Патент USA US2130213код для вставки
A. w O L ‘F .n 2,130,213 AL VIBRATION DETECTOR Filed Oct. 23, 1935 PIC-‘1.2. 1' . A: VE TOR 5 BY 1/L1AA/ r%¢// ATTORNEY 2,130,213 Patented Sept. 13,1938 ~ - ' UNITED STATES“ PATENT OFFICE 2,130,213 VIBRATION DETECTOR Alexander Wolf, Laurence G. Cowles, and William S. Richardson, Houston, Tex., 'assignors to The Texas Company, New York, N. Y., a corpora tion of Delaware Application October 23, 1935, Serial No. 46,242 6 ' Claims. (Cl. 111-352) This invention relates to vibration detectors, more particularly to devices adapted to be placed on or buried in the earth so as to be responsive to, and to give indications of, vearth vibrations. 5 The device is especially well suited to the recep tion or ‘detecting of compressional waves such as are passed through the earth in the carrying out of seismic methods of geophysical exploration. The principal object of the invention is the pro 10 vision of an electrical earth wave detector of rugged and simple construction in which electrical damping is effectively used. A further object of the invention is the provision of a detector hav ing a high degree of sensitivity with a compara 15 tively weak magnetic ?eld. . In a common form of electrical earth vibration detector a strong permanent or electro-ma‘gnet is adapted to be mounted in firm contact with the earth so that it will be moved or vibrated in 20 accordance with variations in the surrounding stratum. A coil of insulated wire is usually re siliently suspended in the air gap of ‘the magnet and the relative motion of the magnet and the coil produces an E. M. F. in the coil which is 25 then registered by suitable means. Various modi ?cations of this type of detector are in use and the electrical sensitivity of these devices depends upon the strength of the magnetic ?eld and on the space available in the air gap for coil winding. so In order to obtain a clear record of the waves received by.the detector it is essential that some means be used for damping the relative movement of the magnet and coil and several di?erent types of damping’ have been proposed‘ and tried out. 35 Damping is occasionally secured by ?uid friction, increased by the presence of any inert material ~ such as insulating material in the coil. For a given natural frequency of the coil and a given magnetic ?eld strength the maximum damping is obtained when the coil is entirely short-pircuited, 5 but obviously the sensitivity is then zero. In most existing types of electrical earth vibration de tectors used in seismic exploration by the re ?ection method the magnetic ?eld is so weak and the natural frequency so high that it is either im- 10 practical or impossible to obtain good electrical damping. In accordance with this invention a vibration detector has been provided in which electrical damping is used, thus having the great advantage 15 of simplicity and independence of temperature for all practical purposes for the reasons mentioned hereinbefore. In providing the electrical damp ing the pickup coil ordinarily suspended in the air gap of the magnet is replaced by a solid ring 20 01 non-magnetic‘metal and the pick-up coil wind ing is then mounted on one of the pole pieces of the magnet. When the device is vibrated E. M. F. induced in the solid ring produces variations in the flux of the magnetic ?eld and hence an E. M. 25 F. in the pick-up coil. An added advantage is obtained in the possibility of using for the solid ring a material having a low product of resis tivity by speci?c gravity such as aluminum, whereas ‘aluminum cannot ordinarily be used in 30 a winding since insulated aluminum wire is not readily obtainable. For a better understanding of the invention reference may be had to the accompanying draw ing in which Fig. 1 is a sectional elevation of a :25 that is, by the movement of some element in preferred embodiment of the invention taken on either a liquid such as oil or a gas. the line |-—| of Fig. 2; > If oil is used the damping changes rapidly with tempera turebecause of viscosity-temperature variation. 40 To secure e?lcient air damping an elaborate sys tem of ba?ie plates is usually required. If electri cal damping is to be obtained it is usually neces sary that the coil suspended in the air gap be partially short-circuited so that the E. M. F. 45 induced in the short-circuited portion will pro duce a current tending to resist or oppose the relative motion between the magnet and the ‘coil. This short-circuiting of a portion of the coil will, of course, cause a loss in sensitivity and for a given 50 natural frequency of the coil and a given mag netic ?eld strength the necessary loss of sensitivity is determined entirely by the product of resistivity by the speci?c gravity of the material forming the winding. The loss of sensitivity increases as with the increase of this product and it is also Fig. 2 is a plan view of the device shown in Fig. 1, and . Fig. 3 is a sectional plan view taken on the line 40 3-3 of Fig. 1. Referring to ‘the drawing, a permanent magnet l0 having a cylindrical outer pole l2 and an axial ly disposed inner pole I4 is adapted to be secured to or buried in the earth in a manner such that it 45 will vibrate in response to compressional wave vibrations passing through the surrounding stra tum. The magnet ill may of‘ course be mounted rigidly within a protecting casing if desired, the ‘casing then being placed in contact with the 50 earth. No casing has been shown in the drawing for purposes of simplicity. An annular space i6 is thus formed between the two poles of the mag net, this space serving to house the pick-up coil as will be explained hereinafter. An annular 55 , 2 2,180,213 pole piece it having a depending body portion 20 and a ?ange portion 22 is secured to the upper end of the outer pole i2 by any suitable means such as by screws 2d. A smaller annular space 2b is Cl \ formed between the inner surface of the body portion of the pole piece it and the upper end of the pole it and a metallic ring 28 of non-magnetic material is resiliently suspended within the an nular space 26 by means of an upper spring mem 10 ber 30 and a lower spring member 32. The spring members 30 and 32 vare secured around their outer edges to the pole piece it by suitable screws, the spring members being separated from the pole piece by means of suitable spacers or washers 36 of insulating material. Although the spring members 30 and 32 are shown as spring metal discs having cut-out portions and radially pro jecting tongues 36 secured to the ring 28, any other suitable form of spring mounting for the 20 ring may be used. inertia member of metallic non-magnetic mate rial of a size to ?ll substantially all of said air gap, means for resiliently suspending said inertia member in said air gap, and a coil winding sur rounding one of said poles a point spaced longi tudinally from said air gap, said winding being adapted to have induced therein an E. M. F. produced by variations in ?ux caused by rela tive movement between said inertia member and the poles‘ of said magnet. 10 2. In a vibration detector, a member responsive to vibrations, said member comprising a magnet having an annular outer pole and a pole disposed coaxially within said outer'pole, an inertia mem ber comprising a metal ring, means for resil 15 iently suspending said ring between the ends of the poles of said magnet, said ring being of a size to ?ll substantially all of the space between said magnet poles, and a coil winding surround ing said inner pole and responsive to variations 20 The ring 28 thus forms an inertia member which will tend to remain im . in ?ux produced by relative movement between movable when the magnet member it is moved said magnet and said ring, said winding being in response to earth vibrations. A pick-up coil disposed around said inner pole at a point spaced comprising a winding 38 is placed in the annular from said inertia member. space it around the inner pole id anda layer of 3. In a vibration detector a magnet having a suitable insulating material 6t forms a spool for cylindrical outer pole and a pole disposed c0-' 25 this winding and serves to insulate the winding axially within said outer pole, an annular space from the metal pole id. being formed between said poles, a pole piece When the magnet id is moved in response to secured to the upper end of one of said poles earth vibrations the metal ring 23 will tend to ‘and extending laterally toward the other pole, remain in its normal position and the relative an air gap being formed between one edge of 30 movement thus produced between the magnet said pole piece and said other pole, an annular and the ring will cause currents to be induced metal ring of a size to ?ll substantially all of said in the ring, these currents in turn producing air gap, means for resiliently suspending said variations in the magnetic ?ux of the entire ring in said air gap anda coil winding disposed system. These variations in the ?ux of the in said annular space at a point spaced longi 35 ' magnetic circuit' will thus cause an E. M. F. to be induced in the winding 23% and by connecting the winding to any suitable indicating or re cording device indications of the earth vibrations may thus be obtained. The currents induced in the metal ring 28 be cause of relative movement between the ring and tudinally from said air gap and adapted to have an El M. F. induced therein, said E. M. F. being produced by the variations in magnetic ?ux caused by relative movement between said ring and said magnet. 4. In a device for translating mechanical vi brations into electrical energy, a member respon sive to vibrations, said member comprising a 45 mal ?ux oi the magnetic circuit, which will thus magnet having an annular outer pole'and a pole serve as a very emcient damping means. The disposed coaxially within said outer pole, an an 45 damping action produced on the ring 28 will be - nular space being formed between said poles, an as e?’ective as could beobtained ii a short-cir inertia member comprising a metallic ring 01 cuited winding of the same size and material non-magnetic material, means for ently sus , to. were used in place of the solid ring.' pending said ring in said annular space between It will be observed that the annular space it the adjacent ends of said poles, said ring being to is more than ample to house‘ the winding 38 and of a size to ?ll substantially all of said annular since therefore the number of turns on this coil space, and a coil winding disposed in a portion is practically unlimited, an extremely high sen of the annular space between said poles and 55 sitivity. can be obtained. Since the only moving spaced longitudinally from said inertia member. part of the device is the solid ring 2% it will be . the arrangement being such that an E. M. F. will 55 seen that a very rugged and inexpensive con be induced in said coil by variations in ?ux struction will result. caused by relative movement between said g , While a permanent gnet has been described net and said ring. " so and shown, it is to be understood that an elec 5. In a vibration detector, a mber respon-= tro~magnet may be used, the energizing wind= sive to vibrations, said member comprising a 430 ing for. such a magnet being placed in the an» magnet having an annular outer pole and a pole the magnet will set up a ?ux opposing the nor nular space l6. - obviously many modi?cations and variations 65 of the invention. as herelnbefore set forth, may be made without departing from the spirit and scope thereof, and therefore only such limita . disposed coaxially within said outer pole, an an nular space being formed between the poles of said magnet, an inertia member comprising a metal ring, means for resiliently suspending said ring in said annular space between the adjacent ends of said poles, said ring being of a size to ?ll substantially all of said :1. -. space, and a coil winding; also disposed in said annular 1. ‘In a vibration detector, a member respon space but separated longitudinally from said sive to vibrations, said member comprising a inertia member and responsive to variations in magnet having a pair of'poles substantially co the ?ux produced by relative movement between extensive and dispmed in parallel, the adjacent said magnet and said ring, the arrangement be ends of said pole pieces forming an air‘ gap, an _ ing such that currents induced in said ring by 75' 3 2,130,213 relative movement between said magnet and said ring will produce a ?ux opposing the normal ?ux oi’ the magnetic circuit, thus serving to dampen the movement of said ring with respect 6. In a vibration detector, a member respon sive to vibrations, said member comprising a magnet having a pair of poles disposed concen said ring being of a sizelsuch as to ?ll substan tially all of the space in said air gap, and a coil winding surrounding one of said poles at a point spaced from said air gap longitudinally along the axis of said pole, said winding being adapted to have induced therein an E. M. F. produced by variations in ?ux caused by relative move ment between said inertia ring and the poles of trically in parallel, said poles being substantially‘ said magnet. to said magnet. 10 coextensive and the adjacent ends of said poles . forming an air gap, an inertia member'comprls ing a non-magnetic metal ring, means for re siliently suspending said ring in said air gap. » ALEXANDER WOLF. LAURENCE G. COWLES. WILLIAM S. RICHARDSON.