Патент USA US2130044код для вставки
Sept. ‘13, 1938'. P. SU‘BKOW ET'IAL 2,130,044 DAM Filed Jan. 11,‘ 1936 Anni,” l.,H1a p.73. 1\.‘ .1 1 INVENTORS Phi/1' é'ubkow BY Lanefon 8.566101%??? - 5 AITTORNEY. I Patented Sept. 13, 1938 , 2,130,044 ' UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,130,044 DAM Philip Subkow, Los Angeles, and Lawton B. Beck-. with, San Pedro, Calif” assignors to Union Oil Company of California, Los Angeles, Calif., a corporation of California Application January 11,‘ 1936, Serial No. 58,690 5 Claims. (Cl. 61—30) The present invention relates to improvements approximately 300 lbs. per square inch and an in dams, levees and like types of water impound- . impact resistance of upwards of approximately ing structures and embankments. In particular, 2.5 ft. lbs. when mixed with Ottawa sand in amounts su?icient to exactly ?ll the voids in the sand. The “D” grade asphalt referred to in the invention relates to structures of the above 5 mentioned type containing layers. of an asphaltic or bituminous concrete. the present speci?cation is a steam re?ned as phalt having a penetration of 40 to 90 at 77° F., a melting or softening point of 110° F. to 130° F., and a ductility of greater than 100 at 77° F. The invention further pertains to the constructions, combinations, ar rangements and method herein described and claimed. .10 Although the “D” grade asphalt'is ‘mentioned in 10 the present speci?cation, it is obvious that other In the construction of rock-?lled dams which have been developed and used until the present time, it is customary to employ a water-imper grades and types of asphalts or bitumens may be substituted therefor. Thus, in very hot climates it may be advantageous to employ air-blown as vious material, such as clay or even concrete. These materials are used to prevent any leakage throughthe dams or levees with the incidental washing away of the ?ner materials in such rock phalts. » 15 To prepare a proper asphaltic concrete it is ?lled structures. This, in turn, causes the weak ening and even the complete destruction of the essential to combine a properly graded crushed stone, a ?ller and the asphalt in such pro-portions dam structure. that all the voids are completely ?lled. For this purpose it is advantageous to ?rst proportion the 20 Obviously, the lack 'of clay, as 20 the water-impermeable material, may make the construction of such dam structures impractical percentage of steam re?ned asphalt and ?ller, or even dangerous. On the other hand, such wa such as diatomaceous earth and/or rock dust, as to produce a ?lled asphalt ‘having the desired ter-impervious material. usually comprising ap proximately the upstream one-third of the darn physical properties, such as melting point, tensile strength,‘etc. Then the percentages of a properly 25 as the impervious material is excessively costly, graded crushed stone and of the ‘thus obtained 25 structure, the use of Portland cement concrete and often prohibitive. ?lled asphalt should be proportioned so as to ?ll - It is therefore the main object of the present > all .of the vvoids in said crushed stone with the invention to obviate the above mentioned defects. ?lled asphalt. As an example, a ?lled asphalt - composed of 72% by weight of asphalt and 28% 30 and to provide a structure which is safe and which by weight of diatomaceous earth will have the desired properties described hereinabove. It is preferable to choose a properly graded ject of the present invention to provide a dam structure which eliminates the necessity of using. crushed stone having a maximum density, that a large quantity of a water-impervious material, is, having a minimum of voids. By carefully pro will withstand the pressures generated by the head of water being dammed. It is a further ob such as clay. , It is a still further object of the portioning the amount _of sand to crushed rock, present invention to provide a safe structure of the above described type which does not require it is possible to obtain such an aggregate having a minimum of voids. The preferred aggregate used for admixture with ?lled asphalt to produce ~ the use of clay as the water-impervious material. a desirable asphaltic concrete comprises a mix 40 40 It is still a further object of the present inven- I tion to provide a safe dam or levee structure ture of hard, clean, sharp crushed stone and clean which does not contain clay or large quantities graded sand having the following speci?cations: of other water-impervious materials, said struc . Per cent ture having provisions for the draining of any Passing a 200 mesh sieve ______________ __ 6- 8 45 45 water which may have seeped thereinto, either ; Passing an 80 mesh sieve _____________ __ 14- 20 during or after the construction of said dam or vPassing a 40 mesh sieve ______________ __ 26— 34 levee structure. _ It has now been discovered that dam or levee structures may be constructed by the use of alter 50 nate layers of crushed rock or stone and of hi tuminous or asphaltic concrete. The term “bituminous or asphaltic concrete” as employed in the present speci?cation and/or claims refers to a mixture of ?lled asphalt and The ?lled asphalt 55 crushed stone or aggregate. comprises a mixture of between 5 and 75% of a ?ller such as diatomaceous earth and/or rock dust or other suitable .?ller and approximately 25% to 95% of a “D” grade steam re?ned asphalt, 60 said ?lled asphalt having a tensile strength of Passing a 10 mesh sieve ___________ __-___ 36- 44 Passing a 3 mesh sieve ________________ __ 54- 64 Passing a screen with 1/2 in. circular open ings _______________________________ __ 78- 88 50 ‘Passing a screen with 3A in. circular open ings _______________ __-_ _______ _,_ ____ __ 95-100 It has been found that an aggregate composed of crushed rock capable of passinga screen hav 55 ing % in. circular openings and of the above de scribed graded sand in substantially equal pro portions by volume has a smaller percentage of voids than any other combination of these ma terials, this percentage being approximately 60 2 20.5%. 2,130,044. Consequently approximately 20.5% by layers in the opposite direction permits the drain volume of ?lled asphalt will exactly ?ll the voids age of any water which may have seeped into the of this aggregate to produce an asphaltic con-' rock ?ll layers, as well as prevents any “blow outs" crete of maximum density. which may’ result from seepage of water into the As stated above, it has been discovered a dam .dam structure followed by a sudden lowering of or a levee structure may be constructed by pro the level of the impounded water. _' viding alternate layers of crushed compacted stone and of the above described asphaltic or bitumi— nous concrete. To provide such a structure a layer of rock ?ll, for example, of quarry-run stone crushed so that all the. stone will pass through a screen having 4 inch circular openings is ?rst placed on the foundation for the dam structure. Preferably said foundation should be The invention may therefore be also stated to reside in a structure of the described type wherein the individual layers of rock and of asphaltic con crete are disposed either horizontally or tipped 10 downwardly towards or away from the upstream side of the structure. In some instances, and especially when the layers comprising the dam structure are ar ranged so that they tip downwardly away from 15 pose it is advantageous to ?rst excavate to bed the upstream side of the structure, it has been rock. After the laying of the ?rst layer of crushed ‘ found ‘advantageous to dispose layers of class A rock, a layer of the above described asphaltic con stone intermediate a lower layer of crushed rock crete should be spread thereon, the thickness of and the asphaltic concrete layer or membrane 20 such asphaltic concrete being such as will provide thereabove. Such interposition of a layer ofv 15 such as to withstand the pressures. For this pur a water-impervious layer as well as necessary protection to the dam.‘ This asphaltic concrete layer should preferably be rolled to compact the concrete to conform to the contour of the crushed 25 rock layer as well as to decrease the voids in said‘ concrete. Thereafter, alternate layers of the crushed rock and of the asphaltic concrete should be placed on top of each other as described here inabove. 30 In its broadest aspects, the present invention may be stated to comprise a dam or levee con struction comprising alternate layers of rock ?ll and of asphalt, and particularly of rock ?ll and of asphaltic or bituminous concrete. The inven 35 tion further resides in a method of constructing structures of the above described type which com prises placing a layer of rock ?ll on the foundation on which the dam is to be constructed, covering said layer with a layer of asphaltic concrete, and 40 building up said structure by placing on top of said ?rst mentioned layer of asphaltic concrete alternate layers of said rock ?ll and asphaltic con crete. The invention still further resides in a method 45 for constructing dam or levee structures, which comprises placing a layer of rock ?ll on the foundation on which the structure is to be con structed, compacting said layer of crushed rock 50 class A stone presents the advantages .of added free drainage of any water which might have seeped into the dam as through the upstream facing thereof. The arrangement of such a layer of class Avstone below an asphaltic concrete mem brane prevents the plugging of the voids in such layer by the silt from the quarry-run crushed rock layer disposed above. The interposed as phaltic concrete membrane prevents such down ward passage of the silt. The term “class A stone” as used in the present speci?cation and claims means a sound hard quarried rock which is free from cracks and/or planes of cleavage. This rock is. such that ap proximately 75% of the mass consists of pieces, each of which weighs about 3 to 10 tons, while the balance consists of pieces weighing approxi mately 10 to 15 tons each. This class A stone is thus free from any small crushed particles, and when disposed in the form of a layer, provides a substantially free drainage for any in?ltrating water. The invention therefore may be still further stated to reside in a structure of the described type which comprises a multiplicity of layers of quarry-run crushed rock, interspersed with layers of class A stone and of asphaltic or bituminous concrete, the asphaltic concrete layers or mem with or without the addition of a quantity of branes being preferably disposed above the layers water thereto for purposes of increasing density of class A stone and below the quarry-run stone of the mass, disposing a layer of asphaltic con~ crete on the layer of crushed rock ?ll, compacting said layer of concrete, and building up said struc ture by disposing on top of said ?rst mentioned 55 layer of asphaltic concrete alternate layers of said compacted rock ?ll and of asphaltic or bi tuminous concrete. The invention also includes the provision of a top layer of compacted or rolled asphaltic concrete, said layer covering the up 60 stream side of the structure and preferably ex- 1 tending some distance along the bed of the water course being dammed. Although the layers may be disposed hori zontally, it is sometimes advantageous or prefer 65 able to have them tipping downwardly either towards the upstream side of the structure or in the opposite direction. Both types have been found to have their advantages. Thus, if the layers are arranged so that they are tipped down 70 wardly towards the upstream side of the dam or levee structure, the pressure of the water dammed, as well as the earth pressure tend to compact the materials constituting the individual layers, and therefore, to consolidate the dam structure. On 75 the other hand, the tipping of the individual layers. The invention may be more fully understood from the description of the accompanying draw ing, in which: Fig. lis a section of a preferred embodiment of a dam or levee structure constructed according 55 to the present invention; and Fig, 2 is a sectional view of a modi?ed dam or levee structure. Referring now to the drawing, and more par ticularly to Fig. 1, the numeral l0 represents the 60 foundation, such as bed rock on which the dam or levee structure is to be disposed. The lower most layer ll comprises quarry-run crushed stone, such as for example stone which will pass 65 through a screen having 4 inch circular open ings. Above said layer II is a layer I2 consisting of class A stone, this layer being covered by a layer or a membrane l3 of asphaltic or bitumi nous concrete. Above these three layers are dis 70 posed similar layers of quarry-run stone, class A stone, and asphaltic concrete disposed in the same order as the ?rst 3, namely, ?rst a layer ll of quarry-run crushed stone, thereabove layer I 2 of class A, and then a top layer or membrane 75 3 2,130,044 I3 of asphaltic concrete. As- is obvious, the sity of using clay; in the adaptability of using sectional lengths of the individual layers gradual > all of the material forming quarry to produce ly decrease from the lowermost to the uppermost the quarry-run stone layers II; in the fact that the water impervious asphaltic membranes are to provide the usual trapezoidal section neces sary to withstand the pressure of the water ?exible enough to yield in cases of‘ settlement, thus preventing cracking and the resultant leak; dammed, as well as the pressure of the darn it self. As shown in the drawing, the uppermost age; in'the provision of layers which permit'the layer or membrane I3 of asphaltic or bitumi nous concrete is extended along the upstream in 10 clined face I4 of the dam structure'in the form of a facing or lining I5. In the preferred form said asphaltic concrete facing I5 should also ex tend for some distance along the foundation on the upstream side of the structure. This is 15 shown in the form of a layer I6 similarly con sisting of the asphaltic or bituminous concrete. The purpose of‘ the concrete facing I5 and Iii is obvious since it prevents seepage or in?ltration of the water both into and under the dam struc 20 ture. The method of constructing a dam or levee structure such as the one represented in Fig. 1 ' is as follows: After it is determined that the foundation I0 is sui?ciently rigid to withstand 25 the stresses created by the pressures generated by the water and the dam structure itself, a layer II of ‘quarry-run stone crushed to the size de scribed above, is placed on said foundation Iii. If desired, a quantity of water, experimentally 30 determined to afford maximum density to said layer after compaction, may be added, and the mass should then be compacted as by rolling. The thickness of this layer of quarry-run stone depends on the type and size of structure being 35 constructed. After the compaction of the quar ry-run stone layer, a layer I2 of the above de scribed class A stone is placed on the ?rst men tioned layer, the class A stone being similarly 40 45 50 55 free drainage of any in?ltrating water; and, where the individual layers are slightly tipped downwardly in the direction away from the up 10 stream side of the structure, in the prevention of any “blow-outs” which may be caused by seepage of water into the dam followed by subsequent sudden lowering of the level of the water being dammed. . structed without the use of the class A stone. 20 Another modi?cation of the structure shown in this ?gure resides in that the individual layers 2i . and 23 are tipped downwardly towards the up stream side of the structure. The dam is built up on bed rock or similar foundation 20 in the man 25 ner described hereinabove with reference to the description of the structure shown in Fig. 1. As in the case of that structure, the top surface of the dam, as well as the upstream face 24 there of, are covered with a facing or lining 25, 26, ex 30 tending downwardly along said upstream face 25 and some distance outwardly along the surface of the foundation 20. This lining 25, 26 after com paction prevents in?ltration of the impounded water. . In view of the fact that the dip of the 35 individual layers 2 I, 23 of the dam shown in Fig. 2 prevents the free drainage of any water which may'have ?ltered thereinto, it is necessary to rolled. The thickness of the layer of this stone provide the downstream slope of the dam with a also depends on the various factors entering into lining 28 of asphaltic concrete. One of the main advantages of this type of an the design of the structure. Thereafter, the as arrangement resides in that the speci?c position phaltic or bituminous concrete is spread on top of layer I2 to form an impervious membrane I3. ing or dip of the layers of stone and of the water This membrane is also compacted as by rolling. impervious concrete permit the water pressure, as well as the pressure created by the dam itself, to The compaction eliminates the voids in the mem cause the consolidation of the entire dam, thus brane and also causes the lower face of the further safeguarding it from destruction. Fur membrane to conform to the contour of the sur thermore, the tipping of the water impervious face of the stone layer I2. The dam structure is ?exible asphaltic membranes 23 insures against then built up as described above by spreading and compacting the next layer I I of quarry-run stone, leakage of the water through the dam. It is to be understood that the speci?c disclo then of class A stone I2 and ?nally a- membrane sures herein made are merely illustrative of the I3 of the above described asphaltic or bituminous generic invention, and are not to be considered concrete. The thickness of the last mentioned as limiting, since many variations may be made membrane also varies on various technical fac “within the scope of the claims hereof by those tors. The above described building up of the dam skilled in the art. We claim: structure is continued until the proper height is 1. A water impounding structure which com attained. Obviously, the sectional lengths of the individual layers should gradually be decreased so as to produce a structure having a trapezoidal cross section. After the structure has been built 15 In the modi?cation shown in Fig. 2, the struc ture consists of alternately disposed layers of quarryérun stone 2i and of membranes 23 of as phaltic concrete. This type of dam is con 40 45 50 55 prises alternately disposed compacted layers of rock ?ll and of asphaltic concrete, said layers 60 being arranged so that, the structure has a grad ually decreasing sectional width from the bottom up to the desired height, and the uppermost layer of said structure to its top. or membrane I3 has been reached and is being 2. In a structure according to claim 1, where-v spread, the upstream face of the dam is covered in the top and sectional sides of said structure are by a facing or lining I5 which lining should'be provided with a layer of asphaltic concrete. 3. In a structure according to claim 1, where extended as at I6 along the bottom or bed rock in the top and sectional sides of said structure III. The main function of this lining is to pro are provided with a layer of asphaltic concrete tect the dam from in?ltration or seepage of wa and the thickness of layer I5, I6 should be de-_ and wherein said layer on the upstream side of 70 70 ter said structure extends a distance along the bot signed accordingly. As with the previous mem branes I3, facing I5, I6 should also be compacted tom on which the structure is disposed. 4. In a structure according to claim 1, where to decrease the voids in, the asphaltic concrete. The advantages of this‘type of ‘construction in the individual layers of rock and of asphaltic concrete are tipped downwardly towards the up 76 primarily reside in the elimination of the neces 4 2,130,044 stream side oi! the water impounding structure, whereby a greater consolidation of the structure is obtained. 5. In a structure according to claim 1, where in the individual layers of rock and of asphaltic concrete ‘are tipped downwardly towards the downstream side of the water impounding struc ture, whereby a. greater consolidation of the structure is obtained. PHILIP SUBKOW. LAWTON B. BECKWITH.