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Патент USA US2130351

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Sept. 20, 1938.
l. 1.. LANGVAND
'
FLUID HEAT EXCHANGE APPARATUS
Filed Feb. 2, 1954
2,130,351
'
7
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTOR .
Ivar ' L. Lang-Vand
3%(3 W’
ATTORNEY
Sept. 20, 1938.
1.1.. LANGVAND
I
.
‘ 2,130,351
FLUID HEAT EXCHANGE APPARATUS,
Filed Feb. 2, 1954
'
2 Sheets-Sheet 2'
F1556
Ivar L. Lang vana’
WW
' ‘.
‘A
ORNEY .
Patented :Sept. 20, 1938
2,130,351
UNITED stars
PATENT orrics
2,130,351 7
in.
near EXCHANGE APPARATUS
Ivar 'L. Langvand, Barberton, Ohio, assignor ‘to
The Babcock & ‘Wilcox ‘Company, Newark,
N. 5., a'corporation of New Jersey
Application February 2, 1934, Serial No. ‘709,406
10 Claims. (Cl. 122-360)
This invention relates to ?uid pressure at’
paratus, and, more particularly, to apparatus of
this type which cause ?uids under high pressure
to be subjected to heat exchange.
When, in the apparatus mentioned, a ?uid is
under high pressure in tubular elements, it is
sides of which ?uid containing tubes M are
_ important that the tubular elements and their
panding tool to make the connections between
connections safely withstand the ?uid pressure
without leaking and that some of said elements
the tube i4 and the header l0 pressure tight. ' .
be provided with removable parts to permit as
is preferably circular and of such a diameter 10
that the entire ?tting can be moved through the
hand-hole opening as indicated in Figs. 4 and 5.
The inner portion of the hand-hole ?tting with
respect to the center of the header may be con
sidered as a flanged portion presenting diametri 15
cally opposite extensions 20 and 22 which bear
sembly and repair of the apparatus. High tem
peratures increase the di?iculties of providing
1
such non-leaking connections. It is an object
of the invention to provide such structures which
increase the safety factor of the apparatus in
which they are installed.
-
"
The invention is particularly applicable to the
closure of openings in headers at positions op
posite the connections of tubes with the headers.
20 Such arrangements are typi?ed in steam boilers,
economizers, and other pressure heat exchangers.
Other objects will appear as the accompanying
hand-hole opening also permits the use of an ex
The main portion of the hand-hole ?tting I8.
against the inner wall of the header at positions _
near its side walls 26 and 26 when the ?tting is
in its operative position. When the parts are in
the positions indicated in Fig. 2 and the ?uid is N) 0
under high pressure-in the apparatus, that pres
sure will act against the internal area of the
The invention‘ will be described with reference
to the accompanying drawings in which the in
hand-hole fitting and will cause the ?anged por-v
tion of the ‘hand-hole fitting to transmit an out
ward thrust directly against the inner wall of
vention is illustrated as applied to a steam re
the header.
heater, and in which:
In moving the hand-hole ?tting to its opera
tive position it is arranged with the extensions
20 and 22 positioned in line with the axis of the
description proceeds.
-
"
.
Fig. 1 isya sectional view taken longitudinally’
of a header illustrating the use of the invention
opposite a tube connection.
_
‘
Fig. 2 is a sectional view of a header taken at
a plane-at right angles to the plane of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is anelevation showing a part of the
header with the hand-hole ?tting in operative
35
adapted to be expanded to form the connection
indicated in Figs. 1 and 2. Directly opposite each
tube i4 is a hand-hole opening l6 through which
the‘ tube M may be removed and replaced. This
position.
,
which the hand-hole ?tting is inserted in. the
header.
'
Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 4 but taken in a
plane at right angles to the plane in which Fig. 4
'
I
Fig. 6 is a view in the nature of 'a vertical sec
tion showing a party of the steam reheater to
which the invention is applied.
The illustrated ?ttings include generally two
important structural features. vOne is that the
closure member is ‘provided with an extension
which
wall.
tween
make
carries the pressure load against a header
The second is a‘ welded connection be
the closure member and the header, to
the closure pressure tight. The ?rst re
lieves the second of any substantial stresses due
to ?uld pressure.’
hole and the entire ?tting is then moved to a 30
position within the header. It is then turned to
bring the extensions to an angle of 90° with
reference to the axis of the hole and parallel to
the base of‘ the hole, then moved axially out
wardly in the hole of the header so as to cause
'
Fig. 4 is a detail view-indicating the manner in
is taken.
'
'
In the drawings, the header I0 is provided on
one side with tube seat openings i2 against the
the extensions 20 and 22 to contact with the inner
side of the header wall. It is then subjected to
a considerable force tending to maintain the ex
tensions 20 and 22 in tight contact with the
header. This may be accomplished by the in 40
sertion of a threaded member into the internally
threaded part 28, herein indicated as a nut
welded at 30 to the central part of the hand-hole
?tting and within its concavity which is pre
sented outwardly of the header.
~
,
When the ?tting i8 is held in its operative posi
tion as indicated in Fig. 2 of the drawings, the
extensions 20 and 22 bear upon the portions of
the header'wall which are of equal strength or
stiffness. In this particular arrangement of ele»
ments the portions of the wall contacted by ex
tensions 20 and 22 are sti?ened by reason of the 1
fact that they are close to the side walls 2d and
26: Between these portions, and circumferen
tially of the hand-hole there are wall portions
I
2,130,351
of different strength or sti?’ness.
But, in this
instance, the last named portions are not con
tacted by the ?tting extensions. Tendencies to
distort the hand-hole ?tting under conditions 01
high ?uid pressures are therefore minimized and
the continued integrity of the circumferential
weld is promoted.
While the above mentioned pressure is main
tained upon the seating ?anges of the hand-hole
10 ?tting to force the extensions 20 and 22 against
the inner wall of the header, a circumferential
weld 32 is formed at the outer edge of the ?tting.
This part of the ?tting is preferably bevelled as
passing through the plurality of aligned access
openings and transmitting pressure created force
to said wall, and endless welds spaced from the
extensions and joining the metal of the header
and said ?tting to make a ?uid tight seal, the 5
pressure outwardly exerted upon said ?tting by
va contained ?uid being transmitted to parts of
the header Walls having greater strength or stiif
ness than other parts.
‘
4. In a ?uid heat exchange device, a header of 10
rectangular cross section formed with a plurality
of‘ hand-hole openings, parts of the header wall
about each opening‘ having parts of different
" indicated at 34 so that the main body of weld
15 metal is positioned exteriorly of the outside'face
strength or stiffness, tubes connected to the
of the header. This construction prevents the
leakage of ?uid under pressure during the opera
tion of the apparatus and at the same time ena
bles and promotes the removal of the hand-hole
?tting by cleaving or chipping away the weld
metal without cutting away any of the metal of
the header.
Fig. 6 indicates a part of a steam reheater to
which the invention may be applied. This re
heater consists of a casing 36 through which low
pressure steamimay be passed longitudinally of
the casing. High pressure steam enters the casing
through the inlet pipe 38 and proceeds to the
header I0 which is indicated as being provided
with hand-hole ?ttings similar to those above
described. Nipples 40 connect the primary header
ID with secondary headers 42 from which tubes
44 extend to headers similarly arranged at the
base of the reheater. Any suitable outlet for the
high pressure steam may be arranged at the base
of the reheater and connected to a header similar
to the primary header l0.
While the invention has been described with
reference to the particular structure indicated in
the accompanying drawings, it is understood that
it is not limited thereto, but is of a scope com
mensurate with the scope of the subjoined claims.
What is claimed is:
?ttings adapted to close the openings, an endless
weld joining the metal of the header and the ?t
20
30
35
40
1. In a ?uid pressure device, a ?uid receiver
45 having a wall formed with an access opening
around the perimeter of which parts of the wall
are of different stiffness, a closure member ?tting
within the opening and provided with extensions
transmitting pressure created force to parts of
50 said wall of the same stiffness, and means spaced
from the extensions and joining the metal of the
receiver and said member to make a ?uid‘tight
seal.
2. In a ?uid heat exchange device, a header
55 formed with a hand-hole opening around the
perimeter of which parts of the wall are of dif
ferent strength, tubes connected to the header
header side opposite said openings, hand-hole 15
tings at positions near the outer face of a wall of
the header to eifect a ?uid tight seal, and ?anges,
on the ?ttings relieving the weld of any substan 20.
tial pressure created stress, the ?ange transmit
ting the pressure force to the header at a posi
tion spaced from the weld and contacting the
header wall only at points offset laterally with
respect to a line passing through the plurality of
aligned access openings.
5. .A hand-hole ?tting circular except for ‘its
inner portion which presents diametrically oppo- ’
site overhanging portions connected by curved
portions, the outside dimension of the ?tting 30
across the overhanging portions being greater
than the maximum diameter of the opening to
be closed by the ?tting, the ?tting being bodily
insertable through the opening and the over
hanging portions having a width which is less 35
than the-diameter of the opening to permit this,
the pressure outwardly exerted upon said ?tting
by a contained ?uid being transmitted to parts of
the header walls having greater strength or still
ness than other parts.
.
6. In ?uid heat exchange apparatus, a tubular
header having tube seats formed in a wall
40
thereof, tubes expanded against the tube seats,
the wall of the header opposite the tube seats
being provided with circular openings positioned
directly opposite the tube seats, circular hand
hole ?ttings bodily insertable through the circu
45
lar openings and each including a ?anged por
tion of a length greater than the diameter of its
hand-hole opening, each ?anged portion being
positioned transversely of the header with its
overhanging ends contacting the inner surface
of the header wall and located close to the oppo
50
site header walls which extend from said open
ings toward the tube seat wall of the header, and 55
a circumferential weld located at the outer edge
of each hand~hole opening ‘and tightly joining
side opposite said opening, a hand-hole ?tting I the ?tting and the header.
' adapted to close the opening, an endless weld
7. In ?uid heat exchange apparatus, a tubular
60 joining the metal of the header and the ?tting header subject internally'to the high pressure of
to effect a ?uid tight seal, and opposite ?anges on
the ?tting relieving the weld of any substantial
pressure created stress, the ?anges transmitting
the pressure force to the header at positions
65 spaced from the weld and reacting against wall
parts of maximum and equal strength'around the
perimeter of the hand hole opening.
3. In a ?uid pressure device, a header or the
like having a wall formed with‘a plurality of
70 aligned access openings, parts of the header wall
about each opening having parts of different
strength or sti?ness, hand-hole ?ttings within‘
the openings and provided with extensions con
tacting with the inner face of the wall and only
75 at positions offset laterally with respect to a line
a ?uid to. be heated, said header having tube
seats formed in the wall thereof tubes expanded
against the tube seats, the wall of the'header
opposite the-tube seats being provided with cir
cular openings positioned directly opposite the
tube seats, parts of the header wall about each
opening having parts of di?erent strength or
stiffness, circular hand-hole ?ttings bodily in
sertable through said openings and each includ
ing a ?anged portion of a length greater than the TO
diameter of its hand-hole opening, each ?anged
portion being positioned transversely of the
header with its overhanging ends contacting the
inner surface of the header wall, and a circumw
ferential weld at the outer surface of the header 75
3
2,130,851
wall and joining the outer end of each ?tting to
the metal or the header, the pressure outwardly
exerted upon said ?tting by a contained ?uid
being transmitted to parts of the header walls
having greater strength or sti?ness than other
parts.
8. In'fluid heat exchange apparatus, a tubular
header subject internally to the high pressure of
a fluid to be heated and having tube seats formed
10 in a wall thereof, tubes expanded against the
tube seats the wall of the header opposite the
tube seats being provided with circular openings
positioned directly opposite the tube seats, and
wall of the vessel adjacent the opening having
parts of different strength or sti?ness, a metallic
closure member insertable through the opening to
its operative position and having a. part forming a.
w‘eld groove with the metal of the exterior sur 5
face of the vessel about the opening when in
operative position, said member presenting a
concavity-opening outwardly of the vessel and
having parts which receive the thrusts of pres
sure created forces and transmit them to the 10
inner part of the wall of the vessel, and a weld
seem in the groove to e?ect ‘a ?uid tight seal,
the pressure outwardly exerted upon the closure
hand hole '?ttings bodily insertable through the V member by ?uid within the vessel being trans
circular openings and each including a ?anged mitted to parts of the vessel walls having greater
portion of a length greater than the diameter strength or sti?ness than other parts.
of its hand-hole opening, each ?anged portion
10. In combination with a pressure vessel hav
‘being positioned transversely of the header with ing an access opening therein, the parts of the
its overhanging ends contacting the inner surface , wall of the vesml adjacent the opening having
20 of the header wall and located close to the oppo~ parts of different strength or stiffness, of a clo 20
site header walls which extend toward the tube sure member having an outer part positioned in
seat wail of the header, and a circumferential the opening and an inner part formed with oppo
weld at the outer surface of the header wall and site extensions so arranged with reference to the'
joining the outer end of each ?tting to the metal vessel that pressure upon the closure member is
25 of the header.
‘
9. In combination with a pressure vessel
formed with an access opening, the parts of the
transmitted to parts of the vessel walls having
greater strength or stillness than other parts.v v
IVAR L. LANGVAND.
25
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