Патент USA US2130414код для вставки
¿Sept 20, 1938. ' E. L, BowLEs ’ 2,130,414 ELECTRIC vACOUSTIC RECEIVER s Filed 4 Oct . 7, 1932 ‘[1’ RecVER f 1'7"? venia? AMPFIE 53% r 'I wïîo 142153I Patented Sept. 20, 1938 UNAM ' unirse stares 3:;1; 2,130,414 ' ELECTRIC ACOUSTKC RECEIVER Edward Lindley Bowles, Wellesley Farms, Mass. Application October 7, 1932, Serial No. 636,705 3 Claims. (Cl. 177-352) The present invention relates to signaling, and ble (or sonic) or super-audible (or supersonic). more particularly to electric-acoustic receivers. The term “acoustic” will therefore be used, for The speed of travel of electric waves, such as radio Waves, in free space, asis well known, is that of light which', in the case of many problems, may be considered as substantially instantaneous. The velocity of sound in air, on the other hand, ' as is also well known, is very low-,by comparison, . being, under normal conditions of sound inten sity and atmosphere, in the neighborhood of 1,000 ft. per second, and in water only about four times this latter value. An object of the present invention, therefore, is to provide a novel electric-acoustic receiver for indicating or otherwise determining this differ ence in the speeds of travel of electric waves and of audible or super-audible sound waves in either air or water to determine either the position or the direction, or both, of one object with respect to 20 another. It is well known, forexample, that if a ship at the transmitting station, is equipped to send out radio waves modulated by a 1,000 cycle (or anyother value) oscillator, for very short periods; and brevity, in the claims to denote any elastic wave. A further object is to provide a. new and lm proved time-measuring device. This device may have generalrapplication, but it is particularly adapted for use in the said receiver. Other and further objects will be explained hereinafter, and will be particularly pointed out ` in the appended claims. The invention will now be explained more fully in connection with the accompanying drawing, the single figure of which is a diagrammatic view of circuits and apparatus arranged and construct ed according to a preferred embodiment of the ï present invention, illustrating a. receiver of elec tric and acoustic waves together with a time inter val measuring or indicating device. A radio receiver 2l of any convenient type is diagrammatically shown associated with a con ventional loop antenna 23 and a vertical antenna 25 to render it unidirectionally responsive. The loop 23 has a fixed axis 33, to which is fixed also a directional sound receiver 2t, comprising, pref 25 if., at the same time, a signal in the form of an acoustic wave is sent out from this same modu erably, a parabolic reflector or concentrator 2l and a microphone 28 disposed at the focus of the lating source, and for short periods of the same signal, will` in accordance with the present in vention, and by Virtue of thediiîerence in time of arrival of these two modulating impulses, be able to determine the distance or the direction, or both, reflector 21. In this way, the radio-wave and the sound-wave receivers 23 and 26 are oriented in like manner, both pointing to the same source of the respective waves. The microphone 2S is con nected, by conductors 22, to an ampliñer 29 which, in turn, is connected by conductors 2li, to a relay ll. A direct indication of the distance between the sending and _the receiving vessels, or other of the transmitting ship. objects, may be furnished ‘oy the indicating device duration; then another vessel, at the receiving station, equipped to receive both the periodically C; O modulated radio signal and the periodic sound v If the difference in time between the arrival of |00 comprising an indicating needle 10 and an ` the sound wave, through the air. let us say, and associated scale 1l. A control tube 18 of the grid controlled are type for example is employed. This is a gaseous tube, so arranged and adjusted that. if the bias voltage on its grid 95 is kept suiiiciently negative, there the modulation pulse in the radio wave is one second, the distance of the transmitting boat, or lother object, from the receiving source, will be , 1,000 feet. If the difference is two seconds, the corresponding distance is 2.000 feet; if three sec onds, 3,000 feet; and so on. The time interval be tween the arrival of a pulse of the modulated 45 radio wave and the arrival of the acoustic Wave pulse is thus a measure of the distance between -will be no arc conduction between its thermionic ñlament 91 and its plate or anode 9-9. Under these conditions, the grid 95 will exercise a control of the thermionic space current from the cathode 91 to the anode 99. just as in any other three the transmitting and the receiving stations. ‘ electrode, high, vacuum tube. If. on the other If the sound-radiating device is coupled to the hand, the voltage of the grid 95 is gra dually made water rather than to the air of a transmitting more and more positive, a point will be reached medium, and if, all other conditions remaining when an arc discharge will take place between the thermionic cathode 91 and the anode 99. After this arc takes place, the grid 95 loses all control ot the space current from thelñlament 91 to the plate 99. The control of the grid can be restored the same, the difference of arrival of the two 'pulses is one second, the distance between stations would be approximately 4,000 feet. As an example of elastic waves, reference might be made to acoustic or sound Waves, whether audi by interrupting the plate circuit, and by making i 2,130,414. ie grid again negative to the proper degree, and ien reconnecting the anode circuit. The needle 10 is fixed to a shaft |0|, to which i fixed a small disc |03 of magnetic material. nmediately above this disc is a magnetic driving oil 13 which, when excited, magnetizes a rotat ble plate |05, causing it to attract the disc |03 nd thereby to clutch this disc and connect it lgidly to the element |05. A thin iilm 68 of non iagnetic material is placed between the magnetic lement |05 and the disc |03, so that they shall .ot tend to adhere due to any slight remanent magnetic effect. The current is led into and out f this clutch-control coil 13, along conductors 39 `nd 40, by means of commutators |01«and |08, counted upon an insulating cylinder H4, and .ssociated with brushes ||| and ||3. The com nutators |01 and |08, the cylinder H4, the con luctors 39 and 40 mounted therein, and the clutch ontrol coil 13 are rigidly ñxed with respect to »ne another thereby forming a unitary structure. The cylinder ||4 carries also a gear ||1 operated )y a pinion | I9~ that is driven from a synchronous notor 8| through- a pinion |20 and a gear |2|. ['he synchronous motor 8| is driven at a prede ;ermined speed by means of a vacuum-tube oscil ator or other power source 83. When the circuit of the coil 13 is open, land the :lutch |03, |05 is, therefore, ineiîective, the syn :hronous motor 8| rotates the cylinder ||4 and ,ts associated, fixed parts, without turning the disk |03, the needle shaft |0| and the needle 10 mounted thereon. If a current is now sent in through the brush | | l, and out through its brush ||3, or vice versa,- the clutch control coil 13 will magnetize the clutch face |05, thus causing the shaft |0| to turn with the gear ||1. The needle 10„with the shaft |0| and the needle structure associated therewith, will continue to rotate, the needle 10, progressing along the scale 1|, just as long as there is current in the clutch coil 13. To upper clutch, the clutch disc |03, that is connected rigidly with the needle structure being- adapted to become clutched to a lower clutch disc |43. The space between the clutch discs |03 and |43 is made suíilciently large so that they do not come in con tact. In this way, rotation of the clutch structure will simply bring the needleback to zero, as deter mined by a stop |41.> Further rotation of the lower clutch structure will in no way harm the needle structure because of the above-mentioned space between the elements |03 and |43 and the resulting “slip”, l A controlling relay 15 is connected with the radio receiver 2| by the conductors 30 and a controlling relay 11 is similarly connected with the amplifier 29 of the acoustic receiver 26 by the conductors 24. The relay 15 controls normally open or disconnected contact members |6| and the relay 11 controls normally closed or connected contact members |69. The conductors 30 are re spectively connected with contact members 81 and 89 and the conductors 24 with contact mem bers 9| and 93. Contact members |5|, |53', |55 and |51 are mounted upon the sliding rod 31, so as to be caused to engage simultaneously the re 25 spective contact members 81, 89, 9| and 93. Assuming that the needle pointer 10 is at zero, and that the control knob 19 is depressed, the re- . spective pairs~of contact members 81 and |5|, 89 and |53, 9| and |55, and 93 and |51, will be come engaged, and the contact members |21 will 30~ have become opened, the latter condition preclud ing th'e existence of any current in the Zero-return clutch coil |3|. Let it further be assumed that a distant ship sends out, simultaneously, an audio 35 pulse, modulating a radio wave, and an audio pulse, acting on the air or water medium directly. The radio pulse, obviously the iirst to arrive. will cause the closing of the contact members |6I of the relay 15. The closing of these contact mem 40 bers |6| will effect the sh'ort-circuiting of a por tion of a voltage-divider wire |63, connected be prevent the needle from moving 01T the scale 1|, a . tween the iilament 91 and the grid 95 ofthe con protective relay |23 is arranged to short-circuit trol tube 18. The bias of -the grid 95 will thus be the clutch coil 13 at points |25 and |26 and is ac come reduced to a point where an arc discharge 45 tuated by the pressure of the needle 10 as it will take place between the ñlament 91 and the reaches the upper end of its scale range. The needle 10 may at any time be brought back plate. 99. The plate current will course from the plate 99, to the zero position, as long as the synchronous through a limiting resistor |65, past the terminal motor 8| is in operation, by closingcontact mem |25, in through the brush HI, the commutator bers |21, causing current from a battery |29 to |08 and the conductor 39, through thellclutc'h con course through a second clutch coil |3I, through trol coil 13, conductor 40, commutator |01 »and brushes |33 and |34. One of the contact mem ~brush |f|3, then, past the terminal |26 and bers |21 is mounted upon a sliding rod 31, so as to through a plate battery |61, and through relay ' be manipulated by an operating switch handle 19, contact |69, back to the iilament 91. Owing to 55 and the other contact member |21 is stationary. the characteristics of the control tube 18 already The circuit is from one terminal of the battery described, this condition will prevail even after the |29, by way of a conductor 66, through the contact initiatingrpulse has passed, thus permitting the members |21, by way of a conductor 42, to the contact members |6| of relay 15 to reopen. Thus brush |33, a commutator |31. by way of a con the needle 10 once it has become actuated, will 60 ductor 69. to the coil |3|; and from the coil |3I, continue to move up the scale 1| until the acoustic by way of a conductor 12, to a commutator |39, pulse received by the acoustic-receiving device 21 the brush |34, and by way of a conductor 61, back causes the contacts |69 of relay 11 to open, thus to the other terminal of the battery |29. Upon opening _the plate circuit of the control tube 18 the closing of this circuit, to send current through Upon the opening of' 65 this clutch coil |3I, a magnetic ñeld will be and interrupting the l arc. this circuit. the grid 95 is enabled regain control created. The entire, lower, magnetic-clutch of the tube 18 since the contact to` members |6| of structure, carrying the coil |3|, the commutators the relay 15 have already opened,v and therefore, |31 and |39 disposed about an insulating lcylinder the original, higher negative bias already prevails .46, and a gear I4 | , also carried by the cylinder 46, 70 will thereupon be actuated to rotate the needle 10 in the tube \18. If the needle 10 and its moving system have in a counter-clockwise direction. This is effected by the synchronous motor 8| driving a pinion |42 been critically damped by the friction of a thread that meshes with the gear |4|, the pinion |42 edly adjusted, 'clamping screw 14, its rotation will being driven from the pinion |20 by a pinion 41 cease the moment the current through the clutch 75 and a gear 48. The lower clutch is similar to the AAcoil is` interrupted. The needle 10 will thus come 50 3 2,130,414 to rest on the scale 'Il at a distance corresponding to the time interval between the radio-received and the acoustically-received pulse signals from ' the transmitting ship. There will be a definite relationship between this time interval and the distance between the transmitting and the receiv ing devices. The scale 1| may, therefore, be cali brated to read distance directly. Modifications within the scope of the present invention will readily occur to persons skilled in the art. It is therefore desired that the above electric-wave signals, means for receiving acous tic-wave signals, an indicator, means for actuat ing the indicator, the said actuating means being normally ineffective,V a normally open relay, a normally closed relay, a circuit controlled by the normally open relay, a circuit controlled by the normally closed relay, means controlled by the electric-wave signal receiving means for closing the normally open relay, thereby to close the ñrst named circuit, means controlled by the closing of I the ñrst-named circuit for rendering the actuat ing means eñective to start to actuate the indi cator and for thereafter maintaining the actuat ing means effective to actuate the indicator ir respective .of the position occupied by the normal ly open relay, means controlled byV the acoustic described embodiment of the invention shall be regarded as illustrative of the invention, and not restrictive, and that the appended claims be con strued broadly, except insofar as it may be neces sary to impose limitations in view of the prior art.V What is claimed is: Wave signal receiving means for opening the nor 1. A receiver comprising, means for receiving mally closed relay, thereby to open the second electric-wave signals, means for receiving acous named circuit, and means controlled by the open 20 tic-Wave signals, an indicator, means for actuat ing of the second-named circuit for rendering the ing the indicator, the said actuating means being 'actuating means ineffective, thereby to stop the normally ineffective, two relays, a grid-controlled, further actuation of the indicator. arc tube having input and output circuits respec 3. Apparatus for measuring time intervals, tively controlled by the relays, means controlled comprising a time indicator, means for actuating by the electric-wave signal _receiving means and the indicator, a relay with contact members nor operative upon the receipt of an electric-wave sig mally open, a second relay with contact members nal thereby for actuating the input-circuit relay, normally closed, a grid-controlled arc tube having means controlled by the input circuit upon the an input circuit in which the normally open con actuation of the input-circuit relay for rendering 30 eiîective the actuating means to cause the actuat ing means to start to actuate the indicator and for thereafter maintaining the actuating means effective to actuate the indicator irrespective of the position occupied by the input-circuit relay, 35 means controlled by the acoustic-Wave signal re ceiving means operative upon the receipt of an 4.0 tact members are connected to maintain the in put circuit normally open and an output circuit in which the normally closed contact members are connected to maintain the output circuit nor mally closed, means for closing the normally open contact members to close the input circuit, means controlled by the closing of the input circuit to render the actuating means effective to actuate acoustic-wave signal thereby for actuating the the indicator, means for opening the normally output-circuit relay, and means controlled by the output-circuit upon the actuation of the output circuit relay for- rendering the actuating means ineffective, thereby to stop the further actuation of the indicator. closed contact members to open the output cir cuit, and means controlled by the opening of the output circuit to render the actuating means in eiîective, thereby to stop the further actuation of the indicator. 2. A receiver comprising, means for receiving _ ‘ l ` EDWARD L. BOWLES.