, through the medium of
such a high periodicity of vibration and the in
herent characteristics of the arc to displace or
deform metal of the work adjacent the point of
application of the tool the engraving or other
useful work may be accomplished very rapidly—in
fact, as fast as writing with an ordinary pencil,
the engraving line or serration being practically
continuous.
_
-
In the embodiment of the transformer illus
trated in Figure 6, I have shown the lead wires 46
and 52 as connected across the taps 45 and 46
giving a- predetermined voltage which may be 75
3
, 2,129,899
varied by adjusting the switch arm 43 to a diner
ent tap of the series of taps 42. In the event
the magnetic “pul " upon 'core II and the en
higher voltage is desired, the tap 41 may be con
graying tool 26, thus permitting an extremely
?ne adjustment of the magnetic forces which
nected to the lead 52 as illustrated in dotted . permits the utilization of comparatively low volt
lines at 52', thus utilizing the entire secondary
winding of the transformer. The voltage be
tween taps 45 and 41 may further be varied by
adjusting the switch 43 in the primary circuit
as hereinabove described.
.
I have found that the depth of engraving and
the hardness of the material operated upon neces
sitates a variation in the voltage and current de
livered through the coil 32 to the engraving tool.
In this connection, I have found that for ordinary
engraving uses, voltages from 3/; to 6 volts are
age and current which reduces arcing and tend-4
ency to burn the work.
In the arrangement shown in Figure 8, the
casing III’ of the tool may be fabricated of metal
or alloy and in order to direct .current ?ow
through the coil 32' the bushing I?!" may be fab 10
ricated of insulating material, as for example,
Bakelite, ?bre, or the like. By this arrangement,
the current ?ow will be directed through the
coil 32.
It is apparent that, within the scope of the 15
satisfactory, although any desired voltage may invention, modi?cations and different arrange- .
ments may be made other than is herein dis
be obtained by using a vtransformer having dif
closed, and the present disclosure is illustrative
' ferent ratios of windings as well as utilizing pri
mary voltage of diiferent intensity. The use of merely, theinvention comprehending all varia
20
current of low voltage and comparatively low tions thereof.
amperage in circuit with the engraving tool are
found to be quite satisfactory in that the engrav
ing is more or less accomplished by the impact
of the tool 26 driven into the plate rather than
through the excessive currentas has been utilized
in prior engraving devices. Thus, I have ob
tained satisfactory engraving without danger of
burning the metal or work operated upon by uti
lizing comparatively low voltage and current in
the circuit of the engraving tool.
Figure '1 illustrates an arrangement of utilizing
the engraving tool of my invention with direct
current, as for example, dry cell batteries or stor
age accumulators. One side of the battery 60
is connected to the engraving tool, the other side
being connected by means of a lead 62‘ to the ad
justable arm 63 of a resistance bridge R, the
extremities of the bridge being connected as at
64 and 65 to the plate 50" to be engraved. The
solenoid arrangement in the engraving tool of
- my invention operates equally well on direct cur
‘rent and the ‘voltage impressed upon the work
plate 50" may be varied by adjusting the posi
tion of the arm 63 to vary the effective resistance
R, thus e?ecting a change in the voltage and the
I have found that satisfactory engrav
_ current.
ing may be accomplished through the use of direct
current as above described and as the current
utilized is quite high, it has been found desirable
in utilizing dry cells to connect a plurality of sets
of dry cells in parallel so as to prolong the life
of the current source without increasing the volt
age.
‘
Under certain conditions of continued use, the
device will become heated because of the heat
discharged by reason of the current ?ow and are
ing, and'in such event it is only necessary to
withdraw the connector sleeve 10 from engage
ment with the projection i6 and the device placed
(30 in water ‘or other suitable cooling liquid. The
liquid will circulate through the ventilating open
ings ii and through the interstices between
plunger 24 and sleeve I? so that the heat will be
quickly dissipated. In a very short time the en
graving device may be withdrawn from the cool
ing medium and- the connection reestablished
through sleeve 10. The cooling medium will
drain out through the openings ii and the inter
stices above mentioned so that it requires but a
70 ‘hort period of time in order to completely cool
he- structure and resume engraving or other
' operations.
75
‘ The adjustability of the gap 22 between the
core sections i8 and 30 has been found tolbe
quite desirable as in adjusting this gap there is
What I claim is:
-
1. In a device of the class described, including
a casing; a current conducting coil within said
casing including a plurality of spaced convolu
tions forming a resilient structure one end of
which is relatively fixed with respect to the
casing‘; a relatively ?xed magnetizable member
in said casing; a second magnetizable member
positioned adjacent the free end of said resilient
current conducting member; and a tool carried
at the free end of the resilient structure.
2. In a device of the class described, including
a casing; a current conducting coil within said
casing including a plurality of spaced convolu-'
tions forming a resilient structure; means to $3
?xedly secure one end of said structure to said
leasing; a plunger reciprocally mounted in said
casing; a magnetizable member located within
said convolutions and connected to said plunger;
a portion of said plunger being ?xed to the free
end of said resilient structure; the convolutions
being arranged whereby when current flows
therethroughthe magnetizable member is actu
ated to compress the resilient structure and when
the current is interrupted the resilient structure 45
returns the magnetizable member to its normal
position.
'
,
3. A device of the character disclosed includ
ing a casing; a reciprocable element positioned
within. the casing and having a projecting core
of magnetizable material; a coil spring surround
ing the projecting portion and connected to the
reciprocable element, said spring adapted to con
duct current to said reciprocable element and
simultaneously magnetize said projecting core; 515
and a tool carried by said reciprocable element.
4. A device of the character disclosed, in com
bination, a housing of insulating material; a re
ciprocable element partially contained within
said housing, said reciprocable element having a
projecting section of magnetizable material; a
sleeve ?xed within said housing and having a
threaded bore; a second section of magnetizable
material threaded into said sleeve; a current con
ducting coil connecting said reciprocable element
with said stationary sleeve, said second section
of magnetizable material being adjustable ‘lon
gitudinally to vary the gap between said sections
of magnetizable material.
5. A device of ‘the character disclosed, in com
bination, a cylindrical housing of insulating ma
terial; a reciprocable element partially contained
within said housing, said reciprocable element
having a projecting section of magnetizable ma
terial; a'second section of magnetizable mate- 1.
4
2,129,899
rial supported on said housing; a current con
ducting coil connected to said reciprocable ele
ment, said second section of magnetizable mate
rial being adjustable to vary the gap between
said sections of magnetizable material.
6. A device of the character disclosed, in com
bination, a housing of insulating material hav
ing ventilating perforations in the walls thereof;
a reciprocable element extending into said hous
ing, said reciprocable member having a portion
01' magnetizable material; a current conducting
coil surrounding said portion of magnetizable
material and connected to said reciprocable ele
ment; said coil having spaced convolutions form
15 ing a resilient structure and a tool carried by
said reciprocable member.
7. A device oi’ the character disclosecf'in com
bination, a housing of insulating material; a
reciprocable element partially contained within
said housing, said reciprocable member having
a projecting portion of magnetizable material;
a sleeve positioned within said housing and hav
ing a threaded bore; a shaft of magnetizable
material threaded into said sleeve; a current
conducting coil spring connecting said recipro
cable element with said stationary sleeve, said
shaft of magnetizable material being adjustable
longitudinally to vary the gap between said shaft
and the projecting portion of magnetizable ma
terial carried by said reciprocable member; and
means for connecting a current supply lead to
the sleeve.
8. A device or the character disclosed, in com
bination, a housing of insulating material having
ventilating openings in the wall thereof; a re
ciprocable element partially contained within said
housing, said reciprocable member having a pro
jecting portion of magnetizable material; a sleeve
secured within said housing and having a thread
40 ed bore; a. shaft of magnetizable material thread
ed into said sleeve; 9. current conducting coil
spring connecting said reciprocable element with
said sleeve, said shaft of magnetizable material
being adjustable longitudinally to vary the gap
between said shaft and the projecting portion of
magnetizable material carried by said reciproca
ble member; means for irictionally connecting a
current supply lead to the stationary sleeve in
cluding a split bushing; a sleeve of insulating ma
50 terial surrounding said bushing; and means for
securing a current supply wire to said bushing.
9. A device oi the character disclosecLin com
bination: a housing i'ormed of insulating mate—
rial; a member secured to said housing having a
65 projecting portion: an iron core adjustably car
ried by said member: a reciprocable element in
said housing having a projecting iron core; a
current conducting coil connecting said member
and reciprocable element; means for connecting
a lead wire to the projecting portion of said ?rst
mentioned member including a slotted sleeve
adapted to be frictionally retained on said pro
jecting portion; and a sleeve of insulating mate' Cl
rial secured to said slotted sleeve.
10. A device of the character disclosed, in com
bination: a housing formed of insulating mate
rial; a member ?xed in said housing and having
a projecting portion; a reciprocable member in
said housing having an iron core; a current con
ducting coil connected to said reciprocable mem
ber; means for connecting a lead wire to said ?xed
member including a slotted sleeve adapted to
be frictionally retained on said projecting por
tion; and a sleeve of insulating material secured
to said slotted sleeve.
11. A device of the character disclosed, in com
bination, a housing of insulating material hav
ing ventilating openings in the wall thereof; a 20
reciprocable element partially contained within
said housing, said reciprocable element having a
projecting portion of magnetizable material; a
sleeve fixed within said housing and having a
threaded bore; a shaft of magnetizable material
threaded into said sleeve; a current conducting
coil spring connecting said reciprocable element
1,1
with said relatively stationary sleeve, said shaft
of magnetizable material being adjustable longi~
tudinally to vary the gap between said shaft and 30
the projecting portion of magnetizable material
carried by said‘reclprocable member; means for
connecting a current supply lead to the stationary
sleeve including a split bushing; a member 01'
insulating material surrounding said bushing;
and means for securing a current supply wire to
said bushing.
'
i
12. In a device of the class described including
a casing; a current conducting coil within said
casing including a plurality of spaced convolu 40
tions forming a resilient structure; a plurality of
magnetizable members within said casing, one
of said members being relatively ?xed with re
spect to said casing, the other of said members
being relatively movable therein; and a tool con» ~15
nected to the relatively movable member.
13. A device of the character disclosed includ
ing a casing; a reciprocable magnetizable mem
ber positioned within the casing; a second mag
netizable member spaced from said reciprocable
magnetizable member; a current conducting helix
within said casing connected to said reciprocable
member, said current conducting helix when en
ergized adapted to magnetize said magnetizable '
members to cause reciprocation of said reciproca
ble member.
JOHN YOUNG.
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