close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2130352

код для вставки
' ‘Sept. 20, 1938.
.
'
G; 'A_ LQwRY
2,130,352
, METHODOF AND APPARATUS FOR THRESHING AND DEGORTICATEI?.~PLANT"ST?LK”"//J
Filed Aug.‘ scales/11*”
‘ SShéets-Sheet 1
immimimmm
,
___________ _
s/w
-'
A; ATTORNEY
Sept. 20, 1938,
'
G. ‘A. LOWRY
_
,
-
2,130,352
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR THRESHING AND DECORTICATING PLANT STALKS' _
'
Filed Aug. so, 1934
'
6vSheets-5Shset"? " f
INVENTOR
/_>W_/v
Sept. 20,1938;
~,
(5. A. LOWRY .,
2,130,352
METHQD OF AND APPARATUS FOR THRESHING AND DECORTICATIILIG PLANT STALKS,
Y Filed Aug. 50, 1954-
45"
___I_________|_____-__
1
IT‘
[11
v
3 Sheets-Sheet}
‘
_________________
1H: ,
.'
‘INVE
BY
,QATTQiQNEY
2,130,352
Patented Sept. 20, 1938
UNITED ‘STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,130,352
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR THRESH
ING AND DECORTICATING PLANT STALKS
George
Lowry, New-York, N. Y., assignor of
one-half to Martin Hill Ittner, Jersey City, _
N. J., and one-half to Bertha McNally Lowry,
New York, N. Y.
Application August 30, 1934, Serial No.v742,039
26 Claims.
(Cl. 19-22)
This invention relates to the treatment of ?bre
stalks, or straw, to separate the ?bre from the
other material, such as shives and seed, and more
particularly to a machine adapted to thresh and
5 decorticate the straw in one operation to obtain
the; seed and the long ?bre, and also to decorticate straw which has been subjected to preliminary treatment, such as threshing or retting.
Although the present invention applies to the
10 treatment of all ?bre plants, such as ?ax, hemp,
jute, ramie, etc., its most important ?eld appears
to be in the treatment of ?ax straw and the following description will therefore be directed
more particularly to this ?eld.
15
Heretofore, it has been customary for the
' farmer
and the same operation, or the decorticating
only, with his own labor at times when it is
impracticable to work outdoors, and the un
retted shives, containing about 7% of protein
and 3% of fat, may be used on the farm for g;
fodder and fertilizer. The crude ?bre obtained
by scutching unretted straw is only a fraction
of the weight of the straw from which it was
obtained and can be shipped at relatively low
expense to a suitably located processing plant 19
where further cleaning of the ?bre can be ef
fected readily as by chemical retting, and at low
expense due to the small amount of waste mate
rial to be removed from the ?bre. All linen pro
duced in the ordinary ways is customarily chemi- 15
cally treated, either in the yarn or in thepiece, to
1. To thresh the ?ax straw to remove the seed, - render it salable. It will be evident that chem
2. To ret or rot the straw, that is, subject it to ical treatment on the loose ?bre will tend to be
fermentation in water or in the presence of mois- more uniform and may be very much less drastic
20 ture until the bacterial action on the gums bind; ' and much less expensive. than on ?bre twisted 20
ing the shives to the ?bre has partly released the into yarn or thread or made into fabric,'in order
shives,
.
'
to produce as good, or better results. '
3. To spread the retted straw out to dry, and
Other‘ objects, features and advantages —will
4. To take the dried retted straw to a scutch- ' appear upon consideration of the following de
25 ing mill where waste material is removed from
the ?bre which latter is then returned to the
farmer and may be sold by him or retained for
his own use.
scription and of the drawings, in'which
"25
Fig. lis a front elevation of the discharge side
of a machine embodying a preferred.v form of
the present invention;
The waste material known as shivesis left at
30 the mill where it may be used as fuel inasmuch
as, after retting, it is un?t for fodder. The retting requires skilled labor, and the scutching as
now practiced also requires skilled labor and involves substantial expense and appreciable loss
35 of ?bre as tow. The cost of hauling adds a sub- ‘
stantial amount to the cost of preparing the ?bre
in view of the fact that out of a considerable
amount of bulky straw hauled to the mill only a
relatively small weight of partly ?nished ?bre
40 is obtained.
-
Fig. 2 is a top plan view of the machine shown
in Fig. 1;
_
30
Fig. 3 is a sectional view taken along the line
3-3 of Fig. 1;
.
Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken along the line
4-4 of Fig. 1;
- _
\_
_
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary elevation showing the 35
positions of various parts when one set of mov
able blades is in its uppermost position and the
other set is in the lowermost position, parts being '
broken away to show the slidable connection be
tween the cranks at one end of the machine and 40
An important object of the present invention
the corresponding ends of the movable blades;
is to provide an improved and advantageous decorticating machine, preferably a portable one,
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary elevation showing the
cranks turned through 45 degrees from their
whereby stalks or straw of the character de-
Fig. 5 positions;
45 scribed may be cleaned effectively and thoroughly without a preliminary retting operation.
Further objects of the invention relate to the
provision of a machine of relatively small size
and cost and of great capacity.
Other objects
so relate to methods involved in obtaining the
cleaned ?bre in the most advantageous manner.
The machine of the presentinvention makes it
feasible to effect many ‘economies. For example,
the farmer by use of this machine may do the
55 threshing and scutching or decorticating in one
» j
Fig. 'l is a view similar to Fig. 6 but with the 45
cranks turned through 90 degrees from their Fig.
5 Positions;
'
Fig. 8 is a section taken along the line 8-8
of Fig. 5; and
i
’
'
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary view illustrating a 50
modi?ed form of connection between the mov
able blades and the cranks.
‘
,
.
Referring to the drawings, reference character
ID designates a base or support adapted to carry
all of operating parts of the machine. Straw in 55
2
2,130,352
suitable amounts may be introduced by' feed
chute || into slots formed between successive
pairs of blades |2, l3, l4, |5, |6, |'|,'-'|8, I9, 20,
2|, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 21, and 28, of which alter
nate pairs of blades l2, l4, l6, I8, 20, 22, 24, 2S
and 28 may be stationary and the remaining
blades movable to cooperate with the stationary
blades in treating the straw. In this connection
it should be understood that the important mat
10 ter is to get the proper relative movement be
tween certain pairs of blades and that this re
sult may be obtained by imparting suitable
movements to all of the blades.
The blades l2 to 28 inclusive may be consid
ered
as divided into two groups by the blades l8
15
which actually are common to the two groups
and the movable blades I3, l5 and H of the ?rst
group are preferably moved upwardly while the
movable blades of the second group are moved
downwardly and vice versa. This action tends to
produce slack in the material passing from one
group of blades to the other and to assist in feed
ing the material. Inasmuch as the blades l8 are
common to both groups and it is desirable to
25
30
35
provide substantial spacing between the groups
of blades, said blades may be made thicker than
the other ?xed blades.
In addition to the upward and downward
movement of the movable blades which forces the
straw or ?bre against the stationary or ?xed
blades with a rubbing action, the present inven
tion involves the feature of also moving the mov
able blades longitudinally with respect to the sta
tionary blades to effect a transverse rubbing ac
tion on the straw and ?bre. This result is pref
erably attained by providing at opposite ends of
the movable blades crank shafts 29 and 30, each
of which preferably includes two cranks arranged
180 degrees apart, and connecting the cranks
with the movable blades in a suitable manner.
40 At their ends the movable blades of each group
may be mounted in recesses in blocks or mem
bers 3|, with suitable spacing members 32 there
between, secured in position by suitable means
such as bolts 33. At one end of the machine
the
blocks 3| may be connected directly to the
45
cranks which may lie in half bearings in the
blocks and may be held therein by bearing mem
bers 34 secured to the blocks by'suitable devices
35. While the machine is in use, the movable
blades are likely to be heated so as to expand
50 to a substantial extent. To provide against dis
tortion of the blades from such expansion the
blocks at one or both ends of the movable blades
may have a slidable connection with the corre
55
sponding cranks.
As illustrated, such sliding
connection between a block 3| and the corre
sponding crank may be obtained by providing the
block 3| with parallel slide members or arms 38
which slide in grooves at‘ opposite sides of a bear
60 ing block 31 mounted on the crank. Preferably
each bearing block 31 is split for convenience .in
putting it on or taking it off the corresponding
crank, and the arms 38 are held together at theirv
outer ends by means of a member or plate 38
and fastening devices 39.
'
Sliding connections between at least one end of
the movable blades and the corresponding crank
shafts are desirable not only to prevent distor
tion in said blades from expansion or contrac
tion due to heat changes, but also to prevent
70 strains or distortion in said blades from any cause
75
cranks of the said crankshafts, or by a devia
tion from the synchronous revolution of said
crankshafts as might be caused by the stretch
ing of a chain or slippage on a sprocket used to
impart motion from .one of said crankshafts to
another. The sliding support for at least one
end of the movable blades may be advantageously
provided with fairly heavy coil springs 31a (Fig.
9), or rubber cushions, not shown, which bear
against either end of said sliding support to pro
vide a cushion effect in such a way as to relieve
sudden shocks, or strains, particularly in the di
rection of the lengths of the movable blades that
might otherwise be felt due to the rapid reversal
of the direction of motion of the movable blades
with the revolution of the crankshafts to which
said blades are connected.
The crankshafts 29 and 30 and the ?xed blades
may be supported by brackets 40 and 4| in the
general form of parallel plates projecting up 20
wardly from the main body of the support and
preferably integral therewith. As illustrated the
crankshafts are journalled directly in the'brack-.
et 40 and indirectly in the bracket 4|, being jour
nalle'd in members 42 secured in openings in the
bracket 4| large enough to admit the cranks
when the crankshafts are inserted. Just outside
of the brackets 40 and 4| the crankshafts 29 and
30 may be provided with sprocket wheels 43 and
44 of equal size and with an equal number of
teeth ?xed thereon and connected by a sprocket
chain 45, whereby the crankshafts are caused to
revolve in unison. The slidable connection pro
vided at one end of the movable blades not only
compensates for expansionof the blades as they 35.
become heated but also compensates for stretch
or sag in the sprocket chain. Actuation of the
crankshafts may be effected by means of a driv
ing pulley 46 connected to the shaft 29 to rotate
therewith and connected by means of a belt 41 40.
with any suitable source of power. The shaft
30 may also be provided with a pulley 46a similar to driving pulley 46 and each of these pul
leys may advantageously have the function of
a ?ywheel.
To facilitate the adjustment of the slots be
tween the pairs of ?xed blades both as to posi
tion and width of the slots, the upper blades of
the pairs of ?xed or stationary blades may be
connected by members or rods 48 passing through
all of them and the corresponding lower blades
may be fastened together in the same manner.
For the purpose of supporting the upper station
ary blades and at the same time permitting ad
justment thereof, use may be made of screw
threaded rods 49 passing through oversize open
ings 50 in the blades and suitable openings in
the brackets 40 and 4|, the screw-threaded rods
being secured in position with reference to the
brackets 40 and 4| by nuts 5| threaded on the 60
rods and screwed against the inner surfaces of
the brackets and nuts 52 at the outer surfaces
of the brackets and cooperating with the nuts
5| to clamp the rods to the brackets. Acciden
tal unscrewing of the nuts 52 may be avoided by 65
use of lock washers 53 between these nuts and
the brackets or other suitable means.
To secure
the blades in position on the screw-threaded rods
49, use may be made of spacers or washers 54
between the ?xed blades and nuts 55 engaging
the outer surfaces of the stationary blades l2
and 28 and serving to hold the stationary blades
whatsoever, such as might be brought about by
in adjusted positions, thus determining the
a deviation from parallelism between the crank
shafts at either end of the movable blades, or
by a variation in the radius-of motion of the
widths of the slots between pairs of ?xed blades
and the-vertical position of the slots. It has been
found advantageous to use the adjustments pro
3
2,130,352
60 inclined with respect to the bottom of the
chute so that the outlet at the discharge end of
the chute is in the general form of a slot that is
vided for changing the spacings between sta
tionary and movable blades to meet changing
conditions, as on shifting the use of the machine
from ?ax straw to heavier stalks, for instance
hemp or ramie stalks.
narrower than the slot between the blades l2. It
has also been found desirable to have the ?oor
‘
of the chute substantially at the level of the
upper edge of the lower blade I 2, thus positioning
the top 60 of the chute substantially below the
lower edge of the upper blade l2 and causing the
straw to be drawn across the edge of the top 60 10
when the movable blades of the ?rst group‘move
upwardly, whereby slack may be provided at this
point, when these movable blades descend, and
In view of the fact that the initial beating or
breaking action encounters the greatest resist
ance from the straw, the stationary blades l2
at the entrance side of the machine may be made
10 heavier and stronger than the blades I4 and iii
of the next two pairs, and the blades 13 of the
?rst pair of movable blades may advantageously
be made heavier and stronger than the following
pair of blades. As illustrated in Fig. 3, the spac
15 ing between successive pairs of blades from. the
entrance up to the blades I8 is greater than that
between the pairs of blades of the second group.
Furthermore, in view of the fact that the blades
the feeding of the straw facilitated. .
As will be evident from Figs. 3 and 4, when the 15
lower movable blades at the entrance of the‘ ma
chine are rubbing the material in one direction
the upper movable blades at the outlet of the
machine are rubbing the material in the opposite
direction. These rubbing actions being in oppo 20
28 are subjected to stresses at one side only, such
20 blades are made somewhat thicker and heavier
site directions tend to compensate for each other
than blades 20, 22, 24, and 26. To avoid damage
to the?bre, the blade edges at opposite sides of
the slots may be blunted or rounded.
as to maintaining the material in its general path
of movement, and also tend alternately to ten
sion the ?bre and straw and relieve the tension,
'
Particularly in view of the fact that most of
25 the shives or woody matter is removed from the
?bre by the blades of the ?rst group, that is before
thereby facilitating the feeding of the ?bre to 25
ward the outlet of the machine. An instant later
the upper movable blades at the entrance side of
passing the blades I8, the successive pairs of
the machine act on the material from above in a
blades of the second group may be placed much
closer together than those of the ?rst group to
30 assure substantially complete loosening and re
moval of the remaining foreign matter from the
direction exactly opposite to that of the preceding
‘action of the corresponding lower blades when 3.0
acting on the material from below, and there is
a corresponding change at the outlet side of the
?bre. Preferably also, the number of pairs of
blades in the second group is greater than the
number of pairs in the ?rst. It is advantageous
35 to adjust the combined weight of movable blades
machine. This cycle of operations is repeated as
long as the machine is kept running. It should
also be noted that the successive working move
ments in opposite directions of the upper and
lower blades of each set of movable blades tend
in one group so that it will be substantially equal
to the combined weight of the other group of
to counteract each other as far as change in path
movable blades in order that their weights will
compensate one another and facilitate smoother
40 motion. The changes in the spacing in the two
of feed is concerned.
are narrower than the slots in the sets of mov
groups of movable‘ blades and the greater num
ber of blades in the second are of value in con
nection with the feeding of the straw and ?bre
through the machine. The cleaned ?bre passing
through the slot between the blades” is de
45
posited in a chute 56 which extends from the
blades 28 through a suitableopening 51 in the
bracket 4! and discharges the ?bre from the out
let side of the machine. The material removed
from the ?bre by cooperative action of the sta
50 tionary and movable blades is carried down
wardly by the action of gravity and may be dis
charged through an opening 58 provided for that
purpose.
55
-
Preferably the slots in the sets of ?xed blades
.
The particular arrangement of stationary and
movable blades shown is a preferred one that
may be used to great advantage but it is to be
understood that I have found that other arrange
ments, as for instance in the number of ?xed and
60 of movable blades, may also be used without de
parting from the spirit of my invention. I prefer
to use crankshafts for carrying movable blades
which have cranks located 180 degrees from one
another and, where more than one set of movable‘
65' blades is used, to balance the blades in such a
way with respect to position and weight, that the
motion of said blades will be uniform and smooth
and free from jerkiness.
able blades so that the slots in the ?xed blades
are entirely clear for an instant when the mov
able blades are substantially at their midway
positions, thus facilitating the feed of the straw 45
and ?bre, and, although not necessarily the case,
the radii of the cranks may advantageously be
greater than the widths of the slots in the sets
of stationary blades-thus causing the material
passing at substantially right angles to the blades 50
to be bent over the stationary blades to a corre
sponding extent. Also, as illustrated, the slots
between the ?xed blades of the two groups may
be substantially the same and the slots between
the movable blades at the discharge side of the 55
machine may be somewhat narrower than the
slots between the movable blades at the receiving
side of the machine and therefore engage the
?bre a tri?e sooner than the other movable blades
engage the straw so as to draw the straw for 60
wardly through the open slots at the entrance
side of the machine and automatically feed the
straw toward the discharge or outlet side of ‘the
machine. ‘
The crank-carried or movable blades operate
not only to bend the straw and ?bre over the
?xed blades but also to produce a rubbing and
abrasive action longitudinally of the ?xed blades
and therefore transversely of the path of the
The vfeed or intake chute ll may pass through
straw
and ?bre, thus rubbing from the ?bre,
a suitable opening 59 in the bracket 40 and, al
though this chute may be of any suitable form, ~ shives cracked and broken by the repeated bend
it is preferably formed adjacent to the ?rst pair
of blades with a portion having inwardly conver~
gent side walls to limit the spreading of the straw
75 as it enters the machine proper, and having a top
ings. Due to the operation of the movable blades
by the cranks each point on the movable blades
is given a circular or rotary movement and the
movable blades may be said to produce a rotary 75
4
2,130,352
breaking and rubbing action on the straw and form scutching ‘or decortication. However, in the
?bre within planes substantially perpendicular to . machine of the present invention the rotary beat
the line of feed of the material, di?erent points ing and rubbing action of the movable blades
revolving in circles having different axes. It will
be seen that corresponding lines in different mov
able blades will be at all times parallel to a given
?xed line in space. It should also be noted that
the upward and downward motion of the mov
able blades is harmonic and the same is true with
10 respect to the longitudinal movement of the
movable blades.
The movement of the movable
blades in bending the straw over the ?xed blades
at the end of a stroke is relatively slow and the
same is true of the longitudinal movement of
15 the blades in the rubbing action except that when
the velocities of the upward and downward move
ments are substantially at zero the velocities of
the longitudinal movements are substantially at
a maximum. Every point in the movable blades
20 while in motion is in harmonic motion with re
spect to two lines perpendicular to each other,
which lines are in a plane substantially perpen
dicular to the general direction of straw passing
through the machine. Such harmonic motion of
the movable blades tends to reduce vibration and
undue stresses on various parts to substantially
a minimum-thus lengthening the life of the
machine and giving rise to other advantages, such
as reduction in the power required to drive the
serves to roll the straw out more evenly than can
be done by hand-a handful of straw fed central
ly into the machine being rapidly spread out to
the sides. It has also been considered necessary
in prior types of machines to provide distinct
means, such as feed rolls or belts, to carry or
force the straw through the machine. In the 10
present machine nothing of this sort may be
necessary in that, as soon as the leading end
of a bunch of straw enters the second group of
blades, a very positive feed is set up. This feed
ing action enables the elimination of much mech 15
anism previously considered necessary and in
some of which the relative speeds of the scutch
ing and feeding parts varied as much as 100 revoe
lutions to 1 revolution-thus necessitating speed
reducing gears and devices.
20
With the ‘present machine, the repeated bend
ing and rubbing of the straw by the blades of
the ?rst group acts to remove substantially all
of the seed that may be thereon when the straw is
fed to the machine, the pairs of blades of this 25
group being set far enough apart to avoid injury
to theseed, and also serves to break and loosen
the shives, the work which in other machines is
usually done by ?uid rollers. However, though
One great advantage, in having the movable
blades and the blade-supporting structures at
the construction of the present machine is such 30
as to make the use of ?uted rollers unnecessary
in scutching or threshing ?ax straw, it will be
their ends mounted and actuated so that all
understood that these- may be advantageously
points thereof, while in motion, revolve in cir
35 cles in planes substantially perpendicular to the
used in conjunction therewith, especially for the
treatment of heavy very woody ?bre-bearing
30
machine.
.
path of movement of the straw through the ma
plant stalks.
chine, is that the momentum of such moving
In using the machine to produce crude ?bre
from thestraw, a bunch of straw is placed in the
entrance or supply chute l i and pressed longi
tudinally of the straw into the slots of the ?rst
'
parts and their inertia tend to continue their mo
tion smoothly as distinguished from machines in
which the corresponding parts are actuated so
that all points thereof are reciprocated in straight
lines, which necessitates a sudden stopping and a
group of blades where any seeds on the straw
are removed and the shives are broken and
sudden starting of comparatively heavy parts
loosened. It should be noted that in the upward
movement of the movable blades of the ?rst
frequent repairs and replacements due to the ‘group the straw is drawn upwardly around the
heavy stresses to which the machine is subjected. edge of the roof or top 60 of the entrance chute
In Fig. 9, there is illustrated a modi?cation ll, thus furnishing slack for the forward feed
of part of the machine wherein the movable of the straw. During the passage of the leading
blades of one group of blades (for example the end of a bunch of straw through the ?rst set of
second group) are slidably mounted at both ends blades, the upward and downward movements
in the same general manner that one end is of the movable blades bend the straw back and
shown as mounted in Figs. 2, 5, 6 and 7, but, due forth and break up and loosen the shives, and the
longitudinal movements of the movable blades
to the sliding connections at both ends, the slid
able bearing blocks 31 at both ends of the blades. transverse to the path of movement of the straw
55 are yieldably held in position by suitable resil - not only act to spread out the straw but to rub
ientdevices, such as compression coil springs in I it so as to further loosen the shives. As soon as
terposed at one side of a bearing block 31 be
the leading ends of a bunch of straw enter the
tween the same and the corresponding member slots between the corresponding blades of the
38 and at the opposite sides of the block between last group, a very strong feeding action through
the same and the corresponding blade-holding the machine is set up due largely to the fact that 60
block 3|. It should be understood that, where ' the moving blades of the second group tend to
the'movable blades are substantially rigidly con
eifect gripping of the leading ends of the straw
nected with a crank at one side of the machine or ?bre between such blades and the correspond
(Figs. 1 to 8), the use of springs or the like at ing ?xed blades before the straw is gripped by
the sliding connection is unnecessary although the movable blades of the ?rst group and the
desirable and that in the form shown in Fig. 9 corresponding ?xed blades and the moving blades
' the springs at one end of the machine may be of the two sets move in opposite directions.
omitted.
Furthermore a contributory cause for the strong
Heretofore it has in general been considered feeding action of the straw through the machine
necessary to run the straw through ?uted rollers lies in the fact that at the instant that the mov
to break or crack the shives preparatory to their able blades are either at the bottom or at the
removal by other means. Also in other types of top of their generally circular movement they are
machines it has been considered necessary to forcing the partly scutched straw with the great
give careful attention to the feeding of the straw est bending moment between and against the sta
tionary blades and at the same time the movable 75
75 evenly into the machine to assure even or uni
and a consequent loss of power and a need for
5
2,130,352
blades, having their maximum longitudinal mo
tion, are rubbing the partly scutched straw with
a strong deshiving action against and along the
stationary blades so that the partly scutched
straw is bent into its most sinuous position. As
the further motion of the two sets of movable
blades releases the partly scutched straw from its
compressed condition against the stationary
blades, the forced momentary sinuousity of the
partly scutched straw being suddenly removed,
the elasticity of the partly scutched straw tends
to straighten the crude fibre from its sinuous
condition along its general'path of movement.
As the unscutched portion of the straw at the
feeding end is comparatively stiff and nonresist
ant the crude ?bre is thus forced to relieve itself
by movement toward the discharge end of the
machine by the release therefrom of the crude
?bre. In passing through the second group of
blades, the ?bre is very thoroughly scraped and
rubbed between the moving and ?xed blades, the
relatively close spacing of the pairs of blades along '
the path of travel of the straw and ?bre serving
to make such action very thorough. As soon as
. one bunch of straw has advanced far enough into
the machine to clear the way, another bunch may
be inserted for treatment and these steps may be
repeated until the desired amount of straw has
been treated.
~
Although I have described a particular ar
rangement of ?xed and movable blades and have
presented drawings of one ofthe machines which
I have built and used, it is to be understood that
my invention is not to be limited to a machine
with the exact number of ?xed and movable blades
as shown, or to the moving cranks, or to the
exact manner of adjusting said ?xed and mov
able blades, or to the exact manner of supporting
the movable blades on the moving cranks, or to
the exact manner of actuating such moving
cranks in unison or to the exact manner of pro
viding a sliding support for at least one end of
the movable blades, but is understood to com
prise a machine with any number of movable
blades moving in close proximity to ?xed blades
in such‘ a manner as to beat plant stalks or ?bres
against said ?xed blades or between said movable
and ?xed blades with a bending action and
at the same time to impart a rubbing action to
said stalks or ?bres along a portion of the length
of said ?xed blades for the purpose of freeing
vegetable ?bres at least partially from shives or
non-?brous material,
While I have disclosed a sliding connection for
one or both ends of the movable blades to the
blade-actuating means of my machine, and re
silient means for holding such blades in place, it
is to be understood that I am not to be limited to
any particular arrangement for accomplishing
this desired result but seek rather to cover the
use of such sliding connection and resilient means
for holding said blades so as to assure the smooth
running of the machine and broadly to cover any
suitable type of ?exible or resilient connection for
the blades move in substantially vertical planes,
these blades may, within the/scope of the in
vention, be actuated in horizontal planes or in
planes inclined with respect to said horizontal
and vertical planes.
My invention, while especially suitable for
scutching ?ax straw for obtaining crude ?bre
largely freed from non-?brous material, is also
suitable for obtaining crude ?bre from numerous
other kinds of plant stalks and plant materials,
and where hereinafter in the claims I use the
term “straw” it is to be understood as including
numerous plant stalks and plant materials, in
addition to ?ax straw‘, from which crude ?bre can
be similarly obtained.
-
15
It should be understood that changes may be
made in various features of the invention and
that certain features may be used without others
without departing from the true spirit and scope
of the invention.
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
1. In a decorticating machine, means for bend
ing back and forth straw passed in a. generally
endwise manner through the machine, and means
for substantially simultaneously ‘rubbing said
25
straw in a multitude of varying directions within
planes substantially perpendicular to the general
direction of the straw while passing through said
machine, said means for said bending and for
such rubbing comprising sets of blades within sub 30
stantially parallel planes having relative motion
one set to another, said motion being both cross
wise and lengthwise of said blades.
2'. In a decorticating machine, means for bend
ing back and forth straw passed through the ma 35
chine, such bending means including straw-en
gaging members moving with substantially har
monic motion, and means for rubbing the straw
back and forth transversely of its general‘ direc
tion of movement concomitantly with such bend 40
ing, said general direction of movement being
substantially at right angles to said straw en
gaging members.
3. In a decorticating machine, means for bend
ing back and forth straw passed through the ma
chine, and means for rolling the straw back and
forth transversely of its general direction of
movement, such rolling means including straw
enga'ging members moving with "substantially
harmonic movement,‘ said straw engaging mem
bers being at all times substantially at right an
gles to said general direction of movement of
straw in passing through the‘ machine.
4. In a decorticating machine, means for bend
ing back and forth over stationary members, 55
straw passed through the machine,'such ‘bend
ing means including straw-engaging members
moving with substantially .harmonic motion, and
means for rolling the straw back and forth trans
versely of its general path of movement, along
60
said stationary members, such rolling means in-_
cluding said straw-engaging members, and means
for moving said straw-engaging members in
planes substantially at right angles to the general
65
such blades that will prevent distortion of the ‘ path of movement of said‘ straw while passing
blades through heat changes or other causes and . through the machine.
that will hold the blades in place and protect
them'from shock from any cause which might
tend to distort the blades. Also, while I have
disclosed movable blades acting to force the ma
terial against ?xed blades, it is to be understood
that my invention is of such scope as to cover
arrangements wherein both sets of blades are
movable to act against each other, and that,
while I have disclosed an arrangement in which
5. In a scutching machine for obtaining crude
?bre from plant stalks, two crankshafts each sub
stantially parallel to the general direction of said
plant stalks while passing through said machine, 70
each carrying two cranks, the two cranks in each
of said crankshafts ‘being spaced substantially
180° from each other and revolving about the axes
of said crankshafts, sets of substantially parallel
movable blades and of substantially parallel in 75
6
2,130,352
tervening stationary blades, 9. device carried by
blades for relieving said blade or blades from
each of said cranks for holding the ends of sev
longitudinal strains, substantially parallel cranks
eral sets of said movable blades, the opposite
intervening stationary blades, said movable blades
on which said bearings work, shafts about which
said cranks revolve, said shafts being at all times
substantially parallel to each other and to said
cranks, the distance between said cranks being
at all times substantially equal to the distance
between said shafts, said cranks and said shafts
being so arranged that every point on said blades
being at all times substantially perpendicular to
ends of said blades being held by a device at
tached to the opposite crankshaft, said movable
blades being at all times substantially parallel to
each other and to a set of substantially parallel
10 will revolve in circles, which circles will have a
plurality of axes, said movable blades when near
said stationary blades having motion both partly
along and partly across said stationary blades
whereby ?brous cellulose is rubbed against said
15 stationary blades and is at least partly freed from
non-?brous material.
'
6. In a machine for scutching straw, one or
more sets of movable blades so arranged that all
blades in such sets of blades and all such sets
20 of blades are substantially parallel to each other,
and means for actuating said sets of movable
blades, all points in said blades moving with a
circular motion in parallel planes, so that certain
right lines located longitudinally in said movable
25 blades will be at all times substantially parallel
to each other and to a given ?xed line in space,
said right lines and said movable blades while in
motion generating planes substantially at right
angles to the path of 'said straw through said
30 machine.
7. In a machine for scutching straw, one or
more sets of movable blades with all blades in
such sets of blades and all such sets of blades
substantially parallel to each other, stationary
35 blades parallel to each other and to said movable
blades, and actuating means for said movable
blades, said movable blades moving in planes near
to and substantially parallel to one or more
sets of stationary blades in such a manner that
40 any point in said movable blades will describe a
circular motion and so that certain lines in said
movable blades will be at all times substantially
parellel to each other, to said stationary blades,
and to a certain fixed line in space, said movable
45 blades and said stationary blades being at all
times in positions substantially transverse to the
general direction of movement of said straw in
passing through said machine.
8. In a machine for scutching straw, one or
50 more sets of substantially parallel movable blades,
planes described by said movable blade or blades 10
when in motion, stationary blades substantially
parallel to said movable blade or blades and ar
ranged in such a manner that plant stalks can be
passed transversely between said parallel sta
tionary blades, and means for actuating said 15
movable blade or blades whereby said plant stalks
will be engaged at frequent intervals by said mov
able blade or blades and be rapidly beaten by said
movable blade or blades against and along said
stationary blades and the fibrous cellulose of said 20
plant stalks will be at least partly freed from non
?brous material, without substantial injury to
the crude fibre thus obtained.
10. In a scutching machine, paired stationary
blades held substantially parallel to one another,
the blades in each pair being so spaced from one
another as to provide room for the passage of
plant stalks or fibrous material transversely there
through, said spacings between the blades of the
several pairs being arranged substantially par
allel and in juxtaposition to one another so as to
provide a passage for fibrous material there
through, and movable blades substantially par
allel to said stationary blades and arranged to
pass between the stationary blades in planes sub 35
stantially parallel to each other and to the planes
of said stationary blades so as to engage plant
stalks or ?brous material being passed trans
versely through said stationary blades in such a
way that said stalks or said material shall be 40
beaten by said movable blades against said sta
tionary blades with a. bending motion across and
at the same time with a rubbing motion along a
portion of said stationary blades, the direction
of such stalks or fibrous material and the direc
tion of movement of such stalks or ?brous mate
,p. an
rial being substantially perpendicular to said
blades, whereby said plant stalks or said ?brous
material will be at least partly freed from non
?brous material without substantial injury to 50
stationary blades to cooperate with said movable
the crude ?bre thus obtained.
blades, and substantially parallel therewith, bear
11. In a decorticating machine, a plurality of
pairs of blades with a single long slot between
the blades of each pair providing for the passage
’
ings connected to opposite ends of said movable
blades, substantially parallel cranks on which said
of ?bre-containing plant stalks substantially end
55 bearings are mounted, shafts about which said
wise therethrough, and means for eifecting a rela
cranks revolve, said shafts being at all times sub
stantially parallel to each other, and to said tive movement between a pair of blades and the
cranks, said cranks and said shafts at all times pairs of blades on either side thereof to bend the
being substantially equidistant from each other plant stalks back and forth and for simultaneous
ly effecting a relative longitudinal movement be
60 and substantially perpendicular to the planes de
scribed by said movable blades when in motion, tween such pairs of blades whereby the plant
said movable blades being so arranged that part . stalks are rubbed in a mulitude of different direc
of such blades engage said straw against said tions substantially transversely of their general
stationary blades during their upward movement direction of movement.
12. In a decorticating machine, a plurality of
65 at the same time that part of said blades engage
said straw against said stationary blades during pairs of ?xed blades with a single long slot be
their downward movement, and vice versa, and tween the blades of each pair and all of said slots
means for actuating said movable blades, all in alignment to provide for the passage of fibre
parts of said movable blades, while in motion, containing plant stalks substantially endwisc
70 generating circles in planes perpendicular to the therethrough, a‘pair of movable blades between
direction of said straw in passing through said adjacent pairs of fixed blades, such pair or mov
able blades being provided with a single long
machine.
slot for the passage of ?bre-bearing plant stalks
9. In a scutching machine, one or more mov
passing through the slots between the fixed blades,
able blades, movable self adjusting bearings at
75 tachedto opposite ends of said movable blade or and means for reciprocating the movable blades
55
60
65
70
7
2,130,352
in harmonic motion to bend the plant stalks back
and forth across the blade edges at opposite sides
of the slots and simultaneously to reciprocate the
movable blades longitudinally to rub the plant
stalks in all directions within planes located sub
stantially transversely of their general direction
of passage through the machine.
-
13. In a decorticating machine, a, plurality of
pairs of blades with a single long slot between
the blades of each pair providing for the passage
of ?bre-bearing plant stalks transversely there
through, said blades having straw-engaging edges
at opposite sides of said slots, and means for ef
fecting a relative reciprocating movement be
tween a pair of blades and the pairs of blades on
either side thereof, and comparatively close
thereto, to bend the straw back and forth over
said edges and for also e?ecting a relative longi
tudinal movement between such pairs of blades
perpendicular to the general direction of move
ment of said straw in passing through said ma
chine whereby the straw passed through such
»blades with a general motion substantially per
pendicular thereto will also be simultaneously
rubbed by said relative longitudinal movement.
14. In a machine of the class described, means
for feeding ?bre-containing straw in a generally
lengthwise direction through the machine and
during such feeding, bending and rubbing the
straw to break up the woody material, said means
including groups of blades spaced apart along and
extending across the path of movement of the
straw, each of said groups including a set of ?xed
blades arranged in pairs with slots therebetween
to provide for the passage of the straw and a set
of movable blades arranged in pairs between the
pairs of ?xed blades and having slots for the pas
sage of the straw, and means for actuating the
sets of movable blades so that all parts in said
movable blades will produce circular motion, one
blades, sprockets and a chain connecting 'said
crankshafts and a sliding support for at least
one end of said blades to provide against strain
in said blades not‘ compensated for by said
sprockets and chain.
19. In a machine for treating ?bre-bearing ma
terial one or more movable blades, two substan
tially parallel cranks actuating said blades, and
means to provide against strain in said blades
due to such causes as temperature changes, var
iation of said cranks from parallelism and varia
tion in the radius of motion of said cranks‘, said
means including a yielding connection between
at least one end of each of said blades and the
corresponding crank.
15
~
20. The method of decorticating ?ax) straw
which compris‘es'advancing the straw so that the
individual straws advance in a generally endwise
manner while rubbing and bending the straw with
substantially circular motion in planes substan 20
tially perpendicular to the general direction of
said advance, said rubbing and bending being per
formed simultaneously in a plurality of such
planes.
21. In a machine of the class described, a set
of stationary blades arranged in pairs of upper
and lower blades with slots therebetween through
which ?bre-containing plant stalks may be ad
vanced substantially endwise, a set of movable
blades arranged in pairs between the pairs of 30
stationary blades and with a slot between the
blades of each pair, a second set of stationary
blades corresponding in general arrangement to
that of the ?rst set of stationary blades, and hav
ing aligned slots to receive material from the ?rst 35
set, a second set of movable blades arranged in
pairs between the pairs of stationary blades of
the second set, and means for giving the movable
blades of the ?rst set a generally circular move
set of said movable blades bending and rubbing
the straw against and along the lower edges of
ment in planes substantially perpendicular to the
direction of said plant stalks while passing
through the machine to bend the plant stalks
the slots between said ?xed blades adjoining.
while another set of movable blades will simul-
blades and concomitantly roll and rub the plant
taneously bend and rub the straw against and
along the upper edges of the slots between said
?xed blades adjoining, and vice versa.
15. In a machine for treating ?bre-bearing ma
terial, one or more movable blades, two substan
tially parallel crankshafts connected to said
blades to actuate the same, and means to pro
vide for the free linear expansion or contraction
of such blades due to heat changes, said means
including a sliding connection between at least
one end of each of said blades and the corre
sponding crank shaft.
16. In a machine for treating ?bre-bearing ma
terial, one or more movable blades, substantially
parallel crankshafts for actuating said blades and
means to provide against strain in said blades due
to any lack of parallelism in said crankshafts, said
means'including a sliding connection between at
least one end of each of each of said‘ blades and
the corresponding crankshaft.
17. In a machine for treating ?bre-bearing ma
terial, one or more movable blades, two substan
tially parallel cranks actuating said movable
blades, and means to provide against strain in
said blades due to any variation in the radius of
motion of said cranks, said means including a
slidable connection between at least one end of
each of said blades and the corresponding- crank.
18. In a machine for treating ?bre-bearing-ma
terial, one or more movable blades, two substan
parallel crankshafts actuating said movable
back and forth over the edges of the stationary
stalks ?rst in one direction and then in the other
longitudinally of the stationary blades and to
actuate the movable blades of the second set in
a similar manner but always so as to act on the
stalks in the opposite direction and to force the
stalks against the stationary blades of the second ' 50
set slightly before they are forced against the
stationary blades of the ?rst set so as to exert
a feeding action on the stalks to advance them
through the machine.
'
22. In a machine of class described, a set of 55
parallel stationary blades arranged‘ in at least
two pairs with a slot between the blades of each
pair and with the slots in alignment for the pas
sage of plant stalks therethrough, a pair of mov
able blades between said two pairs of stationary
blades and spaced apart to provide a slot ‘for the
passage of stalks passing through the slots be
tween the stationary blades, said movable blades
being capable of moving with generally circular
motion in planes substantially perpendicular to 65
the direction of the stalks in passing through the .
machine and means for operating said movable
blades to bend such stalks repeatedly ?rst across
the upper edges of the slots between the stationary
blades and‘then across the lower edges of such" 70
slots and also to rub them repeatedly ?rst along
said upper edges of the slots in one direction
longitudinally of the stationary blades and then
along the lower edges of said slots in the oppo
site direction, said blade-operating means includ 75
8
2,130,852
ing two-parallel shafts substantially perpendicular
substantially straight edges for acting upon said
to the plane of movement of the movable blades,
means for operating said shafts substantially in
synchronism, and operating connections between
said shafts and said movable blades, each of said
material, means for actuating said blades, 8. slid
ing support for at least one end of said movable
blades, the direction of the slides of such sliding
operating connections including a crank on the
corresponding shaft and a pivotal connection
edges of said blades, and means to cushion said
with the movable blades and at least one of said
shocks or strains occurring in said movable blades
connections being yieldable.
23. In a machine of the class described, a set
support being substantially parallel to the acting
movable blades and sliding supports against
in directions substantially parallel to said acting
edges.
10
of parallel stationary blades arranged in at least
25. A method for producing crude ?bre which
two pairs with a slot between the blades of each
pair and with the slots in alignment for the pas
sage of plant stalks therethrough, a pair of mov
comprises advancing plant stalks in a generally
lengthwise direction while rubbing and bending
said plant stalks by forces transmitted thereto
with generally circular motion within planes sub
stantially perpendicular to the general direction
of movement of said plant stalks in advancing,
for loosening shives from the crude fibre.
26. A method for threshing ?ax straw to ob
15 able blades between the two pairs of stationary
blades and spaced apart to provide a slot forthe
passage therethrough of stalks passing through
the slots between the stationary blades, and means
for moving said movable blades with generally
20 circular motion in planes substantially perpen
dicular to the direction of the passage of plant
stalks through the machine to bend said stalks
back and forth across the edges of the slots be
tween the stationary blades and also rub the stalks
25 along said edges in directions longitudinal with
respect thereto.
'
24. In a machine for treating ?bre-bearing ma
terial, one or more movable blades each having
tain the seed therefrom and also for decorticating
the same to produce crude ?bre therefrom, which
comprises advancing the straw substantially end
wise while bending and rubbing said straw by
forces transmitted thereto with generally circular
motion within planes substantially perpendicular -
to the general direction of movement of said ?ax
straw while advancing.
GEORGE A. LOWRY.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
1 525 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа