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Патент USA US2129946

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Sept, 13, 1938.
H. s. LAMB
2, 1 29,946
‘Filed Jan. 22, 1935
4 Sheets-Shee't 1
Sept. 13, 1938.
H, s, LA'MB
Filed Jan. 22, 1955
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
Sept. 13, mg,
4 Sheéts-Sheet s
Filed Jan. 22, 1935
M W‘ [mi
Sept. 13, 1938.
H_ s_ LAMB
Filed Jan. 22, 1935
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
Patented Sept. 13, 1938'
Harold Ste "\1 r
7 ~. Lamb, South. Gate, Calif.
Application January 22, 1935, Serial No. 2,894
19 Qiaims. (m. 123-»51)
combustible charge, not being limited by the ro
tation of the crankshaft.
Heretofore, engine designs intended to soften
My invention relates to the art of burning a
combustible charge in an internal combustion
engine of very high compression ratio and has as
its special object a means to increase the initial
or reduce detrimental explosive pressures have
5 rate of ?ame propagation during the combustion
cycle, thereby completing combustion in fewer de
depended on. spring loaded devices of various de
signs which hold the pressure of compression and
grees of crankshaft movement and giving more
time for the expansion of the gases.
To accomplish this I employ a pressure-balanc
are intended to release the destructive pressures
ing mechanism which, by virtue of its movement
may cause and control the combustion of the fuel
charge in said engine. This pressure-balancing or
oscillating mechanism is adapted to be moved'by
as they occur, but the trouble is that the detona
tion pressure rise is too fast for the sluggish me
chanical movement of the devices to function. 10
It will ‘be noted that I use springs in my oscillating
mechanism but they serve to pull the oscillator
away from the explosion chamber and not to
?uid pressures consisting of an explosion at one
end of its movement and an adjustable air cushion
at the other end of its movement, the motion of
the oscillator being under control so that the
combustible mixture may be “ignited or exploded
hold it there. _
by the heat of compression caused directly or in
mechanism serving mainly _to hold the maximum '>
cylinder pressure to reasonble limits and reduce 20
the stresses on engine parts. The second engine
20 directly by said oscillating mechanism. The ig
nition temperature obtained thus, makes it pos
sible to ignite the fuel charge without pre-ignition
or detonation. The radius and weight of the
oscillator together with the air pressure in the air
compression cylinder produce the right compres
sion force to ignite the combustible charge under
the most favorable conditions
The accompanying drawings and description
will serve to illustrate two practical uses to which
I may choose to put my invention. The ?rst is
similarvto a true Diesel, the pressure-balancing
is of the uniiiow class and makes use of the oscil
lating mechanism in a diiferent way from the
first engine. The difference will be readily under
stood from the following:--
- 25
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal. vertical section through
my improved engine viewed with the intake and
The principle of this operation is similar to that
of the beam balance for laboratory work. The
exhaust side removed.
fuel charge being ignited by the dynamicspeed
cylinder block, crankcase section and included 30
and precision of the oscillating mechanism is free
to expand instantly. From this it will-be seen
parts being taken on line I-l and the head of the
engine showing a section removed on line 2-2 of
that the combustion chamber is extremely ?exible
Fig. l. The blower and fuel distributing pump
and may be adjusted to meet special requirements '
are also shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 3 is a section through the engine taken on 35
line 3—3 of Fig. 2 and shows the arrangement of
35 while the engine is running.
The usual practice is to design the combustion
chamber, and machine the various parts to give
a ?xed clearance regardless of engine require
ments As a rule we ignite the fuel charge or
Fig. 2 is a transverse view of the engine, the
intake and exhaust ports in the cylinder block,
there being one intake and two exhaust ports
for each cylinder. The pistons 5i. and 53 are
40 start it to burn before the piston reaches top shown as being in place for the intake and ex 40
haust cycle. ‘Other pistons in the engine are
center on its upward stroke. This is necessary be
cause of the time required to complete combustion not shown.
Fig. 4 is a view looking down on the top of the
in ?xed compression ratio engines and results in
a wedge-like action, the crankshaft, with its engine as shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. longitudinal view of the pressure
45 kinetic force, pushing the piston upward against '
the pressure of the burning combustible charge balancing lever.
Fig. 6 is a view of the pressure balancing lever
and reducing the size of the combustion chamber
as it moves. This wedge-like action is too rough taken at right angles to that of Fig. 5.
Fig. 7 is a vertical view of the pressure balanc
on some fuels and they rebel by detonating badly.
In my engine a variable air cushion moving with ing lever shown in Fig. 5'
Fig. 8 is the left half portion of a vertical cross
the oscillator and supplemented by spring action,
produces a simple, yet positive, control for timing section taken through an air compression cylin
the ignition or compression pressure in the ex
der of a m
ed form of my improved engine.
plosion chamber; The dynamic action of the os
Fig. 9 is the right half portion of a vertical
cillator is entirely spent in compression of the
cross-section taken through the explosion cylinder 55
which with the cylinder of Fig. 8 makes the pair
of cylinders I shall refer to later in my claims. _
Fig. 10 is a side view of an intake manifold used
for the‘ pressure-balancing mechanism shown
generally at 2| is cast integrally with the cylinder
head plate 84, Fig. 4. The ?ange 85 is machined
to conduct the charge compressed in the crank
to receive a suitable'cover, (not shown). In order
case of the air cushion cylinder over to the ex
mechanism, the housing 2! separates at 86 as
plosion cylinder. This manifold serves alternate
pairs of cylinders in a four cylinder engine.
I have shown only two engines using the princi
ples disclosed herewith but I do not wish to be
10 limited to'these only as the cylinders may be ar-:
ranged radial type, V. type or.opposed type; also
to facilitate assembly of the pressure-balancing
shown in Fig. 2.
The lever 22 is supported in bearings 46 and 41
as shown in Fig. 4.
The spring 34, cylinder 35
and piston 36--shown in the cut-away section of 10
Fig.4 are duplicated on'the opposite sideof lever
shaft 48. The three views Fig. 5, Fig. 6, and Fig. 7
I may choose to make the air-cushioning cylinder of the lever are shown to give a comprehensive
smaller or larger than the explosion cylinder and’
of just what it includes. Drilled holes 43
the depth of the air cushion or the compression _idea
are plugged at 43' to retain oil pressure. It will 15
:be noted that the construction of the bearing
to meet varying requirements.
- _
journals 48 and 48' together with the enlarged
Referring to the drawings by reference char portion '49 which holds the rollers 38 in position
acters I have indicated my improved engine gen
.extremely rigid. This is important as the
erally at 8 in Fig. 1. As shown, this engine is of is
pressure of exploding gases must be held by the
the vertical-in-line type and includes a crank case
9 upon which a plurality of pairs of‘ cylinders l0
and I2, II and I3 are mounted. A heavy crank
shaft I4 is mounted in bearings l5 which in turn
are 'mounted in the crankcase webbing shown at
25 [6. It will be noted that the bearings are provided
with pressure lubrication through drilled oil pas
sages I‘l.
,Secured, by means of studs l3‘ and nuts I9, to
the top of the ‘cylinder block 20 is my pressure;
30 balancing or oscillating mechanism shown at 2|;
This pressure-balancing or oscillating mechanis
includes in detail the following parts:'
cylinder. At the same time piston 29, being die
rectly-over piston 52 in cylinder H, is'forced'up
ward. This delivers the full force of explosion to
the pressure balancing mechanism previously de
scribed and in turn acts on piston 3|. Piston 54 in
cylinder] 3 moves simultaneously with piston 52 in
cylinder‘ II and so has the scavenging air com
to the levers 22 and 23 at 33 by means of pins 32
35 as shown in Fig. 1 and Fig‘ 4. Pistons 28, 29, 30
and 3| are attached by means of ‘wrist pins 16 to
their respective connecting rods and form the
crown of the combustion chamber in each'c'ylin
der. Soft metal discs 11 serve to prevent scoring of
the cylinder walls by the ‘wrist pins 16 as. shown in
Throughout this description I prefer to‘ use" the
word “oscillator" with reference t6 levers 22,- 23,
or 94 and their attached connecting rods-and pis
45 tons. Only one type of oscillating‘ or-pressure
balancing mechanism is- shown in detail for the
purpose of illustration; but I'do not wish 'to'be
limited to this design since other designs ‘have
been found ‘to be entirely satisfactory, such as
the oscillator'used with the“ vtype of cylinders
shown in Figs. 8 and 9. Two coil springsare used
to return each lever to its original horizontal 'po
'sition after the explosion pressure in the cylinder
has forced the pressure-balancing mechanism
55 piston to an extended position. A “section through
the spring housing cylinder/35in
1; shows the
coil spring 34 and piston 36 with wedge-shaped'head
pressed in the space 60. The piston 3i, there
fore, pushes the piston 54 downward by means of
the air‘ cushion thus formed. The next explosion 35
occurs 180 degrees of a revolution later in cylinder
l0 with'a balance of pressure being made with
cylinder l2. Another 180 degrees of the revolving
crankshaft brings the explosion cycle to cylinder
l3, the pressure of which is balanced with that in it
cylinder I I. The last explosion in the cycle occurs
when piston 53 reaches the top of its stroke in
cylinder I2, ‘the pressure being balanced with
cylinder 10. Thus we see that each cylinderigoes
through a pressure balancing cycle and an ex ll
‘plosion ‘cycle at 360-degree intervals or two revo
lutions of the crankshaft ‘for each complete cycle '
of ‘operation. Each piston is fitted with piston
rings 59 to prevent the escape of compressed gas
and to keep down excess oil.
Referring to Fig. 2'we have a view of cylinder III
with piston 5| at the bottom of its stroke. Here,
the induction of air and the expulsion of‘ burned
gas takesplace. The blower 66, which is large
enough to scavenge two cylinders simultaneously,
delivers air into the manifold 65 thence to the
having a breather hole 40 is screwed into the
cylinder at 6! through the passage 12 of the dis
tributor'casting 64. The velocity of the scaveng
ing charge is great enough to strike the cylinder
cylinder at 4| to give the proper'__adjustment-to the
Spring 34. In Fig. 1 the complete spring‘, piston
wall on the opposite side and then force its way
upward. Thus it will be seen that the burned
and cylinder unit has been torn away at'42 in
order to show more of the lever assembly.‘ “All
mixture :is- driven out of the cylinder at'openings
B2 on either side of the intake port Bl. This part
friction surfaces of the pressure-balancing mech
anism are lubricated through drilledholes 43, the
of the cycle will be readily understood by those
experienced with the operation of two cycle en
oil being carried under pressure from the crank
case 3 by pipe 44 and connected to the several
31 being pressed against the rollers-3B.v “A plug 39
lows: Fig- 1, cylinder II, the combustion chamber
50 of piston 52 is charged with fuel and air which
explode, forcing the piston 52 downward in the
The connecting rods 24, 25, 26 and_2'l are hinged
-' The operation of my improved engine is as fol
parts at 45.
For each pair of cylinders in my improved‘em
70 gine .a pressure-balancing mechanism is required.
The arrangement of two pressure-balancingv
mechanisms with relation to each otheris shown
in Fig- 4 which‘is a vertical view of a four cylin
der engine. ‘ For rigid construction and con
75 venience in manufacture, the complete housing
A fuel pump is shown at 68 and is driven by a 1
gear‘ (not shown) housed in~ the case 61, Fig 2.
The fuel ‘is forced through the‘pipe 69 and is
sprayed into the cylinder at 10. Each cylinder
has its own fuel system including pump, pipe
line, and spray nozzle. The fuel is sprayed into
the combustion chamber of each piston ever'y ‘
other revolution of thecrankshaft or every’720
degrees which is comparable to the spark timing
charge at the right time. The manifold I I4 is
of the conventional four cycle engine.
mounted on the cylinder valve housing H5 and
All exhaust passages in the cylinder block are
a downdraft carburetor is used at H6.
indicated at 62 in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3. The casting
64 with its exhaust passage 'II and intake passage‘
‘I2 is provided to simplify the construction of the
intake and exhaust manifolds. An exhaust mani- .
fold is shown at 63.
The air cushion 9I_in cylinder 88, Fig. 8 is sup
plied from a storage tank III.’ In operation only
a small amount of air is used since the only escape
The plate 13 shown in Fig. 2 serves as an excep
The conduit I I9 leads to a valve in the housing I I8
which may exhaust to the atmosphere or to the
storage tank III. The purpose of the pressure
regulator is to control the function of the air
19 tionally rigid mounting for the blower and fuel
pumps and is secured to the crank case by cap
screws ‘I4. An engine support is shown at ‘I5.
The front end of crankshaft I5, Fig. 1 has a ?ange
is past the piston rings on pistons 89 and 92 or
through‘ the pressure regulator in housing H8.
cushion. To increase the air cushion, a compara
tively large valve I20 is providedas it is necessary
to change the pressure of the air cushion rapidly 15
15 the air pressure blower and fuel pump.
All wristpins ‘I6 and wristpin keepers 'I'i are of , when the demand on the engine changes rapidly.
82 with tapped holes 93, and is adapted to drive
conventional design. The connecting rods 55, 56,
51 and 58 have drilled oil passages shown in the
cut away rod at 19. The crankshaft I0 also is
drilled for oil pressure shown at 79 in Fig. 1.
Baffle plates 80 prevent the oil in the oil pan ill
from surging excessively.
The oil pump being
of accepted design is not shown.
Referring to Fig. 8 we have a modi?ed form 0
' Extension or torsion springs are applied to lever
99 which constantly pull piston 92 against the air
cushion 9|. The stroke of the lever 94 may be
shortened by increasing the air in the air cushion 20
9I and also increasing the spring tension on the
lever 94. This reduces the dynamic force of the
oscillating mechanism and produces a satisfac
tory control under ordinary conditions. However,
my invention which is adapted to an engine of the in extremely adverse conditions we may ?nd it 25
uni?ow 2 cycle class. The air cushion cylinder necessary to further reduce cylinder temperatures
89 is shown with piston ‘89 at the bottom of its by improving the cooling system.
The movement of piston 89 and piston 92 in the
stroke, having just uncovered the cylinder ports .
90. The air cushion 9i holds piston 92 apart cylinder 88 is unequal since they are not mechanii
from piston 89 and controls the movement of the cally connected together. This makes it possible 30
oscillating mechanism shown generally at S‘i. to time the crankthrow of the air cushion cylinder
Connecting rod 93 transfers the movement from so that piston 89 approaches-piston 92 at just- the
piston 92 to the lever 90, the opposite end of lever right point in the cycle to obtain an effective
90 being connected to connecting rod 95 and in - bounce, driving piston 96 inward, compressing and
turn to piston 96 in the explosion cylinder 97, Fig.
9. The exhaust port 98 is- uncovered by the
outward movement of piston 96 and closed by the
inward movement which makes it necessary to
provide piston 96 with a su?iciently long skirt.
A fresh charge is taken into cylinder 91 each
revolution at intake port 99. Piston. I00 uncovers
intake port 99 on its downward stroke and com—
presses the charge within the crankcase I0 I . The
crankcase section of the air cushion cylinder 88 also
45 is used to supply the cylinder 97. This is accom
plished in a four cylinder engine by means of the
manifold I02, Figs. 9 and 10. It will be noted
that the manifold openings I03 and I04 are con
nected together by passage I05 and openings I06
50 and I01 are connected by passage I08. The
throws of the crankshaft I09, Fig. 9 of my modi-v
?ed engine are in the same order as those of the
engine at Fig. 1 and it is necessary to connect
the crankcase sections together in alternate pairs
55 with a manifold of the type shown in Fig. 10.
The pistons 96 and I00 approach each other to
form a combustion chamber at which point a
‘threaded opening I I0 is provided for a spark plug;
In cases where a less volatile fuel is desired we
00 mayuse an injection jet instead of a spark plug.
Compression ignition could be used or a second
opening may be provided for a spark plug which
would ignite the fuel sprayed by the injector.
The crankcase of the modified engine is divided,
65 having a section IOI for each'throw of the crank
The crankcase sections of the ex
plosion cylinders have passages III which con
. shaft
duct the crankcase charge to said explosion cyl
inders through ports 99. .A ?ange I I2 on the out
70 side of passage I I I‘ is used-to secure the manifold
I02. The crankcase sections of the air cushion
cylinders also have passages III but they are
blocked off, to bypass into either passage I05 or
I08 of the manifold I02. Each crankcase section
75 has a cylindrical type of valve II3 to admit the
igniting the combustible charge in the explosion 35
The timing of piston 89 in the air
cushion cylinder must be such that the oscillator
piston 96 approaches piston I00 in the explosion
cylinder ,at just the right time to compress and
ignite said combustible charge.
Two advantages are gained by making the air
cushion cylinder 88 larger than the explosion
cylinder 91. First, the crankcase provides more
. cylinder.
air for scavenging and some supercharging.
Second, a larger air cushion improves ?exibility 45
of the oscillating mechanism.
A carefully worked out valve system might be
applied to the cylinder 88 and the‘ compressor I2I
which supplies the storage tank 'I I‘! would be
eliminated, but for the present, I recommend the 50
use of the compressor.
I prefer to start this engine with spark ignition.
After the engine has been running a short warm
ing up period the spark may be retarded in the
usual way.
The air pressure in the air cushion 65
cylinder is then adjusted to bring the explosion
timing back to normal by means of the oscil
lator. This being accomplished there is no further
need for spark ignition unless the revolutions of
the engine drop to where .the dynamic force of the 80
oscillator fails to compress the combustible charge
su?iciently for ignition.
I am aware that, prior to my invention, im—
provements in the design of adjustable combus
tion chambers for internal combustion engines 65
have been made. With this in mind I have shown
byv drawings and description a device having cer
tain novel virtues not obtainable heretofore and
have set down the following claims with ‘reference
to said inventionze
I claim:
1. In an internal combustion engine having a
pair of cylinders and a pressure-balancing mech
anism’which is movably responsive to tl . pressure
of‘ combustion in each cylinder, means to- cause a 75
combustible material to be supplied alternately to
the cylinders in said engine, means to supply air
to each of said cylinders, means to cause combus
tion of said combustible material and means to
exhaust said cylinders, the aforementioned pres
sure-balancing mechanism serving to cushion the
explosive pressure in one cylinder'with the air
compressed in the other cylinder. _
2. In a compression ignition engine a pair of
10 cylinders, means to supply air to said cylinders,
means to supply fuel to one of said cylinders and
means tending to cushion the explosive pressure
of the burning fuel in one cylinder with the air‘
compressed in the other of .said pair of cylinders.
3. In a compression ignition engine having
pairs of cylinders, means to supply air for com
1 pression each revolution and means to supply fuel
during the compression of the air of each alter
mounted on a crankcase, said pairs of ‘cylinders
having pistons moving simultaneously therein,
said ‘crankcase containing webs to form a cell
under each cylinder of said engine, a valve mech
anism operable to admit a combustible mixture to
the crankcase cells of each pair of cylinders, con
duit means connecting said crankcase cells of
each pair of cylinders with one cylinder of said
pair of cylinders, the other cylinder taking in air
through holesuncovered by the piston on its ex 10
pansion travel in last mentioned cylinder, said
pair of pistons compressing air in one cylinder and
combustible mixture ingthe other cylinder, means
to ignite the compressed combustible mixture and
means tending to balance ‘the pressure of the 15
burning combustible mixture with the pressure
of compressed air and means to rotate the crank
shaft in said engine by the pressure thus‘obtained.
8. In an internal combustion engine having a
nate revolution of each of said cylinders, means to ‘
plurality of cylinders, there being'an- air com 20
cushion the explosive pressure of said fuel with pression cylinder associated with each explosion
‘the air compressed in the other cylinder of said cylinder by means of a pressure cushioning mech—
'anism, a crankcase, a crankshaft mounted in said
pair of cylinders.
4. In a‘ compression-ignition engine having two crankcase, a piston in each of said cylinders, con
necting rods connecting said pistons and said 25
cylinders associated by means of a pressure
balancing mechanism and having two pistons in
each of said cylinders. arranged to form an air
compression chamber and a combustion chamber
alternately when said pistons are in a contracted
position,_a crankshaft and connecting rods, a
blower to ?ll each cylinder with a charge of air
and to scavenge the said cylinder of burned gases,
a fuel spray nozzle adapted to spray fuel into
said combustion chamber, one piston in each of
said cylinders‘ being connected to said crankshaft
the other piston in each of said cylinders being
connected to the previously mentioned pressure
balancing mechanism.
crankshaft, said crankcase having webs to form
a cell under each cylinder, a valve timing mecha
nism operable to admit air through said conduit
means to each cell of said crankcase where it is
compressed and thence discharged to an explosion 30
cylinder, said crankcase cell of each air com
pression cylinder being connected to the crank
case cell of the associated explosion cylinder,
means to' spray a combustible material into the
explosion cylinder to give the pistons in said
cylinder a power impulse, the air compression cyl
inder having taken in air from a controllable
source and forming an air cushion, means tending
to cushion the explosive pressure in the explosion
5. In an internal combustion engine the combi
.cylinder with the air cushion in said associated 40
pressure-balancing mechanism having a piston ' air compression cylinder.
extending into each of said cylinders and forming ‘ ' . 9. In an internal combustion engine having a
a part of the combustion chamber of each of said
two cylinders, said pressure-balancing mechanism
pair of cylinders, means to supply air to one
cylinder and a combustible mixture to the other,
said pair so!" cylinders ,containing members as 45
45 serving to cushion the explosive shock in one cyl ' sociated with each other and movably responsive
inder with air compressed in the other cylinder, a
second piston in each of the aforementioned cyl
inders, a crankshaft, connecting rods connecting
each of last two pistons designated and the crank
50 shaft, means to supply combustible material and
air to said two cylinders and means to explode and
_ scavenge the material, the explosion cycle and the
air compression cycle alternating in each cylinder
of said engine;
6. In an internal combustion engine, a crank
case having cylinders associated in pairs mounted
thereon, a crankshaft in said crankcase,_ a piston
in each of said cylinders, connecting rods con
necting said pistons and said crankshaft, an inlet
and an outlet communicating with one of said
cylinders, said inlet of one cylinder being connect;
ed to said crankcase and communicating with the
section serving each cylinder, a carburetor, con
duit means connecting said carburetor and said
65 crankcase, means to control the passage of ‘fuel
mixture through said conduit means, means to
'induce the combustible mixture from said crank
case into one cylinder of said pairs of cylinders
while air from an outside source is being induced
7.0 into the other cylinder vto maintain any pressure
desired, and to form an air cushion to receive a
portion of the explosive shock from the cylinder
_ charged with a combustible mixture.
'7. In an internal combustion engine including
to the pressure in each of said cylinders, means
to vary the pressure of air admitted to the air
cylinder and thus change the compression pres
sure in the explosion cylinder.
10. In a hydrocarbon engine a pair of cylinders
having two pistons in each cylinder, one piston
in each cylinder being connected to the crank
shaft by means of connecting rods, the other
piston in each cylinder being connected to each ' 55
other in a manner tending to equalize the pressure
occurring in one cylinder with the pr'essure'oc
curring in the other cylinder, means to supply
a combustible mixture to one cylinder and air
to the other of said pair of cylinders.
11. In an internal combustion engine, a pair of
cylinders having a pressure-balancing mechanism
which includes a movable member in each cyl-.
inder, means to produce power impulses in one
cylinder and to compress air in the other cylinder, 65
means to vary the amount of air compressed in
said cylinder thereby varying the compression
pressure of the combustible mixture in the other
12. In a hydrocarbon engine having a pair of 70
cylinders associated with each other by a pres
sure-balancing mechanism,- means to supply a
combustible mixture to; one‘ cylinder and air to
the other of said pair of cylinders, said pressure
balancing mechanism having members movably 75
75 aplurality of cylinders associated, in pairs and‘
responsive to the pressure occurring in each cyl~
inder, thus reducing the tendency of the fuel to
detonate during its explosion cycle.
13. In an internal combustion engine having an
explosion cylinder and an air compression cyl
inder, means tending to balance the pressure ob
tained in the explosion cylinder with the pressure
in‘ the compressed air cylinder, said air com
pression cylinder providing pressure at the proper
10 time to cause the pressure-balancing means to
move, compressing and exploding the charge in
said explosion cylinder.
14. In an engine having a combustion chamber
and an auxiliary non-combustible ?uid chamber,
15 means to compress and explode and exhaust a
combustible mixture in said combustion chamber,
means to compress the non-combustible iiuid in
said auxiliary chamber, means tending to balance
the pressure obtained in the combustion chamber
20 with the pressure obtained by the compression of
the non-combustible ?uid, thus causing the pres
sure-balancing means to oscillate and explode the
combustible mixture.
15- In a hydrocarbon engine having a pair of
25 pistons moving in a pair of cylinders, means to
supply and ignite and exhaust an explosive mix
ture in one cylinder and to supply a variable
amount of air to the other cylinder of said pair
of cylinders one piston in each cylinder being
30 associated with each other in a manner tending
to equalize the pressures obtained in each cylinder,
the timing of the cycle of said air compression cyl
inder being such as will give maximum compres
sion pressure in the combustion cylinder at the
35 time ignition starts.
16. In an engine having an oscillating mecha
nism moving by means of ?uid pressures in a pair
give sumcient momentum to compress the com
bustible charge to its ignition point, the timing of
said ignition point having been determined by the
cycle of the afore-mentioned air cushion cylinder.
17. In an internal combustion engine that in~
eludes an oscillating mechanism moved by fluid
pressures and adapted to ignite a combustible
mixture by virtue of dynamic energy imparted by
said ?uid pressures, the weight and radius of the
oscillator of said ' oscillating mechanism being 10
such that it will compress and ignite said com
bustible mixtures, the control of the dynamic
energy of said oscillating mechanism being ac
complished with the aid of an air cushion moving
with said oscillator.
18. In an internal combustion engine having a
combustion cylinder and an air compression cyl
inder, an oscillating device consisting of a lever
with a piston and connecting rod movably at
tached to each end, one piston extending into the 20'
combustion cylinder to form a portion of the com
bustion chamber, the other piston extending into
the air compression cylinder to form a part of an
air cushion said oscillating device moving to com
press and ignite a combustible charge in the com
cylinder which causes the afore-mentioned oscil
lating device to rebound after each explosion or
19. In an internal combustion engine having an
oscillating mechanism which by virtue of its
dynamic energy causes and controls the combus
tion of fuel in the combustion chamber of said
engine, the oscillator of said oscillating mecha
nism being adapted to be bounced by ?uid pres
sures, consisting of an explosion at one end of its
oscillating movementand an air cushion at the
of cylinders, said fluid pressures consisting of a
combustible charge in one cylinder and a variable
40 air pressure cushion held by spring tension in the
other end of its oscillating movement, the dynamic
energy thus imparted to said oscillator causing the
combustible mixture to be exploded or ignited by
ment, of the oscillator together with dynamic
theheat of compression brought about by the
other cylinder, the weight, and radius of the move
bouncing action of said oscillator.
cushion and spring tension ‘being calculated to Y
energy imparted by the rebound from said air
bustion cylinder, the timing of combustion being
controllable by the cycle of said air compression
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