Патент USA US2130352код для вставки
' ‘Sept. 20, 1938. . ' G; 'A_ LQwRY 2,130,352 , METHODOF AND APPARATUS FOR THRESHING AND DEGORTICATEI?.~PLANT"ST?LK”"//J Filed Aug.‘ scales/11*” ‘ SShéets-Sheet 1 immimimmm , ___________ _ s/w -' A; ATTORNEY Sept. 20, 1938, ' G. ‘A. LOWRY _ , - 2,130,352 METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR THRESHING AND DECORTICATING PLANT STALKS' _ ' Filed Aug. so, 1934 ' 6vSheets-5Shset"? " f INVENTOR /_>W_/v Sept. 20,1938; ~, (5. A. LOWRY ., 2,130,352 METHQD OF AND APPARATUS FOR THRESHING AND DECORTICATIILIG PLANT STALKS, Y Filed Aug. 50, 1954- 45" ___I_________|_____-__ 1 IT‘ [11 v 3 Sheets-Sheet} ‘ _________________ 1H: , .' ‘INVE BY ,QATTQiQNEY 2,130,352 Patented Sept. 20, 1938 UNITED ‘STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,130,352 METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR THRESH ING AND DECORTICATING PLANT STALKS George Lowry, New-York, N. Y., assignor of one-half to Martin Hill Ittner, Jersey City, _ N. J., and one-half to Bertha McNally Lowry, New York, N. Y. Application August 30, 1934, Serial No.v742,039 26 Claims. (Cl. 19-22) This invention relates to the treatment of ?bre stalks, or straw, to separate the ?bre from the other material, such as shives and seed, and more particularly to a machine adapted to thresh and 5 decorticate the straw in one operation to obtain the; seed and the long ?bre, and also to decorticate straw which has been subjected to preliminary treatment, such as threshing or retting. Although the present invention applies to the 10 treatment of all ?bre plants, such as ?ax, hemp, jute, ramie, etc., its most important ?eld appears to be in the treatment of ?ax straw and the following description will therefore be directed more particularly to this ?eld. 15 Heretofore, it has been customary for the ' farmer and the same operation, or the decorticating only, with his own labor at times when it is impracticable to work outdoors, and the un retted shives, containing about 7% of protein and 3% of fat, may be used on the farm for g; fodder and fertilizer. The crude ?bre obtained by scutching unretted straw is only a fraction of the weight of the straw from which it was obtained and can be shipped at relatively low expense to a suitably located processing plant 19 where further cleaning of the ?bre can be ef fected readily as by chemical retting, and at low expense due to the small amount of waste mate rial to be removed from the ?bre. All linen pro duced in the ordinary ways is customarily chemi- 15 cally treated, either in the yarn or in thepiece, to 1. To thresh the ?ax straw to remove the seed, - render it salable. It will be evident that chem 2. To ret or rot the straw, that is, subject it to ical treatment on the loose ?bre will tend to be fermentation in water or in the presence of mois- more uniform and may be very much less drastic 20 ture until the bacterial action on the gums bind; ' and much less expensive. than on ?bre twisted 20 ing the shives to the ?bre has partly released the into yarn or thread or made into fabric,'in order shives, . ' to produce as good, or better results. ' 3. To spread the retted straw out to dry, and Other‘ objects, features and advantages —will 4. To take the dried retted straw to a scutch- ' appear upon consideration of the following de 25 ing mill where waste material is removed from the ?bre which latter is then returned to the farmer and may be sold by him or retained for his own use. scription and of the drawings, in'which "25 Fig. lis a front elevation of the discharge side of a machine embodying a preferred.v form of the present invention; The waste material known as shivesis left at 30 the mill where it may be used as fuel inasmuch as, after retting, it is un?t for fodder. The retting requires skilled labor, and the scutching as now practiced also requires skilled labor and involves substantial expense and appreciable loss 35 of ?bre as tow. The cost of hauling adds a sub- ‘ stantial amount to the cost of preparing the ?bre in view of the fact that out of a considerable amount of bulky straw hauled to the mill only a relatively small weight of partly ?nished ?bre 40 is obtained. - Fig. 2 is a top plan view of the machine shown in Fig. 1; _ 30 Fig. 3 is a sectional view taken along the line 3-3 of Fig. 1; . Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken along the line 4-4 of Fig. 1; - _ \_ _ Fig. 5 is a fragmentary elevation showing the 35 positions of various parts when one set of mov able blades is in its uppermost position and the other set is in the lowermost position, parts being ' broken away to show the slidable connection be tween the cranks at one end of the machine and 40 An important object of the present invention the corresponding ends of the movable blades; is to provide an improved and advantageous decorticating machine, preferably a portable one, Fig. 6 is a fragmentary elevation showing the cranks turned through 45 degrees from their whereby stalks or straw of the character de- Fig. 5 positions; 45 scribed may be cleaned effectively and thoroughly without a preliminary retting operation. Further objects of the invention relate to the provision of a machine of relatively small size and cost and of great capacity. Other objects so relate to methods involved in obtaining the cleaned ?bre in the most advantageous manner. The machine of the presentinvention makes it feasible to effect many ‘economies. For example, the farmer by use of this machine may do the 55 threshing and scutching or decorticating in one » j Fig. 'l is a view similar to Fig. 6 but with the 45 cranks turned through 90 degrees from their Fig. 5 Positions; ' Fig. 8 is a section taken along the line 8-8 of Fig. 5; and i ’ ' Fig. 9 is a fragmentary view illustrating a 50 modi?ed form of connection between the mov able blades and the cranks. ‘ , . Referring to the drawings, reference character ID designates a base or support adapted to carry all of operating parts of the machine. Straw in 55 2 2,130,352 suitable amounts may be introduced by' feed chute || into slots formed between successive pairs of blades |2, l3, l4, |5, |6, |'|,'-'|8, I9, 20, 2|, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 21, and 28, of which alter nate pairs of blades l2, l4, l6, I8, 20, 22, 24, 2S and 28 may be stationary and the remaining blades movable to cooperate with the stationary blades in treating the straw. In this connection it should be understood that the important mat 10 ter is to get the proper relative movement be tween certain pairs of blades and that this re sult may be obtained by imparting suitable movements to all of the blades. The blades l2 to 28 inclusive may be consid ered as divided into two groups by the blades l8 15 which actually are common to the two groups and the movable blades I3, l5 and H of the ?rst group are preferably moved upwardly while the movable blades of the second group are moved downwardly and vice versa. This action tends to produce slack in the material passing from one group of blades to the other and to assist in feed ing the material. Inasmuch as the blades l8 are common to both groups and it is desirable to 25 30 35 provide substantial spacing between the groups of blades, said blades may be made thicker than the other ?xed blades. In addition to the upward and downward movement of the movable blades which forces the straw or ?bre against the stationary or ?xed blades with a rubbing action, the present inven tion involves the feature of also moving the mov able blades longitudinally with respect to the sta tionary blades to effect a transverse rubbing ac tion on the straw and ?bre. This result is pref erably attained by providing at opposite ends of the movable blades crank shafts 29 and 30, each of which preferably includes two cranks arranged 180 degrees apart, and connecting the cranks with the movable blades in a suitable manner. 40 At their ends the movable blades of each group may be mounted in recesses in blocks or mem bers 3|, with suitable spacing members 32 there between, secured in position by suitable means such as bolts 33. At one end of the machine the blocks 3| may be connected directly to the 45 cranks which may lie in half bearings in the blocks and may be held therein by bearing mem bers 34 secured to the blocks by'suitable devices 35. While the machine is in use, the movable blades are likely to be heated so as to expand 50 to a substantial extent. To provide against dis tortion of the blades from such expansion the blocks at one or both ends of the movable blades may have a slidable connection with the corre 55 sponding cranks. As illustrated, such sliding connection between a block 3| and the corre sponding crank may be obtained by providing the block 3| with parallel slide members or arms 38 which slide in grooves at‘ opposite sides of a bear 60 ing block 31 mounted on the crank. Preferably each bearing block 31 is split for convenience .in putting it on or taking it off the corresponding crank, and the arms 38 are held together at theirv outer ends by means of a member or plate 38 and fastening devices 39. ' Sliding connections between at least one end of the movable blades and the corresponding crank shafts are desirable not only to prevent distor tion in said blades from expansion or contrac tion due to heat changes, but also to prevent 70 strains or distortion in said blades from any cause 75 cranks of the said crankshafts, or by a devia tion from the synchronous revolution of said crankshafts as might be caused by the stretch ing of a chain or slippage on a sprocket used to impart motion from .one of said crankshafts to another. The sliding support for at least one end of the movable blades may be advantageously provided with fairly heavy coil springs 31a (Fig. 9), or rubber cushions, not shown, which bear against either end of said sliding support to pro vide a cushion effect in such a way as to relieve sudden shocks, or strains, particularly in the di rection of the lengths of the movable blades that might otherwise be felt due to the rapid reversal of the direction of motion of the movable blades with the revolution of the crankshafts to which said blades are connected. The crankshafts 29 and 30 and the ?xed blades may be supported by brackets 40 and 4| in the general form of parallel plates projecting up 20 wardly from the main body of the support and preferably integral therewith. As illustrated the crankshafts are journalled directly in the'brack-. et 40 and indirectly in the bracket 4|, being jour nalle'd in members 42 secured in openings in the bracket 4| large enough to admit the cranks when the crankshafts are inserted. Just outside of the brackets 40 and 4| the crankshafts 29 and 30 may be provided with sprocket wheels 43 and 44 of equal size and with an equal number of teeth ?xed thereon and connected by a sprocket chain 45, whereby the crankshafts are caused to revolve in unison. The slidable connection pro vided at one end of the movable blades not only compensates for expansionof the blades as they 35. become heated but also compensates for stretch or sag in the sprocket chain. Actuation of the crankshafts may be effected by means of a driv ing pulley 46 connected to the shaft 29 to rotate therewith and connected by means of a belt 41 40. with any suitable source of power. The shaft 30 may also be provided with a pulley 46a similar to driving pulley 46 and each of these pul leys may advantageously have the function of a ?ywheel. To facilitate the adjustment of the slots be tween the pairs of ?xed blades both as to posi tion and width of the slots, the upper blades of the pairs of ?xed or stationary blades may be connected by members or rods 48 passing through all of them and the corresponding lower blades may be fastened together in the same manner. For the purpose of supporting the upper station ary blades and at the same time permitting ad justment thereof, use may be made of screw threaded rods 49 passing through oversize open ings 50 in the blades and suitable openings in the brackets 40 and 4|, the screw-threaded rods being secured in position with reference to the brackets 40 and 4| by nuts 5| threaded on the 60 rods and screwed against the inner surfaces of the brackets and nuts 52 at the outer surfaces of the brackets and cooperating with the nuts 5| to clamp the rods to the brackets. Acciden tal unscrewing of the nuts 52 may be avoided by 65 use of lock washers 53 between these nuts and the brackets or other suitable means. To secure the blades in position on the screw-threaded rods 49, use may be made of spacers or washers 54 between the ?xed blades and nuts 55 engaging the outer surfaces of the stationary blades l2 and 28 and serving to hold the stationary blades whatsoever, such as might be brought about by in adjusted positions, thus determining the a deviation from parallelism between the crank shafts at either end of the movable blades, or by a variation in the radius-of motion of the widths of the slots between pairs of ?xed blades and the-vertical position of the slots. It has been found advantageous to use the adjustments pro 3 2,130,352 60 inclined with respect to the bottom of the chute so that the outlet at the discharge end of the chute is in the general form of a slot that is vided for changing the spacings between sta tionary and movable blades to meet changing conditions, as on shifting the use of the machine from ?ax straw to heavier stalks, for instance hemp or ramie stalks. narrower than the slot between the blades l2. It has also been found desirable to have the ?oor ‘ of the chute substantially at the level of the upper edge of the lower blade I 2, thus positioning the top 60 of the chute substantially below the lower edge of the upper blade l2 and causing the straw to be drawn across the edge of the top 60 10 when the movable blades of the ?rst group‘move upwardly, whereby slack may be provided at this point, when these movable blades descend, and In view of the fact that the initial beating or breaking action encounters the greatest resist ance from the straw, the stationary blades l2 at the entrance side of the machine may be made 10 heavier and stronger than the blades I4 and iii of the next two pairs, and the blades 13 of the ?rst pair of movable blades may advantageously be made heavier and stronger than the following pair of blades. As illustrated in Fig. 3, the spac 15 ing between successive pairs of blades from. the entrance up to the blades I8 is greater than that between the pairs of blades of the second group. Furthermore, in view of the fact that the blades the feeding of the straw facilitated. . As will be evident from Figs. 3 and 4, when the 15 lower movable blades at the entrance of the‘ ma chine are rubbing the material in one direction the upper movable blades at the outlet of the machine are rubbing the material in the opposite direction. These rubbing actions being in oppo 20 28 are subjected to stresses at one side only, such 20 blades are made somewhat thicker and heavier site directions tend to compensate for each other than blades 20, 22, 24, and 26. To avoid damage to the?bre, the blade edges at opposite sides of the slots may be blunted or rounded. as to maintaining the material in its general path of movement, and also tend alternately to ten sion the ?bre and straw and relieve the tension, ' Particularly in view of the fact that most of 25 the shives or woody matter is removed from the ?bre by the blades of the ?rst group, that is before thereby facilitating the feeding of the ?bre to 25 ward the outlet of the machine. An instant later the upper movable blades at the entrance side of passing the blades I8, the successive pairs of the machine act on the material from above in a blades of the second group may be placed much closer together than those of the ?rst group to 30 assure substantially complete loosening and re moval of the remaining foreign matter from the direction exactly opposite to that of the preceding ‘action of the corresponding lower blades when 3.0 acting on the material from below, and there is a corresponding change at the outlet side of the ?bre. Preferably also, the number of pairs of blades in the second group is greater than the number of pairs in the ?rst. It is advantageous 35 to adjust the combined weight of movable blades machine. This cycle of operations is repeated as long as the machine is kept running. It should also be noted that the successive working move ments in opposite directions of the upper and lower blades of each set of movable blades tend in one group so that it will be substantially equal to the combined weight of the other group of to counteract each other as far as change in path movable blades in order that their weights will compensate one another and facilitate smoother 40 motion. The changes in the spacing in the two of feed is concerned. are narrower than the slots in the sets of mov groups of movable‘ blades and the greater num ber of blades in the second are of value in con nection with the feeding of the straw and ?bre through the machine. The cleaned ?bre passing through the slot between the blades” is de 45 posited in a chute 56 which extends from the blades 28 through a suitableopening 51 in the bracket 4! and discharges the ?bre from the out let side of the machine. The material removed from the ?bre by cooperative action of the sta 50 tionary and movable blades is carried down wardly by the action of gravity and may be dis charged through an opening 58 provided for that purpose. 55 - Preferably the slots in the sets of ?xed blades . The particular arrangement of stationary and movable blades shown is a preferred one that may be used to great advantage but it is to be understood that I have found that other arrange ments, as for instance in the number of ?xed and 60 of movable blades, may also be used without de parting from the spirit of my invention. I prefer to use crankshafts for carrying movable blades which have cranks located 180 degrees from one another and, where more than one set of movable‘ 65' blades is used, to balance the blades in such a way with respect to position and weight, that the motion of said blades will be uniform and smooth and free from jerkiness. able blades so that the slots in the ?xed blades are entirely clear for an instant when the mov able blades are substantially at their midway positions, thus facilitating the feed of the straw 45 and ?bre, and, although not necessarily the case, the radii of the cranks may advantageously be greater than the widths of the slots in the sets of stationary blades-thus causing the material passing at substantially right angles to the blades 50 to be bent over the stationary blades to a corre sponding extent. Also, as illustrated, the slots between the ?xed blades of the two groups may be substantially the same and the slots between the movable blades at the discharge side of the 55 machine may be somewhat narrower than the slots between the movable blades at the receiving side of the machine and therefore engage the ?bre a tri?e sooner than the other movable blades engage the straw so as to draw the straw for 60 wardly through the open slots at the entrance side of the machine and automatically feed the straw toward the discharge or outlet side of ‘the machine. ‘ The crank-carried or movable blades operate not only to bend the straw and ?bre over the ?xed blades but also to produce a rubbing and abrasive action longitudinally of the ?xed blades and therefore transversely of the path of the The vfeed or intake chute ll may pass through straw and ?bre, thus rubbing from the ?bre, a suitable opening 59 in the bracket 40 and, al though this chute may be of any suitable form, ~ shives cracked and broken by the repeated bend it is preferably formed adjacent to the ?rst pair of blades with a portion having inwardly conver~ gent side walls to limit the spreading of the straw 75 as it enters the machine proper, and having a top ings. Due to the operation of the movable blades by the cranks each point on the movable blades is given a circular or rotary movement and the movable blades may be said to produce a rotary 75 4 2,130,352 breaking and rubbing action on the straw and form scutching ‘or decortication. However, in the ?bre within planes substantially perpendicular to . machine of the present invention the rotary beat the line of feed of the material, di?erent points ing and rubbing action of the movable blades revolving in circles having different axes. It will be seen that corresponding lines in different mov able blades will be at all times parallel to a given ?xed line in space. It should also be noted that the upward and downward motion of the mov able blades is harmonic and the same is true with 10 respect to the longitudinal movement of the movable blades. The movement of the movable blades in bending the straw over the ?xed blades at the end of a stroke is relatively slow and the same is true of the longitudinal movement of 15 the blades in the rubbing action except that when the velocities of the upward and downward move ments are substantially at zero the velocities of the longitudinal movements are substantially at a maximum. Every point in the movable blades 20 while in motion is in harmonic motion with re spect to two lines perpendicular to each other, which lines are in a plane substantially perpen dicular to the general direction of straw passing through the machine. Such harmonic motion of the movable blades tends to reduce vibration and undue stresses on various parts to substantially a minimum-thus lengthening the life of the machine and giving rise to other advantages, such as reduction in the power required to drive the serves to roll the straw out more evenly than can be done by hand-a handful of straw fed central ly into the machine being rapidly spread out to the sides. It has also been considered necessary in prior types of machines to provide distinct means, such as feed rolls or belts, to carry or force the straw through the machine. In the 10 present machine nothing of this sort may be necessary in that, as soon as the leading end of a bunch of straw enters the second group of blades, a very positive feed is set up. This feed ing action enables the elimination of much mech 15 anism previously considered necessary and in some of which the relative speeds of the scutch ing and feeding parts varied as much as 100 revoe lutions to 1 revolution-thus necessitating speed reducing gears and devices. 20 With the ‘present machine, the repeated bend ing and rubbing of the straw by the blades of the ?rst group acts to remove substantially all of the seed that may be thereon when the straw is fed to the machine, the pairs of blades of this 25 group being set far enough apart to avoid injury to theseed, and also serves to break and loosen the shives, the work which in other machines is usually done by ?uid rollers. However, though One great advantage, in having the movable blades and the blade-supporting structures at the construction of the present machine is such 30 as to make the use of ?uted rollers unnecessary in scutching or threshing ?ax straw, it will be their ends mounted and actuated so that all understood that these- may be advantageously points thereof, while in motion, revolve in cir 35 cles in planes substantially perpendicular to the used in conjunction therewith, especially for the treatment of heavy very woody ?bre-bearing 30 machine. . path of movement of the straw through the ma plant stalks. chine, is that the momentum of such moving In using the machine to produce crude ?bre from thestraw, a bunch of straw is placed in the entrance or supply chute l i and pressed longi tudinally of the straw into the slots of the ?rst ' parts and their inertia tend to continue their mo tion smoothly as distinguished from machines in which the corresponding parts are actuated so that all points thereof are reciprocated in straight lines, which necessitates a sudden stopping and a group of blades where any seeds on the straw are removed and the shives are broken and sudden starting of comparatively heavy parts loosened. It should be noted that in the upward movement of the movable blades of the ?rst frequent repairs and replacements due to the ‘group the straw is drawn upwardly around the heavy stresses to which the machine is subjected. edge of the roof or top 60 of the entrance chute In Fig. 9, there is illustrated a modi?cation ll, thus furnishing slack for the forward feed of part of the machine wherein the movable of the straw. During the passage of the leading blades of one group of blades (for example the end of a bunch of straw through the ?rst set of second group) are slidably mounted at both ends blades, the upward and downward movements in the same general manner that one end is of the movable blades bend the straw back and shown as mounted in Figs. 2, 5, 6 and 7, but, due forth and break up and loosen the shives, and the longitudinal movements of the movable blades to the sliding connections at both ends, the slid able bearing blocks 31 at both ends of the blades. transverse to the path of movement of the straw 55 are yieldably held in position by suitable resil - not only act to spread out the straw but to rub ientdevices, such as compression coil springs in I it so as to further loosen the shives. As soon as terposed at one side of a bearing block 31 be the leading ends of a bunch of straw enter the tween the same and the corresponding member slots between the corresponding blades of the 38 and at the opposite sides of the block between last group, a very strong feeding action through the same and the corresponding blade-holding the machine is set up due largely to the fact that 60 block 3|. It should be understood that, where ' the moving blades of the second group tend to the'movable blades are substantially rigidly con eifect gripping of the leading ends of the straw nected with a crank at one side of the machine or ?bre between such blades and the correspond (Figs. 1 to 8), the use of springs or the like at ing ?xed blades before the straw is gripped by the sliding connection is unnecessary although the movable blades of the ?rst group and the desirable and that in the form shown in Fig. 9 corresponding ?xed blades and the moving blades ' the springs at one end of the machine may be of the two sets move in opposite directions. omitted. Furthermore a contributory cause for the strong Heretofore it has in general been considered feeding action of the straw through the machine necessary to run the straw through ?uted rollers lies in the fact that at the instant that the mov to break or crack the shives preparatory to their able blades are either at the bottom or at the removal by other means. Also in other types of top of their generally circular movement they are machines it has been considered necessary to forcing the partly scutched straw with the great give careful attention to the feeding of the straw est bending moment between and against the sta tionary blades and at the same time the movable 75 75 evenly into the machine to assure even or uni and a consequent loss of power and a need for 5 2,130,352 blades, having their maximum longitudinal mo tion, are rubbing the partly scutched straw with a strong deshiving action against and along the stationary blades so that the partly scutched straw is bent into its most sinuous position. As the further motion of the two sets of movable blades releases the partly scutched straw from its compressed condition against the stationary blades, the forced momentary sinuousity of the partly scutched straw being suddenly removed, the elasticity of the partly scutched straw tends to straighten the crude fibre from its sinuous condition along its general'path of movement. As the unscutched portion of the straw at the feeding end is comparatively stiff and nonresist ant the crude ?bre is thus forced to relieve itself by movement toward the discharge end of the machine by the release therefrom of the crude ?bre. In passing through the second group of blades, the ?bre is very thoroughly scraped and rubbed between the moving and ?xed blades, the relatively close spacing of the pairs of blades along ' the path of travel of the straw and ?bre serving to make such action very thorough. As soon as . one bunch of straw has advanced far enough into the machine to clear the way, another bunch may be inserted for treatment and these steps may be repeated until the desired amount of straw has been treated. ~ Although I have described a particular ar rangement of ?xed and movable blades and have presented drawings of one ofthe machines which I have built and used, it is to be understood that my invention is not to be limited to a machine with the exact number of ?xed and movable blades as shown, or to the moving cranks, or to the exact manner of adjusting said ?xed and mov able blades, or to the exact manner of supporting the movable blades on the moving cranks, or to the exact manner of actuating such moving cranks in unison or to the exact manner of pro viding a sliding support for at least one end of the movable blades, but is understood to com prise a machine with any number of movable blades moving in close proximity to ?xed blades in such‘ a manner as to beat plant stalks or ?bres against said ?xed blades or between said movable and ?xed blades with a bending action and at the same time to impart a rubbing action to said stalks or ?bres along a portion of the length of said ?xed blades for the purpose of freeing vegetable ?bres at least partially from shives or non-?brous material, While I have disclosed a sliding connection for one or both ends of the movable blades to the blade-actuating means of my machine, and re silient means for holding such blades in place, it is to be understood that I am not to be limited to any particular arrangement for accomplishing this desired result but seek rather to cover the use of such sliding connection and resilient means for holding said blades so as to assure the smooth running of the machine and broadly to cover any suitable type of ?exible or resilient connection for the blades move in substantially vertical planes, these blades may, within the/scope of the in vention, be actuated in horizontal planes or in planes inclined with respect to said horizontal and vertical planes. My invention, while especially suitable for scutching ?ax straw for obtaining crude ?bre largely freed from non-?brous material, is also suitable for obtaining crude ?bre from numerous other kinds of plant stalks and plant materials, and where hereinafter in the claims I use the term “straw” it is to be understood as including numerous plant stalks and plant materials, in addition to ?ax straw‘, from which crude ?bre can be similarly obtained. - 15 It should be understood that changes may be made in various features of the invention and that certain features may be used without others without departing from the true spirit and scope of the invention. Having thus described my invention, I claim: 1. In a decorticating machine, means for bend ing back and forth straw passed in a. generally endwise manner through the machine, and means for substantially simultaneously ‘rubbing said 25 straw in a multitude of varying directions within planes substantially perpendicular to the general direction of the straw while passing through said machine, said means for said bending and for such rubbing comprising sets of blades within sub 30 stantially parallel planes having relative motion one set to another, said motion being both cross wise and lengthwise of said blades. 2'. In a decorticating machine, means for bend ing back and forth straw passed through the ma 35 chine, such bending means including straw-en gaging members moving with substantially har monic motion, and means for rubbing the straw back and forth transversely of its general‘ direc tion of movement concomitantly with such bend 40 ing, said general direction of movement being substantially at right angles to said straw en gaging members. 3. In a decorticating machine, means for bend ing back and forth straw passed through the ma chine, and means for rolling the straw back and forth transversely of its general direction of movement, such rolling means including straw enga'ging members moving with "substantially harmonic movement,‘ said straw engaging mem bers being at all times substantially at right an gles to said general direction of movement of straw in passing through the‘ machine. 4. In a decorticating machine, means for bend ing back and forth over stationary members, 55 straw passed through the machine,'such ‘bend ing means including straw-engaging members moving with substantially .harmonic motion, and means for rolling the straw back and forth trans versely of its general path of movement, along 60 said stationary members, such rolling means in-_ cluding said straw-engaging members, and means for moving said straw-engaging members in planes substantially at right angles to the general 65 such blades that will prevent distortion of the ‘ path of movement of said‘ straw while passing blades through heat changes or other causes and . through the machine. that will hold the blades in place and protect them'from shock from any cause which might tend to distort the blades. Also, while I have disclosed movable blades acting to force the ma terial against ?xed blades, it is to be understood that my invention is of such scope as to cover arrangements wherein both sets of blades are movable to act against each other, and that, while I have disclosed an arrangement in which 5. In a scutching machine for obtaining crude ?bre from plant stalks, two crankshafts each sub stantially parallel to the general direction of said plant stalks while passing through said machine, 70 each carrying two cranks, the two cranks in each of said crankshafts ‘being spaced substantially 180° from each other and revolving about the axes of said crankshafts, sets of substantially parallel movable blades and of substantially parallel in 75 6 2,130,352 tervening stationary blades, 9. device carried by blades for relieving said blade or blades from each of said cranks for holding the ends of sev longitudinal strains, substantially parallel cranks eral sets of said movable blades, the opposite intervening stationary blades, said movable blades on which said bearings work, shafts about which said cranks revolve, said shafts being at all times substantially parallel to each other and to said cranks, the distance between said cranks being at all times substantially equal to the distance between said shafts, said cranks and said shafts being so arranged that every point on said blades being at all times substantially perpendicular to ends of said blades being held by a device at tached to the opposite crankshaft, said movable blades being at all times substantially parallel to each other and to a set of substantially parallel 10 will revolve in circles, which circles will have a plurality of axes, said movable blades when near said stationary blades having motion both partly along and partly across said stationary blades whereby ?brous cellulose is rubbed against said 15 stationary blades and is at least partly freed from non-?brous material. ' 6. In a machine for scutching straw, one or more sets of movable blades so arranged that all blades in such sets of blades and all such sets 20 of blades are substantially parallel to each other, and means for actuating said sets of movable blades, all points in said blades moving with a circular motion in parallel planes, so that certain right lines located longitudinally in said movable 25 blades will be at all times substantially parallel to each other and to a given ?xed line in space, said right lines and said movable blades while in motion generating planes substantially at right angles to the path of 'said straw through said 30 machine. 7. In a machine for scutching straw, one or more sets of movable blades with all blades in such sets of blades and all such sets of blades substantially parallel to each other, stationary 35 blades parallel to each other and to said movable blades, and actuating means for said movable blades, said movable blades moving in planes near to and substantially parallel to one or more sets of stationary blades in such a manner that 40 any point in said movable blades will describe a circular motion and so that certain lines in said movable blades will be at all times substantially parellel to each other, to said stationary blades, and to a certain fixed line in space, said movable 45 blades and said stationary blades being at all times in positions substantially transverse to the general direction of movement of said straw in passing through said machine. 8. In a machine for scutching straw, one or 50 more sets of substantially parallel movable blades, planes described by said movable blade or blades 10 when in motion, stationary blades substantially parallel to said movable blade or blades and ar ranged in such a manner that plant stalks can be passed transversely between said parallel sta tionary blades, and means for actuating said 15 movable blade or blades whereby said plant stalks will be engaged at frequent intervals by said mov able blade or blades and be rapidly beaten by said movable blade or blades against and along said stationary blades and the fibrous cellulose of said 20 plant stalks will be at least partly freed from non ?brous material, without substantial injury to the crude fibre thus obtained. 10. In a scutching machine, paired stationary blades held substantially parallel to one another, the blades in each pair being so spaced from one another as to provide room for the passage of plant stalks or fibrous material transversely there through, said spacings between the blades of the several pairs being arranged substantially par allel and in juxtaposition to one another so as to provide a passage for fibrous material there through, and movable blades substantially par allel to said stationary blades and arranged to pass between the stationary blades in planes sub 35 stantially parallel to each other and to the planes of said stationary blades so as to engage plant stalks or ?brous material being passed trans versely through said stationary blades in such a way that said stalks or said material shall be 40 beaten by said movable blades against said sta tionary blades with a. bending motion across and at the same time with a rubbing motion along a portion of said stationary blades, the direction of such stalks or fibrous material and the direc tion of movement of such stalks or ?brous mate ,p. an rial being substantially perpendicular to said blades, whereby said plant stalks or said ?brous material will be at least partly freed from non ?brous material without substantial injury to 50 stationary blades to cooperate with said movable the crude ?bre thus obtained. blades, and substantially parallel therewith, bear 11. In a decorticating machine, a plurality of pairs of blades with a single long slot between the blades of each pair providing for the passage ’ ings connected to opposite ends of said movable blades, substantially parallel cranks on which said of ?bre-containing plant stalks substantially end 55 bearings are mounted, shafts about which said wise therethrough, and means for eifecting a rela cranks revolve, said shafts being at all times sub stantially parallel to each other, and to said tive movement between a pair of blades and the cranks, said cranks and said shafts at all times pairs of blades on either side thereof to bend the being substantially equidistant from each other plant stalks back and forth and for simultaneous ly effecting a relative longitudinal movement be 60 and substantially perpendicular to the planes de scribed by said movable blades when in motion, tween such pairs of blades whereby the plant said movable blades being so arranged that part . stalks are rubbed in a mulitude of different direc of such blades engage said straw against said tions substantially transversely of their general stationary blades during their upward movement direction of movement. 12. In a decorticating machine, a plurality of 65 at the same time that part of said blades engage said straw against said stationary blades during pairs of ?xed blades with a single long slot be their downward movement, and vice versa, and tween the blades of each pair and all of said slots means for actuating said movable blades, all in alignment to provide for the passage of fibre parts of said movable blades, while in motion, containing plant stalks substantially endwisc 70 generating circles in planes perpendicular to the therethrough, a‘pair of movable blades between direction of said straw in passing through said adjacent pairs of fixed blades, such pair or mov able blades being provided with a single long machine. slot for the passage of ?bre-bearing plant stalks 9. In a scutching machine, one or more mov passing through the slots between the fixed blades, able blades, movable self adjusting bearings at 75 tachedto opposite ends of said movable blade or and means for reciprocating the movable blades 55 60 65 70 7 2,130,352 in harmonic motion to bend the plant stalks back and forth across the blade edges at opposite sides of the slots and simultaneously to reciprocate the movable blades longitudinally to rub the plant stalks in all directions within planes located sub stantially transversely of their general direction of passage through the machine. - 13. In a decorticating machine, a, plurality of pairs of blades with a single long slot between the blades of each pair providing for the passage of ?bre-bearing plant stalks transversely there through, said blades having straw-engaging edges at opposite sides of said slots, and means for ef fecting a relative reciprocating movement be tween a pair of blades and the pairs of blades on either side thereof, and comparatively close thereto, to bend the straw back and forth over said edges and for also e?ecting a relative longi tudinal movement between such pairs of blades perpendicular to the general direction of move ment of said straw in passing through said ma chine whereby the straw passed through such »blades with a general motion substantially per pendicular thereto will also be simultaneously rubbed by said relative longitudinal movement. 14. In a machine of the class described, means for feeding ?bre-containing straw in a generally lengthwise direction through the machine and during such feeding, bending and rubbing the straw to break up the woody material, said means including groups of blades spaced apart along and extending across the path of movement of the straw, each of said groups including a set of ?xed blades arranged in pairs with slots therebetween to provide for the passage of the straw and a set of movable blades arranged in pairs between the pairs of ?xed blades and having slots for the pas sage of the straw, and means for actuating the sets of movable blades so that all parts in said movable blades will produce circular motion, one blades, sprockets and a chain connecting 'said crankshafts and a sliding support for at least one end of said blades to provide against strain in said blades not‘ compensated for by said sprockets and chain. 19. In a machine for treating ?bre-bearing ma terial one or more movable blades, two substan tially parallel cranks actuating said blades, and means to provide against strain in said blades due to such causes as temperature changes, var iation of said cranks from parallelism and varia tion in the radius of motion of said cranks‘, said means including a yielding connection between at least one end of each of said blades and the corresponding crank. 15 ~ 20. The method of decorticating ?ax) straw which compris‘es'advancing the straw so that the individual straws advance in a generally endwise manner while rubbing and bending the straw with substantially circular motion in planes substan 20 tially perpendicular to the general direction of said advance, said rubbing and bending being per formed simultaneously in a plurality of such planes. 21. In a machine of the class described, a set of stationary blades arranged in pairs of upper and lower blades with slots therebetween through which ?bre-containing plant stalks may be ad vanced substantially endwise, a set of movable blades arranged in pairs between the pairs of 30 stationary blades and with a slot between the blades of each pair, a second set of stationary blades corresponding in general arrangement to that of the ?rst set of stationary blades, and hav ing aligned slots to receive material from the ?rst 35 set, a second set of movable blades arranged in pairs between the pairs of stationary blades of the second set, and means for giving the movable blades of the ?rst set a generally circular move set of said movable blades bending and rubbing the straw against and along the lower edges of ment in planes substantially perpendicular to the direction of said plant stalks while passing through the machine to bend the plant stalks the slots between said ?xed blades adjoining. while another set of movable blades will simul- blades and concomitantly roll and rub the plant taneously bend and rub the straw against and along the upper edges of the slots between said ?xed blades adjoining, and vice versa. 15. In a machine for treating ?bre-bearing ma terial, one or more movable blades, two substan tially parallel crankshafts connected to said blades to actuate the same, and means to pro vide for the free linear expansion or contraction of such blades due to heat changes, said means including a sliding connection between at least one end of each of said blades and the corre sponding crank shaft. 16. In a machine for treating ?bre-bearing ma terial, one or more movable blades, substantially parallel crankshafts for actuating said blades and means to provide against strain in said blades due to any lack of parallelism in said crankshafts, said means'including a sliding connection between at least one end of each of each of said‘ blades and the corresponding crankshaft. 17. In a machine for treating ?bre-bearing ma terial, one or more movable blades, two substan tially parallel cranks actuating said movable blades, and means to provide against strain in said blades due to any variation in the radius of motion of said cranks, said means including a slidable connection between at least one end of each of said blades and the corresponding- crank. 18. In a machine for treating ?bre-bearing-ma terial, one or more movable blades, two substan parallel crankshafts actuating said movable back and forth over the edges of the stationary stalks ?rst in one direction and then in the other longitudinally of the stationary blades and to actuate the movable blades of the second set in a similar manner but always so as to act on the stalks in the opposite direction and to force the stalks against the stationary blades of the second ' 50 set slightly before they are forced against the stationary blades of the ?rst set so as to exert a feeding action on the stalks to advance them through the machine. ' 22. In a machine of class described, a set of 55 parallel stationary blades arranged‘ in at least two pairs with a slot between the blades of each pair and with the slots in alignment for the pas sage of plant stalks therethrough, a pair of mov able blades between said two pairs of stationary blades and spaced apart to provide a slot ‘for the passage of stalks passing through the slots be tween the stationary blades, said movable blades being capable of moving with generally circular motion in planes substantially perpendicular to 65 the direction of the stalks in passing through the . machine and means for operating said movable blades to bend such stalks repeatedly ?rst across the upper edges of the slots between the stationary blades and‘then across the lower edges of such" 70 slots and also to rub them repeatedly ?rst along said upper edges of the slots in one direction longitudinally of the stationary blades and then along the lower edges of said slots in the oppo site direction, said blade-operating means includ 75 8 2,130,852 ing two-parallel shafts substantially perpendicular substantially straight edges for acting upon said to the plane of movement of the movable blades, means for operating said shafts substantially in synchronism, and operating connections between said shafts and said movable blades, each of said material, means for actuating said blades, 8. slid ing support for at least one end of said movable blades, the direction of the slides of such sliding operating connections including a crank on the corresponding shaft and a pivotal connection edges of said blades, and means to cushion said with the movable blades and at least one of said shocks or strains occurring in said movable blades connections being yieldable. 23. In a machine of the class described, a set support being substantially parallel to the acting movable blades and sliding supports against in directions substantially parallel to said acting edges. 10 of parallel stationary blades arranged in at least 25. A method for producing crude ?bre which two pairs with a slot between the blades of each pair and with the slots in alignment for the pas sage of plant stalks therethrough, a pair of mov comprises advancing plant stalks in a generally lengthwise direction while rubbing and bending said plant stalks by forces transmitted thereto with generally circular motion within planes sub stantially perpendicular to the general direction of movement of said plant stalks in advancing, for loosening shives from the crude fibre. 26. A method for threshing ?ax straw to ob 15 able blades between the two pairs of stationary blades and spaced apart to provide a slot forthe passage therethrough of stalks passing through the slots between the stationary blades, and means for moving said movable blades with generally 20 circular motion in planes substantially perpen dicular to the direction of the passage of plant stalks through the machine to bend said stalks back and forth across the edges of the slots be tween the stationary blades and also rub the stalks 25 along said edges in directions longitudinal with respect thereto. ' 24. In a machine for treating ?bre-bearing ma terial, one or more movable blades each having tain the seed therefrom and also for decorticating the same to produce crude ?bre therefrom, which comprises advancing the straw substantially end wise while bending and rubbing said straw by forces transmitted thereto with generally circular motion within planes substantially perpendicular - to the general direction of movement of said ?ax straw while advancing. GEORGE A. LOWRY.