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Патент USA US2130073

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Sept. 13, 1938.
C. DE LANGE ET AL
2,130,073
ELECTROLYT IC CONDENSER
Filed Feb. 17, 1937
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Patented Sept. 13, 1938
2,130,073
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE.
2,130,073
. ELECTROLYTIC_ CONDENSER
Cornelis de Lange and Anthony Frederik Peter
Johannes Claassen, Eindhoven, Netherlands,
assignors to N. V. Philips’ Gloeilampenfa
brieken, Eindlioven, Netherlands
Application February 19,1937, Serial No. 126,702
In Germany February 22, 1936
7 Claims.' (Cl. 175-315)
Our invention relates to electrolytic condensers.
rying a pasty electrolyte. With such condensers
and more particularly to wet electrolytic con
densers for-operation on voltages of the order of
350 volts and more.
however, a. puncture in the dielectric ?lm can be
It is general practice to construct electrolytic
condensers with a metal electrolyte container
serving as the cathode, and to provide within this
container an anode having a large surface ‘area
to obtain a maximum capacity with condensers
10 of a given size. For this purpose, the anode may
be a corrugated strip, a strip bent into a star
shape, or may be formed of a spirally-wound
sheet of aluminum apertured at various points
to permit free circulation of the electrolyte.
15
Such condensers, however-particularly when
they are for operation on voltages in excess of
350 volts-have several disadvantages due to the
unequal and large distances between the cathode
container and various points on the anode.
As
20 will be explained in more detail hereinafter, this
automatically restored only with di?iculty or not\
at all, with the result that a short circuit be
tween the electrodes will not be removed. Fur
thermore, it has been proposed to use an irregu
larly shaped anode and a similarly shaped cath
ode arranged to provide equal spacing therebe-,
tween. Such constructions, however, have either
been so fragile that there is danger of short cir 10
cuiting‘of the electrodes or of damage to the
dielectric ?lm, orv have been provided with so
many supporting members as to make the con
struction very complicated and entirely unsuited
for mass production.
derstood and readily carried into effect, we shall
describe same more fully with reference to the
accompanying drawing in whichFigure 1 is a sectional view of a condenser ac
results in large and varying “partial series re
sistances” which very unfavorably effects the
cording to the prior art,
total series resistance of the condenser, and
makes the total capacity of the condenser highly
25 dependent upon the frequency of the operating
cording to the invention,
voltage.
come the above dif?culties, and to provide an elec
trolytic condenser in which the partial series re
3 O sistances of each point of the anode with respect
to the cathode are equal and as small as pos
Fig. 2 is a sectionized view of a condenser ac
Fig, 3 is a sectionized view of a portion of the
condenser of Fig. 2 with a second condenser
Fig. 4 is a schematic diagram illustrating an
application of the condenser of Fig. 3.
Figure 1 is a cross-section of a prior-art con
denser having a star-shaped anode 33 and a cy
lindrical cathode-container 34.
30
In such a con~
denser, the distances between the anode and
'
Another object of our invention is to produce
a compact multiple condenser unit.
35
In accordance with the invention, we form the
anode as a cup-shaped member, and so arrange
same with respect to a cathode container having
a cup-shaped portion projecting into the hollow
of the anode, that the distance between the cath
4 O ode and anode is small and substantially the same
throughout the entire surface thereof.
The construction of condensers according to
the invention is simple, provides a low and con
cathode vary, and as a result the partial capac
ities which make up the total capacity of the con;
denser have di?erent series resistances which, 35
in the construction shown, may have appreciably
high values. If the condenser is for operation
at a high voltage, for example 500 volts, the spe
ci?c resistance of the electrolyte will be com
partively high, as this speci?c resistancev increases 40
about proportionally with the sparking voltage
which controls the maximum voltage of the elec
trolyte. For instance, electrolytes for operation
a second condenser within the hollow of the cath
on 500 volts, would have a speci?c resistance of
about 10,000 ohms per cubic centimeter at 20° 0., 45
whereas an electrolyte for operation on 550 volts
would have a speci?c resistance of from 15,000
to 20,000 ohms per cubic centimeter at the same
ode portion projecting into the cup-shaped anode,
temperature.
stant series-resistance, and the cup-shaped elec
45 trodes can be formed in asimple manner by im
pact extrusion methods.~
'
In one embodiment- of our invention, We house
50 to produce a multiple condenser unit which is
simple and compact and is of particular advan
tage for use in power supply ?lters for radio sets.
We are aware that dry electrolytic condensers
5
20
mounted therein, and
.
The main object of our invention is to over
sible.
15
\
In order that our invention may be clearly un
are constructed with strip electrodes substantially
equally spaced apart by'an absorbent spacer car
~
Assuming, in Fig, 1, that the condenser has a" 50
total capacity of 18 mid. and that a partial capac
ity of. 6 mfd. is supplied from an anode surface
of 100 square centimeters lying 2 centimeters
from the cathode. If the electrolyte has 'a spe
ci?c resistance of 15,000 ohms per {"ibic centi 55
2
2,180,078
and cathode, for instance 2 mms., the series
resistance is very low, for instance about 20 ohms,
and the angle of loss is considerably less than 0.1.
In addition, the leakage current is small, for
example only 0.1 amp. per mfd., and due to the
meter, the series resistance corresponding to the
6 mfd. will be:
2
_
15,000 XI0—0—— 300 ohms
This involves an enormous resistance loss as the
equal spacing between the‘ electrodes, the de
pendency of th» capacity upon the frequency of
impedance of 6 mid. at a frequency of 100 cycles
per second will be 260 ohms. Furthermore, the
total capacity of the condenser will vary greatly
the operating voltage is also very low.
The space I4 in the condenser of Fig. 2 is par
ticularly suited for housing a second condenser, 10
and such a construction is shown in Fig. 3 in
which parts similar to those in Fig. 2 are indi
cated by the same reference numerals.
with the frequency, and as this di?iculty is more
10 acute with electrolytes for higher voltages, it is
very important that the distances between the
anode and cathode of condensers operating at
voltages of the order of 400 volts, be small and
equal. A‘more detailed discussion of the above
15 di?lculties has been given in our copending U. S.
patent application Ser. No. 107,290 ?led Oct. 23,
1936
As shown in Fig. 3 there is disposed within
space H, a second condenser E, which is pref 15
erably of the type described in the copending
U. S. patent application Ser. No. 54,881 filed Dec.
17, 1935, now Patent'#2,099,599. Condenser B
comprises a star-shaped anode 2|, an electrolyte
38, and a cup-shaped cathode-container I9. The 20
top of container l9 forms a protuberance 2!
provided with apertures 3| and embraced by a
'
In accordance with our present invention, the
above di?iculties are overcome by forming the
20 condenser in a manner as illustrated in Fig. 2,
in which the reference numeral 1 indicates a
cup-shaped anode whose surface area is prefer
ably increased by etching in the manner de
rubber band 29 to form a vent for the gases de
veloped during the operation of the condenser.
Secured to the top of container ill by having its
scribed in the copending U. S. patent application
25 Ser. No. ‘724,565 to Emmens et al., ?led May 8,
1934.
end rolled into a groove, is a cup-shaped cover
I‘! carrying two bushings l8 and housing a porous
liquid-absorbing material 30, for instance saw
dust, which serves to absorb any electrolyte which
might be carried out through apertures 3| by the 30
escaping gases. Condenser B is supported from
a metal plate 45, secured to cathode-container
A by a ?anged ring l3, by two screws 20 cooper
Anode l is provided with a boss 2 and a cylin
drical projection 5 having a. hollow end, and is
secured to a member 3 of insulating material,
30 for example molded bakelite, by spinning over the
end of projection 5 at 6. A gasket 4, far instance
of rubber, is disposed between boss 2 and mem
ber 3, where as an anode lug ‘I is secured under
ating with bushings l8.
the spun edge at 6. For securing the condenser
36 to a panel member 3 is externally threaded at 8.
The anode I may be simply and inexpensively
formed by impact extrusion, such as described
in copending U. S. patent application Ser. No.
97,200 to Kipperman et al., filed August 21, 1936.
The cathode-container A comprises a cup
shaped member ID and a cylindrically-shaped
member 9 secured together at the top by having
their edges rolled over, whereas the bottom of‘
member 9 is spun over the edge of member 3
with the interposition of gasket 4 to form a liquid
tight seal. Secured to the bottom of member 9
is acathode lug 35.
The space formed between members 9 and I0,
and anode I is filled with a suitable liquid elec
trolyte 26, for example a mixture of 240 grams
of boric acid (HJBOI), 1,000 grams of glycerine.
1,000 c. c. of ammonia (NHAOH), and 30 cubic
centimeters of water.
\
To allow for the escape of gases produced dur
ing the operation of the condenser, member ID
is provided with a groove 81 having one or more
apertures II and embraced by a rubber band
l2 which is pricked with, a pin at portions cor
responding to apertures ll. Thus when the‘
pressure, of the gas above the surface of the
electrolyte exceeds atmospheric ‘pressure, the
band I2 expands at apertures H ‘and the gas
escapes thru the small expanded holes therein.
The member Ill forms a cylindrical space 14
which is closed by acover l5 spun over the edge
of cathode-container A. As shown member I!
is of metal, however in some cases it is prefer-'
able to make it of insulating material.
,
A condenser of the construction shown in Fig. ,1
70 is very compact, for example with an anode
having a diameter of 30 mms. and a height of 80
mms.. and having an etched surface as above
mentioned, a capacity ‘of from 8 to 16 mfd. at an
. operating voltage 550 volts is obtained. Further
76 mL-e, due to the small spacing between the anode
.
Anode 2| is provided with a soldering lug 22 35
to which is connected a lead 23 passing through
an aperture 24 in plate 45 whereas cathode
container I9 is provided with a. lug 26 to which is
connected a lead-21 passing through plate 45. By
making the plate 45 of metal, the cathodes oi’
the two condensers are connected together and
lead 21 serves as the common lead thereto, or
the lug 25 of Fig. 2 may be used as the common
cathode connection. In such cases leads 23 and
21 are insulated from plate 45 by insulating 45
bushings 24.
On the other hand by making the plate 45 of
insulating material the two condensers are in
sulated from each other whereby leads 23 and
21 serve only as the connection to the anode and
cathode respectively of condenser E, whereas the
connections to the outer condensers are made in
the manner indicated in Fig. 2.
In such a con
struction the insulating bushings 24 can be elimi
nated.
55
With the ?rst construction, 1. e., with metal
plate 45, the condenser unit is of especial ad
vantage in filter circuits such as illustrated in
Fig. 4,‘in which latter C indicates the condenser
unit of Fig. 3. D indicates the condenser'of Fig. 2,
and B indicates the inner condenser of Fig. 3.
In the iilter‘circuit shown, 40 and 4i indicate
the terminals of a pulsating D. C. supply whereas
reference numerals 42 and 43 indicate the output
terminals for supplying the smoothed current
to a radio or amplifying system, (not shown);
the inductance being provided by the field coil
32 of aloud speaker.
'
Condenser D, which has the higher capacity
and operating voltage has its anode connected to 70
‘one side of the coil 22 as indicated by 1', whereas
condenser B, which has a lower capacity and low
er maximum voltage, has its anode connected be
hind coil 32 as indicated'by 22'. The cathodes of
the condensers B and D, which are connected to- ' 75
2,130,073
gether by a metal plate 45 (see Fig. 3), are con
nected to the negative terminals 4| and 43.
Such a multiple condenser unit comprising a
high voltage condenser of large capacity and a
second condenser of lower capacity and voltage,
can be used to advantage in other circuit arrange
ments.
Although we have described our invention with
reference to speci?c examples and applications,
10 we do not wish to be limited thereto but desire the
appended claims to be construed as broadly as
permissible in view of the prior art.
What we claim is:
'
3
shaped portion and completely covering said an
ode, said cup-shaped portion being provided with
an aperture at a point above the level of the elec
trolyte, and a rubber band embracing said cup
shaped part and provided with a pin-prick at said
aperture to allow for the escape of high-pressure
gases developed within the condenser.
5. A multiple condenser comprising an elec-'
trolytic condenser having a cylindrical-shaped
container acting as a cathode, a cup-shaped an
1O
ode insulatingly. supported at its bottom from the
bottom of said container, a lead for said anode
extending through the bottom of said container,
1. An electrolytic condenser comprising a cup
15 shaped anode having a cavity, a container acting
as a cathode and having a cup-rshaped portion ex
said container comprising a cup-shaped portion
extending within the hollow of said anode, and a 15
liquid electrolyte within the space formed between
tending into said cavity, a liquid electrolyte with
in said container, substantially the entire surface
of said anode being equidistantly spaced from said
20 cathode-container, and venting means including
an aperture in said cup-shaped cathode portion
trolytic condenser disposed entirely within the
20
hollow of said cup-shaped portion.
above the level of said electrolyte, and a rubber
band within said container and normally closing
said aperture, said band being provided with a
25 pin-prick at the aperture.
2. A multiple condenser unit comprising an
electrolytic condenser having a cup-shaped anode,
30
35
40
45
6. A multiple condenser comprising an electro
lytic condenser having a cylindrical container
acting as a cathode, a cover for said container
comprising an inwardly-extending cup-shaped
portion, a cup-shaped anode insulatingly sup 25
ported at its bottom from the bottom of said con
tainer and extending between said container and
the cup-shaped portion, a lead for said anode ex
a container acting as a cathode and having a cup
shaped portion projecting into the cavity of said tending through the bottom of said container, a 30
liquid electrolyte Within the space formed between
anode, and a liquid electrolyte within said con
said container andcup-shaped part and com
tainer, substantially the entire surface of said an
pletely covering said anode, and a second electro
ode being equidistantly spaced from said cathode
container, and a second electrolytic condenser lytic condenser disposed entirely within the hol
disposed within the cavity‘ of the cup-shaped low of said cup-shaped portion of the ?rst con 35
denser, said second condenser comprising a con
cathode portion of said ?rst condenser, said sec
ond condenser comprising a container having a tainer having a double-walled end, an electrolyte
within said container, an anode within said con
double-walled end, an electrolyte within said con
tainer, an anode within said container and having atainer and having an electrical connection ex
an electrical connection extending through the tending through the end of the container opposite 40
end of the container opposite a double-walled end, the double-walled end, and means for supporting
venting means within the space formed at the said second condenser from the container of the
double-walled end, and means for supporting the ?rst condenser comprising a member positioned
within the space formed at the double-walled
condenser from the container of the ?rst con
»
denser comprising a member positioned within end.
_ '7. A multiple condenser for smoothing pulsat 45
the space formed at the double-walled end.
ing direct current comprising a high-voltage elec
3. An eletcrolytic condenser comprising a cylin
drical-shaped container acting as a cathode, a trolytic condenser having a cylindrical container
cup-shaped anode insulatingly supported at its
bottom from the bottom of said container, a lead
50 for said anode extending through the bottom of
said container, said container comprising a cup
shaped portion extending within the hollow of
said anode and occupying substantially the entire
space thereof, substantially the entire surface of
55 said anode being equidistantly spaced from said
extending portion, and a liquid electrolyte within
the space formed between the container and cup
shaped portion and completely, covering said
anode.
60
said container and cup-shaped portion and com
pletely covering said anode, and a second elec
,
4. An electrolytic condenser comprising a sub
stantially cylindrical container acting as a cath
ode, a cup-shaped anode insulatingly‘ supported
at its bottom from the_lower end of said con
tainer, a cover for said container comprising a
65 cup-shaped portion extending within the hollow
of said anode and occupying substantially the en
tire space thereof, a liquid electrolyte within the
space formed between the container and cup
acting as a cathode, a cup-shaped anode insu
latingly supported at its bottom from the‘ bottom
of said container, a lead for said anode extending 50
through the bottom of said container, said con
tainer comprising a cup-shaped portion extend
ing within the hollow of said cup-shaped anode
and occupying substantially the entire space
thereof, substantially the entire surface of said 55
anode being equidistantly spaced from said cup
shaped portion, and a liquid electrolyte within
the space formed between said container and cup
shaped portion and completely ‘covering said an
.ode,, and a lower-voltage eletcrolytic condenser 60
disposed entirely within the hollow of said cup
shaped portion and comprising an anode, an elec
trolyte, and a cathode-container electrically and
mechanically connected to the container of the
high-voltage condenser.
_
CORNELIS ns LANGE.
ANTHONY FREDERIK PETER
JOHAN'NES CLAASSEN.
65
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