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Патент USA US2130408

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\ Sept. 20, 1938.
¢. H. ANGELL-
2,130,408
CONVERSION OF HYDROCARBON OILS
Filed May 16, 1934
COKING
CHAMBER
\~ _
_
_
_
_ _ ___
__
__._\
AND
COLUMN
INVENTOR
CHA
H. ANGELL
BY
TTORNEY
2,130,408
Patented Sept. 20, 1938
umrso STATES PAT
OFF IZCJE
2,130,408
CONVERSION OF HYDROCA'RBON OILS
Charles H. Angell, Chicago, ‘111., assignor to Uni
versal Oil Products Company, Chicago, ‘111., a
corporation of ‘Delaware
Application May 16, 1934, Serial No. 725,880
'7 Claims.
‘The invention particularly refers to an im
proved'process for the fractional distillation of
hydrocarbon oils of relatively wide boiling range,
n
suchas crude petroleum, for example, accom
5 panied by the pyrolytic conversion of selected
low-boiling fractions of the charging stock, in
cluding any motor fuel components of inferior
quality, under conditions regulated to produce
‘ high yields of motor fuel of good anti-knock value
10 and the use of the resulting highly heated prod
ucts to coke residual liquid resulting from the
conversion, under independently controlled con
ditions, of the higher boiling fractions of the
charging stock.
In operations of the general character above
outlined wherein use is made of the available
excess heat in the products resulting from con
version of the relatively low-boiling oils to effect
or assist coking of residual oil, the vaporous prod
20 ucts from the coking zone normally contain a
considerable quantity of excess heat over that
15
required for their fractionation.
The present in
vention makes use of the excess heat in the
vaporous products from the coking zone to effect
25 or assist fractional distillation of the charging
stock for the process by indirect heat exchange
between the charging stock and the vaporous
products from the coking zone, prior to fraction
ation of the vaporous products. This partial
30 cooling of the vaporous products from the coking
zone, prior to their fractionation also serves as a
method and means of facilitating their subse
quent fractionation and removing therefrom
high-boiling components of a high coke-forming
35
nature, including any particles of tar, pitch and
the like entrained in and carried over with the
vapors from the coking operation, thus prevent
ing the inclusion of such materials in the reflux
condensate formed by fractionation of the vapor
ous products of the process. Such high coke
forming materials would contaminate the re?ux
condensate and cause excessive coking in the
vheating coil to which the re?ux condensate is
returned for further conversion.
45
In one speci?c embodiment, the invention com
relative to ‘that at which they are formed, with
drawing the non-vaporous residual liquid from
the vaporizing zone and subjecting the same to
coking in a separate low-pressure coking zone,
subjecting the vaporous products from the crack
densed as re?ux condensate and separated into
selected relatively low~boiling and high-boiling
fractions, subjecting fractionated vapors of the
ing the resulting distillate, returning high-boiling
fractions of the re?ux condensate to further con
version, together with said high-boiling fractions
of the charging stock, subjecting selected low
boiling fractions of the charging stock, including
any components within the boiling range of motor
fuel but of poor anti-knock value, together ‘with
said low-boiling fractions of the re?ux conden
sate, to independently controlled conversion con
of motor fuel of good anti-knock value, intro
ducing the conversion products from the last
mentioned conversion stage, while still in highly
heated state, into ‘direct contact with the residual
materials undergoing coking, for the purpose of
assisting the coking operation, and heating the
charging stock, for the purpose of effecting said
fractional distillation thereof, by indirect contact
with hot vaporous products from the coking zone,
prior to theirfractionation.
,
‘ It will be apparent from the foregoing that the
various features of the invention are cooperative _
and mutually contribute to produce the desired
?nal results; for example, charging stock for the
process is heated to effect its fractional distilla
tion and desired separation into various compo
nents by exceses heat available from the vapors
resulting from coking of the residual liquid con
version products of the process which, in turn,
is accomplished by the use of highly heated
selected low-boiling oils, said low-boiling oils as
well as higher boiling oils which are converted
relatively low-boiling and high-boiling fractions,
50 subjecting high-boiling fractions of the charging
illustrates one‘ speci?c form of apparatus in
which the process may be carried out. The
stock to conversion conditions of elevated tem
20
ditions of elevated temperature and superatmos
pheric pressure regulated to produce high yields
to produce the residue for coking being made
available, at least in part,~by~the'fractional distil
lation of the charging stock.
perature and superatmospheric pressure, sepa
rating the resulting vaporous and liquid conver
sion products and subjecting the latter to further
55 vaporization at substantially reduced pressure
10
desired end-boiling point fromthe last mentioned
fractionating stage to condensation and recover
of relatively wide boiling range to fractional
distillation whereby it is separated into selected
prises subjecting hydrocarbon oil charging ‘stock
UT
ing and coking operation to fractionation whereby
their insu?iciently converted components are con
The accompanying diagrammatic drawing
drawing and 7the accompanying description
thereof will serve ,to more clearly illustrate the
speci?c embodiment of the invention above out
lined as well as some of the many possible modi
55
2
2,130,408
?cations thereof which are entirely within the
scope of the present invention.
Referring to the drawing, hydrocarbon oil
charging stock for the process is supplied through
line I and valve 2 to pump 3 by means of which
it may be fed through line 4, valve 5, heat ex
changer 6, line 1 and valve 8 into distilling and
fractionating column 9. Heat exchanger 6 serves
the purpose of heating the charging stock by
10 indirect contact with hot vaporous products of
the process, as will be later more fully described.
Ordinarily all of the heat required for distilla
tion of the charging stock may be supplied in
this manner, but it is within the scope of the
invention, when desired, to supply additional
heat thereto in any suitable well known manner,
not illustrated.
The charging stock supplied to column 9 is
separated by fractionation into selected relatively
low-boiling and high-boiling fractions. The latter
may be withdrawn from the lower portion of
column 9 through line In and valve H' to pump
l2 by means of which they are supplied through
line l3, valve l4 and line 15 to conversion in
heating coil l6.
When the charging stock contains an appre
ciable quantity of desirable low-boiling compo
nents, such as, for example, motor fuel or motor
fuel fractions of satisfactory anti-knock value,
30 they may be withdrawn as fractionated vapors‘
from the upper portion of column 9, together
with gas produced by the distilling operation, and
supplied through line H and valve [8 to con
densation and cooling in condenser I9. The re
sulting distillate and gas passes through line 20
and valve 2| to collection and separation in re
ceiver 22. Uncondensable 'gas may be released
from the receiver through line 23 and valve 24.
Distillate may be withdrawn from receiver 22
through line 25 and valve 26 to storage or to any
desired treatment. When desired, a regulated
portion of the distillate collected in receiver 22
may be recirculated by well known means, not
illustrated, to the upper portion of column 9 to
serve as a, re?uxing and cooling medium to assist
cooling and fractionation of the vapors.
In case the charging stock contains no appre
ciable quantity of desirable low-boling compo
nents, such as motor fuel or motor fuel frac
tions of satisfactory anti-knock value, any other
selected low-boiling components, including poor
anti-knock motor fuel or motor fuel fractions
as well as, when desired, somewhat higher boiling
materials such as naphtha, kerosene or kerosene
distillate and the like, may be recovered in re
ceiver 22, in the manner previously described, to
be withdrawn therefrom, all or in part, through
line 21 and valve 28 to pump 29 by means of
which they are supplied through line 30, valve 3|
60 and line 32 to further conversion or reforming in
heating coil 33.
In case desirable low-boiling components of the
charging stock, such as previously mentioned,
are collected in receiver 22, other selectedlow
65 boiling components, including any motor fuel or
motor fuel fractions of poor anti-knock value as
The oil supplied to heating coil I6 is subjected
therein to the desired conversion temperature,
preferably at a substantial superatmospheric pres
sure, by means of heat supplied from a furnace
39 of any suitable form and the stream of heated
oil is discharged from the heating coil through
line 40 and valve 4| into reaction chamber 42.
Chamber 42 is also preferably maintained at a
substantial superatmospheric pressure and, al
though not indicated in the drawing, is preferably
well insulated against the excessive loss of heat
so that conversion of the heated products sup
plied to this zone, and particularly their vaporous
components, may continue in the reaction cham
ber. In the case here illustrated, both vaporous 15V
and liquid conversion products are discharged in
commingled state from the‘ lower portion of
chamber 42 through line 43 and valve 44 into
vaporizing chamber 45. It is, however, within
the scope of the invention to separately with 20
draw a regulated portion or all of the vaporous
products from chamber 42 at any desired point
or plurality of points in this zone, in which case
the vapors separately withdrawn from the reac
tion chamber may be supplied directly to frac
tionator 59 or to heat exchanger 6 or they may
be introduced at any desired point or plurality
of points into chamber 45, although well known
means for accomplishing this are not illustrated
in the drawing.
30
Chamber 45 is preferably operated at a sub
stantially reduced pressure relative to that em
ployed in reaction chamber 42, by means of
which further vaporization of the liquid conver
sion products supplied to-this zone from the re 35
action chamber is accomplished. The vapors
evolved by further distillation of the liquid con
version products in chamber 45, as Well as any
vapors supplied to this zone from the reaction
chamber, are withdrawn from the upper portion
of the vaporizing chamber and supplied, as will
be later more fully described, to fractionation in
fractionator 59.
Residual liquid conversion products remaining
unvaporized in chamber 45 are withdrawn from
the lower portion of this zone through line 46 and 45
supplied through valve 41 coking chamber 48
wherein they are reduced to substantially dry
coke.
. The oil supplied to heating coil 33 is subjected
therein to the desired conversion temperature, ‘’
preferably at a substantial superatmospheric
pressure, by means of heat supplied from furnace
49 of any suitable form. Preferably, the rela
tively low-boiling oil supplied to heating coil 33
is subjected therein to more severe conversion
conditions than the higher boiling oil supplied to
heating coil I6 and when motor fuel or motor fuel
fractions are included in the low-boiling oils sup
plied to heating coil 33 the conversion conditions 60
maintained in this zone are regulated to materially
improve their motor fuel characteristics, particu
larly with respect to anti-knock value, without ex
cessively altering their boiling range. The highly
heated products are discharged fromv heating coil 65
33 through line 50 and are introduced through
well as, when desired, somewhat higher boiling
one or a plurality of suitable lines 5| controlled
materials such as naphtha, kerosene or kerosene
by valves 52 into coking chamber 48 at any de
sired point or plurality of points in this zone.
distillate and thelike, may be withdrawn from
70 one or a plurality of suitable intermediate points
in column 9, such as, for example, through line
34 and valve 35, to pump 36 by means of which
they aresupplied through line 31, valve 38 and
2.5
Preferably, however, the heated products from 70
heating coil 33 come into direct and intimate
contact in chamber 48 with the residual material
line 32 to conversion or reforming in heating coil
undergoing coking in this zone or, when desired,
the residual liquid from chamber 45 may be com
33.
mingled with the stream of heated products from 75;
,
3
2,130,408
heating coil 33and the commingled materials in
troduced into the coking chamber, by well known
means not illustrated. In any case, the highly
heated products from heating coil 33 furnish heat
required to effect reduction of the residual liquid
from chamber 45 to substantially dry coke in
coking chamber 48. The invention is, however,
not limited to the introduction of the total prod
ucts from heating coil 33 into the coking zone
10 inasmuch as any excess of such materials over
the quantity required for producing coke of the
desired characteristics in the coking zone may,
when desired, be supplied to reaction chamber 42,
vaporizing chamber 45, or heat exchanger 6, by
well known means not illustrated.
Coking chamber 48 is preferably operated at
substantially atmospheric or relatively low super
atmospheric pressure although, when desired,
superatmospheric pressures up to 150 pounds, or
Vaporous products maybe withdrawn, as'previ
ously mentioned, from the upper. portion of cham
ber .45 and may be directed through line 65 and
valve 66' to heat exchanger 6 or they may pass, by
well known means not illustrated in the drawing,
direct to fractionator 59.
'
v
The components of the Vaporous products of
the process supplied to- fractionator 59 boiling
above the range of the desired ?nal light distillate
product of the process are condensed in this zone 10
as reflux condensate which may be withdrawn,
when desired, as a single stream from the lower
portion of this zone through line 61 and valve 68
to pump 69 to be returned therefrom through line
l5and valve ‘ill to further conversion in heating
coil 96, or the re?ux condensate may, when de
sired, be separated in column 59 into selected
relatively low-boiling and high-boiling fractions,
in which case only the latter are supplied, as de
20 more, per square inch may be employed in this
zone, in which case a suitable pump, not illus
scribed, to heating coil [6 while selected low. 20
boiling fractions, comprising, for example, such
trated, may be employed for introducing residual
liquid from chamber 45 into chamber 48. When
desired, a plurality of coking chambers similar to
25 chamber 48, but not illustrated, may be utilized
and may be simultaneously operated or, prefer
ably, are alternately operated, cleaned and pre
pared for further operation so that the coking
stage of the process as well as the cracking
30 stages is continuous. Coke may be allowed to
accumulate within the coking chamber to be re
materials as high-boiling motor fuel fractions or
naphtha, pressure distillate bottoms, kerosene or
kerosene distillate and the like may be withdrawn
from one or a plurality of suitable intermediate 25
moved therefrom in any suitable well known man
ner after its operation is completed. Chamber
48 is provided with a drain-line 53 controlled by
valve 54.
This line may also serve as a means
point, preferably comprising motor fuel of good
anti-knock value, are withdrawn, together with 35
of introducing steam, water or other suitable cool
uncondensable gas from the upper portion of
ing medium into the coking chamber, after it has
been substantially ?lled ~with coke and isolated
fractionator 59 through line 79 and valve ll to
be subjected to condensation and cooling in con
denser '19. The resulting distillate and gas
passes through line 8i) and valve 8| to collection 40
and separation in receiver 82. Uncondensable
gas may be released from the receiver through
line 83 and valve 84. Distillate may be With
drawn from receiver 82 through line 85 and valve
86 to storage or to any desired further treatment.
A regulated portion of the distillate collected in
receiver 82 may, when desired, be recirculated,
by Well known means, not illustrated, to the up
from the rest of the system, so as to hasten cooling
and facilitate cleaning of the chamber.
Hot Vaporous products are removed from the
upper portion of coking chamber 98 through line
55 and valve 56 and pass through heat exchanger
9, line 51 and valve 58 to fractionation in frac
tionator 59. The relatively hot vapors passing
through heat exchanger 6 come into indirect con
tact in this zone with hydrocarbon oil charging
stock for the process, thereby supplying to the
charging stock a portion, at least, of the heat
required for its fractional distillation. Heat ex
change between the vaporous products from the
coking chamber and the charging stock also serves
to remove from the vapors, by cooling and partial
condensation, high-boiling components of a high
coke-forming nature, including entrained par
ticles of tar, pitch and the like, which would
contaminate the re?ux condensate produced in
fractionator 59. These high-boiling materials re
moved as condensate in heat exchanger 9 may
be withdrawn from the lower portion of this zone
through line 99 and valve 5! to pump 92 and
may be discharged from the system by well known
means, not illustrated, or may be returned to
suitable further treatment within the system.
The drawing illustrates how this material may
be supplied from pump 62 through line 63 and
valve 54 into line 49 to commingle therein with
the residual liquid withdrawn from chamber 185
and supplied to the coking chamber. It is also
70 within the scope of the invention, although not
illustrated, to return the condensate from heat
exchanger 6 to vaporizing chamber 45 or direct to
coking chamber 48, or, when desired, this material
may be returned to reaction chamber 42 at any
75
points in column 59, for example, through line ‘H
and valve 72, to pump 73 by means of which they
are returned through line ‘I4, valve 15 and line 32
to further conversion in heating coil 33, together
with the selected low-boiling fractions of the 30
charging stock, supplied to this zone as previously
described.
Fractionated vapors of the desired end-boiling
desired point-in this zone. H
-
per portion of fractionator 59 to serve as a re
?uxing and coo-ling medium to assist fractiona
50
tion of the vapors and to maintain the desired
vapor outlet temperature from the fractionator.
It will be understood that the invention is not
limited to the speci?c form of apparatus illus
trated and above described since many modi?ca
tions other than those above mentioned are pos
sible within the scope of the invention. For ex~
ample, vaporizing chamber 45 may be eliminated,
in which case the residual liquid from reaction
chamber 92 may be supplied direct to the coking
chamber and Vaporous products from the reac-'
tion chamber subjected to fractionation with or
without ?rst passing through heat exchanger 6.
On the other hand the high-pressure reaction
chamber 42 may be eliminated, when desired, 65
without departing from the scope of the inven
tion, in which case the conversion products from
heating coil 16 are introduced into vaporizing
chamber 45.
In such cases a substantial reduc~
tion in pressure is preferably employed between
the heating coil and the vaporizing chamber and,
when desired, additional well known means may
be employed for cooling the stream of hot con
version products from the heating coil to any de
sired degree, prior to its introduction into the
4
2,130,408
vaporizing chamber. It is also'entirely Within
proximately 6006
the scope of the present invention, when desired,
to subject the vaporous products from the coking
vaporous products from the coking stage of the
system and is subjected to fractional distillation
at substantially atmospheric pressure. The rela
tively high-boiling fractions (i. e. its components
boiling above approximately 550° F.) are sub
zone to fractionation separate from the vaporous
products resulting from conversion of the rela
tively high-boiling oils and to separately con
dense and collect the desired overhead product
of such separate fractionation, in which case the
re?ux condensate resulting from such separate
10 fractionation is preferably separated into selected
relatively low-boiling and high-boiling fractions
which are, respectively, subjected to conversion,
together with the selected low-boiling and high
boiling fractions of the charging stock or, when
15 desired, the total re?ux condensate from the
coking operation may be subjected to further con
version, together with the high-boiling fractions
of the charging stock.
In an apparatus such as illustrated and above
20
described, the preferred operating conditions for
accomplishing the process of‘ the present inven
tion may be approximately as follows: The heat
ing coil to which the relatively high-boiling oils
are supplied may employ an outlet conversion
25 temperature ranging, for example, from 850 to
950° F., or thereabouts, preferably with a sup
eratmospheric pressure, measured at the outlet
from the heating coil, of from 100 to 500 pounds
or more, per square inch. Substantially the same
30 or a somewhat reduced superatmospheric pres
sure may be employed in the reaction chamber
and preferably a substantially reduced pressure
ranging, for example, from 100 pounds, or there
abouts, per square inch to substantially atmos
35 pheric pressure is employed in the vaporizing
chamber.
The pressures employed in the frac
tionating, condensing and collecting portions of
the cracking system may be substantially equal
ized or somewhat reduced relative to the pressure
40 employed in the vaporizing chamber. The tem
perature to which the charging stock is heated
to effect its fractional distillation may range, de
pending upon its characteristics, for example,
from 450 to 700° F., or thereabouts, and heating
45 of the charging stock may be accomplished at
any desired pressure from substantially atmos
pheric to 150 pounds, or more, per square inch.
The distilling and fractionating column to which
the heated charging stock is supplied is prefer
50 ably operated at substantially atmospheric pres
'sure, although sub-atmospheric or superatmos
pheric pressures may be employed in this zone,
when desired. The heating coil to which the rel
atively low~boiling oils are supplied may utilize
a conversion temperature, measured at the out
let therefrom, ranging, for example, from 925 to
1050° F., or more, preferably with a superatmos
pheric pressure at this point in the system of
from 300 to 1000 pounds, or thereabouts, per
60 square inch. The coking chamber is preferably
operated at substantially atmospheric or a rela
tively low superatmospheric pressure up to 100
pounds, or thereabouts, per square inch, although
higher superatmospheric pressures up to that
65 employed at the outlet from the light oil heating
coil will be employed in the coking zone, when
desired.
The following is a speci?c example of one of
the many possible operations of the process of the
70 present invention as it may be accomplished in
an apparatus of the character illustrated and
above described: A California crude of about 25°
A. P. I. gravity containing about 5% of material
boiling below 276° F., and about 22% boiling be
75 low 437° F. is heated to a temperature of ap
by heat exchange with hot
jected in a heating coil to an outlet conversion
temperature of approximately 940° F., at a super
atmospheric pressure of about 375 pounds per
square inch. The heated products are introduced 10
into a reaction chamber operated at substantially
the same pressure, from which vaporous and
liquid conversion products are withdrawn in com
mingled state and introduced into a reduced pres—
sure vaporizing chamber operated at a super 15
atmospheric pressure of about 60 pounds per
square inch. Non-vaporous residual liquid is
Withdrawn from the vaporizing chamber and
introduced into a coking chamber operated at a
superatmospheric pressure of about 50 pounds 20
per square inch, wherein it is reduced to coke.
The vaporous conversion products, including va
pors from the coking operation after removal of
their heavy components by indirect heat ex
change with the charging stock, are subjected 25
to fractionation at substantially the same pres
sure as that employed in the coking chamber,
whereby their insufficiently converted compo
nents are condensed as re?ux condensate and
fractionated vapors having an end-boiling point 30
of approximately 387° F., are condensed and col
lected as the ?nal motor fuel product of the
process. High-boiling fractions of the re?ux con
densate, boiling above approximately 550° R, are
returned to the heating coil for further conver
35
sion, together with the high-boiling fractions of
the charging stock. Low-boiling components of
the charging stock, boiling below approximately
550° F., are subjected, together with low-boiling
fractions of the re?ux condensate, boiling be
tween approximately 385 and 550° F., to a con
version temperature of approximately 970° F., at
a superatmospheric pressure of about 800 pounds
per square inch and the resulting heated prod
ucts are introduced into direct contact with the
residual material undergoing .coking in the cok
ing chamber. This operation will yield, per bar
rel of charging stock, about 72% of motor fuel
having an octane number of approximately 70
and about 60 pounds of low volatile coke, the 50
remainder being chargeable principally to uncon
densable gas.
I claim as my invention:
1. A conversion process which comprises heat
ing hydrocarbon oil to cracking temperature 55
under pressure in a heating zone and subsequently
separating the same into vapors and unvaporized
oil, distilling the unvaporized oil to coke and
passing the vapors thus formed, prior to any pre
vious fractionation thereof, in indirect heat ex 60
change relation with fresh charging oil for the
process to preheat the latter and to separate high
coke-forming constituents from these vapors, dis
tilling the thus preheated charging oil and sepa
rating therefrom a relatively heavy fraction and 65
a lighter fraction, supplying the relatively heavy
fraction to said heating zone, heating said lighter
fraction in a second heating zone to higher crack
ing temperature than the oil in the ?rst-named
heating zone and discharging resultant heated 70
products into contact with said unvaporized oil
to assist the coking thereof, fractionating the
vapors uncondensed by said heatexchange inde
pendently of the charging oil to form relatively
heavy and light re?ux condensates, returning such
2,130,408
heavy and light re?ux condensates respectively
to the ?rst-named heating zone and said second
heating zone, and ?nally condensing the frac
tionated vapors.
2. A conversion process which comprises heat
ing hydrocarbon oil to cracking temperature
under pressure in a heating zone and subsequently
separating the same into vapors and unvaporized
oil, distilling the unvaporized oil to coke and
10 passing the vapors thus formed, prior to any
previous fractionation thereof, in indirect heat
exchange relation with fresh charging oil for the
process to preheat the latter and to separate
high coke-forming constituents from these va
15 pors, returning such separated constituents to
the coking operation, distilling the thus pre
heated charging o‘il and separating therefrom a
relatively heavy fraction and a lighter fraction,
supplying the relatively heavy fraction to said
5
same to coke in a coking zone, combining the
vapors evolved in the coking zone with the ?rst~
named vapors and passing the resultant mixture,
prior to any previous fractionation thereof, in
indirect heat exchange relation with fresh charg
ing oil for the process to heat the latter and to
separate high coke-forming constituents from the
vapors, introducing such separated constituents
to the coking zone for further treatment therein,
distilling the thus heated charging oil and sepa 10
rating therefrom a relatively heavy fraction and
a lighter fraction, supplying the relatively heavy
fraction to said heating zone, heating said lighter
fraction in a second heating zone, to higher crack
ing temperature than the oil in the ?rst-named 15
heating zone and discharging resultant heated
products into the coking zone to assist the coking
of the unvaporized oil therein, fractionating the
vapors uncondensed by said heat exchange inde
pendently of the charging oil and returning re 20
20 heating zone, heating said lighter fraction in a
second heating zone to higher cracking tempera- _ sultant re?ux condensate to the process for re
ture than the oil in the ?rst-named heating zone ‘ treatment, and ?nally condensing the fraction
and discharging resultant heated products into
contact with said unvaporized oil to assist the
25 coking thereof, fractionating the vapors uncon
densed by said heat exchange independently of
the charging oil to form relatively heavy and
light re?ux condensates, returning such heavy
and light re?ux condensates respectively to the
30 ?rst-named heat‘mg zone and said second heat
ing zone, and ?nally condensing the fractionated
vapors.
3. A conversion process which comprises heat
‘ ing hydrocarbon oil to cracking temperature
35 under pressure in a heating zone and subsequently
separating the same into vapors and. unvapor
ized oil in a separating zone, removing the un
vaporized oil from the separating zone and distil
ling the same to coke in a coking zone, combin
40 ing the vapors evolved in the coking zone with
the ?rst-named vapors and passing the resultant
mixture, prior to any previous fractionation
thereof, in indirect heat exchange relation with
fresh charging oil for the process to heat the
latter
and to separate high coke-forming con
45
stituents from the vapors, distilling the thus
heated charging oil and separating therefrom a
relatively heavy fraction and a lighter fraction,
supplying the relatively heavy fraction to said
heating zone, heating said lighter fraction in a
50
second heating zone, to higher cracking tempera
ture than the oil in the ?rst-named heating zone
and discharging resultant heated products into
the coking zone to assist the coking of the un
55 vaporized oil therein, fractionating the vapors
uncondensed by said heat exchange independently
of the charging oil and returning resultant re?ux
condensate to the process for retreatment, and
?nally condensing the fractionated vapors.
4. A conversion process which comprises heat
60
ated vapors.
5. The process as de?ned in claim 4 further
characterized in that at least a portion of said 25
re?ux condensate is returned to the ?rst-named
heating zone.
' 6. The process as de?ned in claim 4 further
characterized in that at least a portion of said
re?ux condensate is returned to the second
named heating zone.
7. A conversion process which comprises heat
ing hydrocarbon oil to cracking temperature
under pressure in a heating zone and subsequently
separating the same into vapors and unvaporized 35
oil in a separating zone, removing the unvapor
ized oil from the separating zone and distilling
the same to coke in a coking zone, combining the
vapors evolved in the coking zone with the ?rst
named vapors and passing the resultant mixture, 40
prior to any previous fractionation thereof, in
indirect heat exchange relation with fresh charg
ing oil for the process to heat the latter and to
separate high coke-forming constituents from the
vapors, introducing such separated constituents 45
to the coking zone for further treatment therein,
distilling the thus heated charging oil and sepa
rating therefrom a relatively heavy fraction and
a lighter fraction, supplying the relatively heavy
fraction to said heating zone, heating said lighter 50
fraction in a second heating zone, to higher
cracking temperature than the oil in the ?rst
named heating zone and discharging resultant
heated products into the coking zone to assist
the coking of the unvaporized oil therein, frac 55
tionating the vapors uncondensed by said heat
exchange independently of the charging oil to
form a relatively heavy re?ux condensate and a
ing hydrocarbon oil to cracking temperature
lighter re?ux condensate, supplying such heavy 60
and lighter re?ux condensates respectively to the
under pressure in a heating zone and subsequently
separating the same into vapors and unvaporized
ing zone, and ?nally condensing the fractionated
oil in a separating zone, removing the. unvaporized
65 oil from the separating zone and distilling the
?rst-named heating zone and said second heat
vapors.
CHARLES H. ANGELL.
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