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Патент USA US2130105

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2,130,105
Patented Sept. 13, 1938‘
UNITED‘ STATES‘ PATENT orrrcr.
.
2,130,105
STORAGE ‘BATTERY ELECTRODE AND '
METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME
Harold 1t. Earner, Joplin,
John A. Schae?cr and
Mo., assignors to The Eagle-Picker Lead Com
Pally, Cincinnati, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio
No Drawing. Application June 27,1985,
Serial No. 28,785
12 Claims. (Cl. 136-26) I
Our invention relates to the manufacture of
storage battery electrodes, and more particu
larly to the manufacture of, negative electrodes,
or spongy-lead electrodes for lead acid type stor-:
clear liquor is decanted to waste. That portion
remaining in the tank is again admixed with
5 age batteries, and has for its object to provide a
negative electrode and a method for manufactur
ing the. same, which electrode as compared with ‘
electrodes previously manufactured will have its
active material in such a condition of particle
10 subdivision and physical- structure as to yield
markedly increased initial capacity especially at
high rates of discharge and low temperatures and
to maintain that increased yield longer during
the use of the electrode than has heretofore been
15
possible.
_
'
>
water and additional sulphuric acid su?icient to
maintain the acidity of the solution introduced.
The mixture is boiled for an additional period of 5
8 hours, when the whole is allowed to settle and
the supernatant liquor decanted to waste. The
residue remaining in the tank- is then washed
with boiling water, ?ltered and dried. The dried
residue is extracted with boiling alcohol and the 10
combined alcohol extract evaporated to dryness.
The resulting ‘compound is added to the active
material or material to be made active ‘in a lead
acid storage battery electrode and when made 15
into a paste with desirable vehicle, applied to
negative storage battery‘ grids and treated by
Our invention consists in the preparation of an
organic compound and the incorporation of this
compound into the active material, or material
in a lead acid storage battery"
to be made active,
20 electrode either prior to or after incorporation
into the storage battery grid and which readily
combines with the lead ,compound or lead com
pounds to produce what we'call protective'action
by preventing the growth of large spongy-lead
suitable means in process forms a negative stor
age battery electrodecharacterized by improved
initial capacity particularly in high rate and low
temperature discharge.
20
Without desiring to restrict‘ ourselves to the
proportions named, ,we have found that good re-‘
sults can be achieved by the mixture of one part
by weight of our organic compound with ?ve
hundred parts by weight of the lead materials 25
25 crystals or particles and producing on formation
used in compounding the paste for the plates, spongy lead particles which are submicroscopic giving 0.2% of organic material in the dry blend.
in‘ size, thereby increasing tremendously the spe ' Again. we may form a lead salt or'complex of our
ci?c surface of the active material in the plate organic compoundby adding lead oxide such as
as compared with the activematerial of plates litharge, or a lead salt, to a solution of our or
ganic material, whereupon a precipitate of lead
30 made from the same lead compound or com
pounds but without our organic compound.
organic salt or complex is formed. The amount
In the preparation of our organic compound of organic compound in the lead-organic complex
we use as the raw material certain carbohydrates may be varied at will by varying the relative
comprising plant residue or agricultural waste of amount of lead oxide or lead salt added, although 35
the group including tanbark, straw, cor'n stalks, we prefer to form a lead-organic complex con
sawdust or leaves, .and from this we prepare a - taining about 5% by weight of organic material.
compost by aerobic decomposition. We may se
This .leadvorganic complex may then be dried,
lect tanbark as an example. A compost is pre pulverized, and added to the other lead materials
pared which will contain per 100 pounds of ma
used in compounding the paste for the electrodes 40
40 terial about 30 pounds of dry matter and '70 sov as to provide the desired amount 0! organic
pounds or water. The mixture is allowed to un
compound in the dry blend. It is understood that
dergoydecomposition, in the presence of su?icient
available nitrogen and with proper aeration, for
the percentages named are approximate only,
the type of .lead
and that we may vary them with
.a period of 6 to 24 weeks, depending on tempera
materials used, and with the results desired. We 45
and nature of material. At the end of the >. have used up to 1% by weight of our organic
45- ture
decomposition period, the compost is ready. To‘ compound with good results, and for special pur
approximately 3,000 parts by weight of this com
poses even more than that amount might be de
post with a moisture content of 30% we add sirable.
_
‘To prepare our active material‘for incorpora- 50
10,000 parts of water and a mineral acid, of which
tion in the interstices of the‘storage battery grid
50 sulphuric acid is an example, until the entire
mass is distinctly acid, when the whole is placed
we add certain lead compounds comprising lead
=-in a container and kept at boiling temperature oxide or amixture of lead oxides of the group
for a period of approximately 8 hours and then ' including litharge, red lead, orange mineral, basic
allowed to cool, during which time the solid par
lead sulphate, or lead suboxide with or without 55
55 ticles settle tothe bottom while the supernatant,
,
1
2
‘
2,130,105
?nely divided metallic lead, or we may use ?nely
divided metallic lead alone, and place these in
a mixer where the whole is brought to pasting
consistency by the ‘addition of water, acid, or
CI water and acid. To this We then add our organic
_
,
a precipitate resulting from the treatment of a
compost of carbohydrates comprising plant res
idue or agricultural ‘waste of the group includ
ing tanbark, straw, corn stalks, sawdust or leaves,
‘with sulphuric acid solution, boiling the solu
compound, or a precipitate formed by the addi
tion,_filtering and drying the residue, extract
tion of lead oxide or lead salt, to a solution of” ing the residue with alcohol, and evaporating
our organic compound, and the- mixer‘ is'further the alcohol.
‘
‘
~
operated until the organic ingredients are thor
6. The method of preparing paste for lead acid
oughly incorporated into the mass. In place‘of storage battery electrodes characterized by the
adding our organic compound separately we may presence of spongy-lead particles which are sub
add it simultaneously with the other materials, microscopic in size, comprising treating a com
and instead of adding it inthe wet‘mix it may ‘post of carbohydrates comprising plant residue
be added to the dry blend, the same results be
‘or agricultural Waste of the group including tan
15 ing achieved regardless of the method by which ‘bark, straw, corn stalks, sawdust or leaves, with
1
our material is added.
, By our invention the electrodes produced from
a paste containing our organic material ‘have
increased initial capacity, especially at high rates
20 of'discharge and at low temperature due to the
extremely fine state of particle subdivision pro
duced in the spongy-lead active material OIIfOl'?
mation of the plates containing our organic ma
terial, and better maintenance of this high ca
sulphuric acid solution, boiling'the solution, ?l-_
tering'and drying the residue, ‘extracting the
residue with alcohol, evaporating the alcohol, and
mixing the resultant precipitate with ?nely di
vided metallic lead.
‘,7. A lead acid storage battery electrode, the
active material of which consists of spongy-lead
particles which'are submicroscopic in size, com- '
prising one or more oxides of lead mixed with a
25 pacity, due to the continued protective action ‘of L precipitate resulting from the treatment of a
our organic material preventing'the growth of ’ compost'of carbohydrates comprising plant res- ,
.large spongy-lead particles.
Having thus described our invention what we
_ claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Pat
‘
30 ent, is:
1. A paste for lead acid storage battery elec-'
trodes consisting of one or more oxides of lead
thoroughly mixed with a substance resulting from
the treatment of a compost of carbohydrates
35 comprising plant residue or agricultural waste
e
idue or agricultural Waste of the group includ
ing tanbark, straw, corn stalks, sawdust or leaves,
with sulphuric acid solution, boiling the solution,
?ltering and drying the residue, extracting the
residue with alcohol and evaporating the alcohol.
8. The method of preparing a paste for use _
in the manufacture of lead acid storage battery
electrodes which comprises mixing ?nely divided metallic lead together with one or more oxides
of lead and a substance resulting from the treat
of the group including tanbark, straw, corn
stalks, sawdust or leaves, with sulphuric acid ‘ ment of a, compost 'of carbohydrates compris
solution, boiling the solution, ?ltering and dry
ing plant ‘residue or agricultural waste .of the
ing the residue, extracting the residue with alco
group including tanbark, straw, cornstalks, saw
40 hol and evaporating the alcohol.
' dust, or leaves, with sulphuric acid solution, boil
2. A paste for lead acid storage battery elec- , ing the solution, ?ltering-‘and drying the residue,
trodes consisting of ?nely divided metallic lead extracting the residuewith alcohol and evaporat~ )
thoroughly mixed with a substance resulting from ing the alcohol.
the treatment of .a compost of carbohydrates
comprising plant residue or agricultural waste
9. The methodv of‘ preparing a pastegior lead
acid storage battery electrodes which comprises
of - the group including tanbark, straw, corn
mixing one or-more oxides of lead selected from
the group consisting of litharge, red lead, orange
solution, boiling the solution, ?ltering and drying ‘ mineral, basic lead sulphate, or lead suboxide
_ the residue, extracting the residue with alcohol , with a substance resulting from the treatment
stalks, sawdust or’ leaves, with sulphuric acid
50
and evaporating the alcohol.
, 3. A paste for lead acid storage battery elec
trodes consisting of ?nely divided metallic lead
together with one or more oxides of "lead, thor
_ of a compost of carbohydrates comprising ‘plant
residue or agricultural waste of the group in.
cluding tanbark, straw, cornstalks, sawdust; or
leaves,‘ with sulphuric acid solution, boiling the '
oughly mixed with a substance resulting from ‘ solution, filtering and drying the residue, extract
55 the treatment of a compost of ‘carbohydrates com
ing the residue with alcohol and evaporating the 55
prising plant residue or agricultural waste of the
group including tanbark, straw, corn stalks, saw
dust or leaves, with sulphuric acid solution, boil
ing the solution, ?ltering and drying the residue,
extracting the residue with alcohol and evapo
rating the alcohol.
65
’
'
4. The method of preparing a paste for use
in the manufacture of lead acid storage battery
electrodes which comprises mixing lead com
pounds with a substance resulting from the treat
alcohol.
_
-
'
.
'
i
10. The method of preparing a paste forlead
acid storage battery electrodes which comprises
mixing ?nelydividedtmetallic lead together'with
one vor more-oxides of lead selected from the
group- consisting of litharge, red lead, orange
mineral, basic vlead sulphate, or lead suboxide
withka. substance resulting from a treatment of
a compost of carbohydrates comprising plant res
idue or agricultural waste of the group includ 65
ment of a compost of carbohydrates comprising '
ing tanbark, straw, cornstalks, sawdust, or leaves, '
plant residue or agricultural waste of the group
including tanbark, straw, cornstalks, sawdust,
or leaves, with sulphuric acid solution, boiling
the solution, ?ltering and drying the residue,
extracting the residue with alcohol and evapo
rating the alcohol.
'5. The method of controlling the activity of
lead acid storage battery electrodes comprising
the addition of one or‘more oxides of _ lead to
with sulphuric acid solution, boiling the solution,
?lteringand drying the residue, extracting.- the
residue with alcohol and evaporating the alcohol.
11. A paste for lead acid storage battery elec 70
trodes consisting of ?nely divided metallic lead
together with one or more oxides of lead selected
from the group consisting of litharge, red lead,
orange mineral, basic lead sulphate, or lead sub
oxide and an alcohol soluble organic substance 75
2,130,105
i
7
resulting from the treatment of a. compost of
carbohydrates comprising plant residue or agri
cultural waste of the group including tanbark,
straw, comstalks, sawdust, or leaves, with an acid
solution, boiling the solution, ?ltering and dry
ing the residue, extracting the residue with al
cohol and evaporating the alcohol.
12. A paste for lead acid storage battery elec
trodes consisting of one or more oxides of lead
selected from the group consisting of litharge,
red lead, orange mineral, basic lead sulphate, or
:3
lead suboxlde and an alcohol soluble organic sub
stance resulting from the treatment of a com
post of carbohydrates comprising plant residue
or agricultural waste of the group including tan
bark, straw, oornstalks, sawdust, or leaves, with
an acid solution, boiling the solution, ?ltering
and drying the residue, extracting the residue
with alcohol and evaporating the alcohol.
JOHN A. SCHAEFFER.
HAROLD R. HABNER.
10
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