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Патент USA US2130044

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Sept. ‘13, 1938'.
Filed Jan. 11,‘ 1936
Phi/1' é'ubkow
BY Lanefon 8.566101%??? -
Patented Sept. 13, 1938
, 2,130,044 '
Philip Subkow, Los Angeles, and Lawton B. Beck-.
with, San Pedro, Calif” assignors to Union Oil
Company of California, Los Angeles, Calif., a
corporation of California
Application January 11,‘ 1936, Serial No. 58,690
5 Claims. (Cl. 61—30)
The present invention relates to improvements approximately 300 lbs. per square inch and an
in dams, levees and like types of water impound- . impact resistance of upwards of approximately
ing structures and embankments. In particular, 2.5 ft. lbs. when mixed with Ottawa sand in
amounts su?icient to exactly ?ll the voids in
the sand. The “D” grade asphalt referred to in
the invention relates to structures of the above
5 mentioned type containing layers. of an asphaltic
or bituminous concrete.
the present speci?cation is a steam re?ned as
phalt having a penetration of 40 to 90 at 77° F., a
melting or softening point of 110° F. to 130° F.,
and a ductility of greater than 100 at 77° F.
The invention further
pertains to the constructions, combinations, ar
rangements and method herein described and
Although the “D” grade asphalt'is ‘mentioned in 10
the present speci?cation, it is obvious that other
In the construction of rock-?lled dams which
have been developed and used until the present
time, it is customary to employ a water-imper
grades and types of asphalts or bitumens may be
substituted therefor. Thus, in very hot climates
it may be advantageous to employ air-blown as
vious material, such as clay or even concrete.
These materials are used to prevent any leakage
throughthe dams or levees with the incidental
washing away of the ?ner materials in such rock
To prepare a proper asphaltic concrete it is
?lled structures. This, in turn, causes the weak
ening and even the complete destruction of the
essential to combine a properly graded crushed
stone, a ?ller and the asphalt in such pro-portions
dam structure.
that all the voids are completely ?lled. For this
purpose it is advantageous to ?rst proportion the 20
Obviously, the lack 'of clay, as
20 the water-impermeable material, may make the
construction of such dam structures impractical
percentage of steam re?ned asphalt and ?ller,
or even dangerous. On the other hand, such wa
such as diatomaceous earth and/or rock dust, as
to produce a ?lled asphalt ‘having the desired
ter-impervious material. usually comprising ap
proximately the upstream one-third of the darn
physical properties, such as melting point, tensile
strength,‘etc. Then the percentages of a properly 25
as the impervious material is excessively costly, graded crushed stone and of the ‘thus obtained
25 structure, the use of Portland cement concrete
and often prohibitive.
?lled asphalt should be proportioned so as to ?ll
It is therefore the main object of the present > all .of the vvoids in said crushed stone with the
invention to obviate the above mentioned defects. ?lled asphalt. As an example, a ?lled asphalt
- composed of 72% by weight of asphalt and 28%
30 and to provide a structure which is safe and which
by weight of diatomaceous earth will have the
desired properties described hereinabove.
It is preferable to choose a properly graded
ject of the present invention to provide a dam
structure which eliminates the necessity of using. crushed stone having a maximum density, that
a large quantity of a water-impervious material, is, having a minimum of voids. By carefully pro
will withstand the pressures generated by the
head of water being dammed. It is a further ob
such as clay. , It is a still further object of the
portioning the amount _of sand to crushed rock,
present invention to provide a safe structure of
the above described type which does not require
it is possible to obtain such an aggregate having
a minimum of voids. The preferred aggregate
used for admixture with ?lled asphalt to produce
the use of clay as the water-impervious material.
a desirable asphaltic concrete comprises a mix 40
40 It is still a further object of the present inven- I
tion to provide a safe dam or levee structure ture of hard, clean, sharp crushed stone and clean
which does not contain clay or large quantities graded sand having the following speci?cations:
of other water-impervious materials, said struc .
Per cent
ture having provisions for the draining of any Passing a 200 mesh sieve ______________ __ 6- 8
45 water which may have seeped thereinto, either ; Passing an 80 mesh sieve _____________ __ 14- 20
during or after the construction of said dam or vPassing a 40 mesh sieve ______________ __ 26— 34
levee structure.
It has now been discovered that dam or levee
structures may be constructed by the use of alter
50 nate layers of crushed rock or stone and of hi
tuminous or asphaltic concrete.
The term “bituminous or asphaltic concrete” as
employed in the present speci?cation and/or
claims refers to a mixture of ?lled asphalt and
The ?lled asphalt
55 crushed stone or aggregate.
comprises a mixture of between 5 and 75% of a
?ller such as diatomaceous earth and/or rock
dust or other suitable .?ller and approximately
25% to 95% of a “D” grade steam re?ned asphalt,
60 said ?lled asphalt having a tensile strength of
Passing a 10 mesh sieve ___________ __-___ 36- 44
Passing a 3 mesh sieve ________________ __ 54- 64
Passing a screen with 1/2 in. circular open
ings _______________________________ __ 78- 88
‘Passing a screen with 3A in. circular open
ings _______________ __-_ _______ _,_ ____ __
It has been found that an aggregate composed
of crushed rock capable of passinga screen hav 55
ing % in. circular openings and of the above de
scribed graded sand in substantially equal pro
portions by volume has a smaller percentage of
voids than any other combination of these ma
terials, this percentage being approximately
Consequently approximately 20.5% by layers in the opposite direction permits the drain
volume of ?lled asphalt will exactly ?ll the voids age of any water which may have seeped into the
of this aggregate to produce an asphaltic con-' rock ?ll layers, as well as prevents any “blow outs"
crete of maximum density.
which may’ result from seepage of water into the
As stated above, it has been discovered a dam .dam structure followed by a sudden lowering of
or a levee structure may be constructed by pro
the level of the impounded water. _'
viding alternate layers of crushed compacted stone
and of the above described asphaltic or bitumi—
nous concrete. To provide such a structure a
layer of rock ?ll, for example, of quarry-run
stone crushed so that all the. stone will pass
through a screen having 4 inch circular openings
is ?rst placed on the foundation for the dam
structure. Preferably said foundation should be
The invention may therefore be also stated to
reside in a structure of the described type wherein
the individual layers of rock and of asphaltic con
crete are disposed either horizontally or tipped 10
downwardly towards or away from the upstream
side of the structure.
In some instances, and especially when the
layers comprising the dam structure are ar
ranged so that they tip downwardly away from 15
pose it is advantageous to ?rst excavate to bed the upstream side of the structure, it has been
rock. After the laying of the ?rst layer of crushed ‘ found ‘advantageous to dispose layers of class A
rock, a layer of the above described asphaltic con
stone intermediate a lower layer of crushed rock
crete should be spread thereon, the thickness of and the asphaltic concrete layer or membrane
20 such asphaltic concrete being such as will provide
thereabove. Such interposition of a layer ofv
15 such as to withstand the pressures. For this pur
a water-impervious layer as well as necessary
protection to the dam.‘ This asphaltic concrete
layer should preferably be rolled to compact the
concrete to conform to the contour of the crushed
25 rock layer as well as to decrease the voids in said‘
concrete. Thereafter, alternate layers of the
crushed rock and of the asphaltic concrete should
be placed on top of each other as described here
In its broadest aspects, the present invention
may be stated to comprise a dam or levee con
struction comprising alternate layers of rock ?ll
and of asphalt, and particularly of rock ?ll and
of asphaltic or bituminous concrete. The inven
35 tion further resides in a method of constructing
structures of the above described type which com
prises placing a layer of rock ?ll on the foundation
on which the dam is to be constructed, covering
said layer with a layer of asphaltic concrete, and
40 building up said structure by placing on top of
said ?rst mentioned layer of asphaltic concrete
alternate layers of said rock ?ll and asphaltic con
The invention still further resides in a method
45 for constructing dam or levee structures, which
comprises placing a layer of rock ?ll on the
foundation on which the structure is to be con
structed, compacting said layer of crushed rock
class A stone presents the advantages .of added
free drainage of any water which might have
seeped into the dam as through the upstream
facing thereof. The arrangement of such a layer
of class Avstone below an asphaltic concrete mem
brane prevents the plugging of the voids in such
layer by the silt from the quarry-run crushed
rock layer disposed above. The interposed as
phaltic concrete membrane prevents such down
ward passage of the silt.
The term “class A stone” as used in the present
speci?cation and claims means a sound hard
quarried rock which is free from cracks and/or
planes of cleavage. This rock is. such that ap
proximately 75% of the mass consists of pieces,
each of which weighs about 3 to 10 tons, while
the balance consists of pieces weighing approxi
mately 10 to 15 tons each. This class A stone is
thus free from any small crushed particles, and
when disposed in the form of a layer, provides a
substantially free drainage for any in?ltrating
The invention therefore may be still further
stated to reside in a structure of the described
type which comprises a multiplicity of layers of
quarry-run crushed rock, interspersed with layers
of class A stone and of asphaltic or bituminous
concrete, the asphaltic concrete layers or mem
with or without the addition of a quantity of
branes being preferably disposed above the layers
water thereto for purposes of increasing density
of class A stone and below the quarry-run stone
of the mass, disposing a layer of asphaltic con~
crete on the layer of crushed rock ?ll, compacting
said layer of concrete, and building up said struc
ture by disposing on top of said ?rst mentioned
55 layer of asphaltic concrete alternate layers of
said compacted rock ?ll and of asphaltic or bi
tuminous concrete. The invention also includes
the provision of a top layer of compacted or rolled
asphaltic concrete, said layer covering the up
60 stream side of the structure and preferably ex- 1
tending some distance along the bed of the water
course being dammed.
Although the layers may be disposed hori
zontally, it is sometimes advantageous or prefer
65 able to have them tipping downwardly either
towards the upstream side of the structure or in
the opposite direction. Both types have been
found to have their advantages. Thus, if the
layers are arranged so that they are tipped down
70 wardly towards the upstream side of the dam or
levee structure, the pressure of the water dammed,
as well as the earth pressure tend to compact the
materials constituting the individual layers, and
therefore, to consolidate the dam structure. On
75 the other hand, the tipping of the individual
The invention may be more fully understood
from the description of the accompanying draw
ing, in which:
Fig. lis a section of a preferred embodiment of
a dam or levee structure constructed according 55
to the present invention; and
Fig, 2 is a sectional view of a modi?ed dam or
levee structure.
Referring now to the drawing, and more par
ticularly to Fig. 1, the numeral l0 represents the 60
foundation, such as bed rock on which the dam
or levee structure is to be disposed. The lower
most layer ll comprises quarry-run crushed
stone, such as for example stone which will pass 65
through a screen having 4 inch circular open
ings. Above said layer II is a layer I2 consisting
of class A stone, this layer being covered by a
layer or a membrane l3 of asphaltic or bitumi
nous concrete. Above these three layers are dis
posed similar layers of quarry-run stone, class A
stone, and asphaltic concrete disposed in the
same order as the ?rst 3, namely, ?rst a layer
ll of quarry-run crushed stone, thereabove layer
I 2 of class A, and then a top layer or membrane 75
I3 of asphaltic concrete. As- is obvious, the sity of using clay; in the adaptability of using
sectional lengths of the individual layers gradual > all of the material forming quarry to produce
ly decrease from the lowermost to the uppermost the quarry-run stone layers II; in the fact that
the water impervious asphaltic membranes are
to provide the usual trapezoidal section neces
sary to withstand the pressure of the water ?exible enough to yield in cases of‘ settlement,
thus preventing cracking and the resultant leak;
dammed, as well as the pressure of the darn it
self. As shown in the drawing, the uppermost age; in'the provision of layers which permit'the
layer or membrane I3 of asphaltic or bitumi
nous concrete is extended along the upstream in
10 clined face I4 of the dam structure'in the form
of a facing or lining I5. In the preferred form
said asphaltic concrete facing I5 should also ex
tend for some distance along the foundation on
the upstream side of the structure. This is
15 shown in the form of a layer I6 similarly con
sisting of the asphaltic or bituminous concrete.
The purpose of‘ the concrete facing I5 and Iii is
obvious since it prevents seepage or in?ltration
of the water both into and under the dam struc
20 ture.
The method of constructing a dam or levee
structure such as the one represented in Fig. 1
' is as follows: After it is determined that the
foundation I0 is sui?ciently rigid to withstand
25 the stresses created by the pressures generated
by the water and the dam structure itself, a layer
II of ‘quarry-run stone crushed to the size de
scribed above, is placed on said foundation Iii.
If desired, a quantity of water, experimentally
30 determined to afford maximum density to said
layer after compaction, may be added, and the
mass should then be compacted as by rolling.
The thickness of this layer of quarry-run stone
depends on the type and size of structure being
35 constructed. After the compaction of the quar
ry-run stone layer, a layer I2 of the above de
scribed class A stone is placed on the ?rst men
tioned layer, the class A stone being similarly
free drainage of any in?ltrating water; and,
where the individual layers are slightly tipped
downwardly in the direction away from the up 10
stream side of the structure, in the prevention of
any “blow-outs” which may be caused by seepage
of water into the dam followed by subsequent
sudden lowering of the level of the water being
structed without the use of the class A stone. 20
Another modi?cation of the structure shown in
this ?gure resides in that the individual layers 2i .
and 23 are tipped downwardly towards the up
stream side of the structure. The dam is built up
on bed rock or similar foundation 20 in the man 25
ner described hereinabove with reference to the
description of the structure shown in Fig. 1. As
in the case of that structure, the top surface of
the dam, as well as the upstream face 24 there
of, are covered with a facing or lining 25, 26, ex 30
tending downwardly along said upstream face 25
and some distance outwardly along the surface of
the foundation 20. This lining 25, 26 after com
paction prevents in?ltration of the impounded
water. . In view of the fact that the dip of the 35
individual layers 2 I, 23 of the dam shown in Fig.
2 prevents the free drainage of any water which
may'have ?ltered thereinto, it is necessary to
rolled. The thickness of the layer of this stone provide the downstream slope of the dam with a
also depends on the various factors entering into lining 28 of asphaltic concrete.
One of the main advantages of this type of an
the design of the structure. Thereafter, the as
arrangement resides in that the speci?c position
phaltic or bituminous concrete is spread on top
of layer I2 to form an impervious membrane I3. ing or dip of the layers of stone and of the water
This membrane is also compacted as by rolling. impervious concrete permit the water pressure, as
well as the pressure created by the dam itself, to
The compaction eliminates the voids in the mem
cause the consolidation of the entire dam, thus
brane and also causes the lower face of the
further safeguarding it from destruction. Fur
membrane to conform to the contour of the sur
thermore, the tipping of the water impervious
face of the stone layer I2. The dam structure is
asphaltic membranes 23 insures against
then built up as described above by spreading and
compacting the next layer I I of quarry-run stone, leakage of the water through the dam.
It is to be understood that the speci?c disclo
then of class A stone I2 and ?nally a- membrane sures
herein made are merely illustrative of the
I3 of the above described asphaltic or bituminous generic invention, and are not to be considered
concrete. The thickness of the last mentioned as limiting, since many variations may be made
membrane also varies on various technical fac “within the scope of the claims hereof by those
The above described building up of the dam skilled in the art.
We claim:
structure is continued until the proper height is
1. A water impounding structure which com
attained. Obviously, the sectional lengths of the
individual layers should gradually be decreased
so as to produce a structure having a trapezoidal
cross section. After the structure has been built
In the modi?cation shown in Fig. 2, the struc
ture consists of alternately disposed layers of
quarryérun stone 2i and of membranes 23 of as
phaltic concrete. This type of dam is con
prises alternately disposed compacted layers of
rock ?ll and of asphaltic concrete, said layers 60
being arranged so that, the structure has a grad
ually decreasing sectional width from the bottom
up to the desired height, and the uppermost layer of said structure to its top.
or membrane I3 has been reached and is being
2. In a structure according to claim 1, where-v
spread, the upstream face of the dam is covered in the top and sectional sides of said structure are
by a facing or lining I5 which lining should'be provided with a layer of asphaltic concrete.
3. In a structure according to claim 1, where
extended as at I6 along the bottom or bed rock
in the top and sectional sides of said structure
III. The main function of this lining is to pro
are provided with a layer of asphaltic concrete
tect the dam from in?ltration or seepage of wa
and the thickness of layer I5, I6 should be de-_ and wherein said layer on the upstream side of 70
70 ter
said structure extends a distance along the bot
signed accordingly. As with the previous mem
branes I3, facing I5, I6 should also be compacted tom on which the structure is disposed.
4. In a structure according to claim 1, where
to decrease the voids in, the asphaltic concrete.
The advantages of this‘type of ‘construction in the individual layers of rock and of asphaltic
concrete are tipped downwardly towards the up
76 primarily reside in the elimination of the neces
stream side oi! the water impounding structure,
whereby a greater consolidation of the structure
is obtained.
5. In a structure according to claim 1, where
in the individual layers of rock and of asphaltic
concrete ‘are tipped downwardly towards the
downstream side of the water impounding struc
ture, whereby a. greater consolidation of the
structure is obtained.
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