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Патент USA US2130414

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¿Sept 20, 1938.
' E. L, BowLEs
Filed 4 Oct . 7, 1932
1'7"? venia?
wïîo 142153I
Patented Sept. 20, 1938
' unirse stares
Edward Lindley Bowles, Wellesley Farms, Mass.
Application October 7, 1932, Serial No. 636,705
3 Claims. (Cl. 177-352)
The present invention relates to signaling, and ble (or sonic) or super-audible (or supersonic).
more particularly to electric-acoustic receivers.
The term “acoustic” will therefore be used, for
The speed of travel of electric waves, such as
radio Waves, in free space, asis well known, is that
of light which', in the case of many problems, may
be considered as substantially instantaneous.
The velocity of sound in air, on the other hand, '
as is also well known, is very low-,by comparison,
. being, under normal conditions of sound inten
sity and atmosphere, in the neighborhood of 1,000
ft. per second, and in water only about four times
this latter value.
An object of the present invention, therefore, is
to provide a novel electric-acoustic receiver for
indicating or otherwise determining this differ
ence in the speeds of travel of electric waves and
of audible or super-audible sound waves in either
air or water to determine either the position or the
direction, or both, of one object with respect to
20 another.
It is well known, forexample, that if a ship at
the transmitting station, is equipped to send out
radio waves modulated by a 1,000 cycle (or anyother value) oscillator, for very short periods; and
brevity, in the claims to denote any elastic wave.
A further object is to provide a. new and lm
proved time-measuring device. This device may
have generalrapplication, but it is particularly
adapted for use in the said receiver.
Other and further objects will be explained
hereinafter, and will be particularly pointed out `
in the appended claims.
The invention will now be explained more fully
in connection with the accompanying drawing,
the single figure of which is a diagrammatic view
of circuits and apparatus arranged and construct
ed according to a preferred embodiment of the ï
present invention, illustrating a. receiver of elec
tric and acoustic waves together with a time inter
val measuring or indicating device.
A radio receiver 2l of any convenient type is
diagrammatically shown associated with a con
ventional loop antenna 23 and a vertical antenna
25 to render it unidirectionally responsive. The
loop 23 has a fixed axis 33, to which is fixed also
a directional sound receiver 2t, comprising, pref
25 if., at the same time, a signal in the form of an
acoustic wave is sent out from this same modu
erably, a parabolic reflector or concentrator 2l
and a microphone 28 disposed at the focus of the
lating source, and for short periods of the same
signal, will` in accordance with the present in
vention, and by Virtue of thediiîerence in time of
arrival of these two modulating impulses, be able
to determine the distance or the direction, or both,
reflector 21. In this way, the radio-wave and the
sound-wave receivers 23 and 26 are oriented in
like manner, both pointing to the same source of
the respective waves. The microphone 2S is con
nected, by conductors 22, to an ampliñer 29 which,
in turn, is connected by conductors 2li, to a relay
ll. A direct indication of the distance between
the sending and _the receiving vessels, or other
of the transmitting ship.
objects, may be furnished ‘oy the indicating device
duration; then another vessel, at the receiving
station, equipped to receive both the periodically
C; O modulated radio signal and the periodic sound
If the difference in time between the arrival of
|00 comprising an indicating needle 10 and an
` the sound wave, through the air. let us say, and
associated scale 1l.
A control tube 18 of the grid controlled are type
for example is employed. This is a gaseous tube,
so arranged and adjusted that. if the bias voltage
on its grid 95 is kept suiiiciently negative, there
the modulation pulse in the radio wave is one
second, the distance of the transmitting boat, or
lother object, from the receiving source, will be
, 1,000 feet.
If the difference is two seconds, the
corresponding distance is 2.000 feet; if three sec
onds, 3,000 feet; and so on. The time interval be
tween the arrival of a pulse of the modulated
45 radio wave and the arrival of the acoustic Wave
pulse is thus a measure of the distance between
-will be no arc conduction between its thermionic
ñlament 91 and its plate or anode 9-9. Under
these conditions, the grid 95 will exercise a control
of the thermionic space current from the cathode
91 to the anode 99. just as in any other three
the transmitting and the receiving stations.
‘ electrode, high, vacuum tube. If. on the other
If the sound-radiating device is coupled to the hand, the voltage of the grid 95 is gra dually made
water rather than to the air of a transmitting
more and more positive, a point will be reached
medium, and if, all other conditions remaining
when an arc discharge will take place between the
thermionic cathode 91 and the anode 99. After
this arc takes place, the grid 95 loses all control
ot the space current from thelñlament 91 to the
plate 99. The control of the grid can be restored
the same, the difference of arrival of the two
'pulses is one second, the distance between stations
would be approximately 4,000 feet.
As an example of elastic waves, reference might
be made to acoustic or sound Waves, whether audi
by interrupting the plate circuit, and by making
ie grid again negative to the proper degree, and
ien reconnecting the anode circuit.
The needle 10 is fixed to a shaft |0|, to which
i fixed a small disc |03 of magnetic material.
nmediately above this disc is a magnetic driving
oil 13 which, when excited, magnetizes a rotat
ble plate |05, causing it to attract the disc |03
nd thereby to clutch this disc and connect it
lgidly to the element |05. A thin iilm 68 of non
iagnetic material is placed between the magnetic
lement |05 and the disc |03, so that they shall
.ot tend to adhere due to any slight remanent
magnetic effect. The current is led into and out
f this clutch-control coil 13, along conductors 39
`nd 40, by means of commutators |01«and |08,
counted upon an insulating cylinder H4, and
.ssociated with brushes ||| and ||3. The com
nutators |01 and |08, the cylinder H4, the con
luctors 39 and 40 mounted therein, and the clutch
ontrol coil 13 are rigidly ñxed with respect to
»ne another thereby forming a unitary structure.
The cylinder ||4 carries also a gear ||1 operated
)y a pinion | I9~ that is driven from a synchronous
notor 8| through- a pinion |20 and a gear |2|.
['he synchronous motor 8| is driven at a prede
;ermined speed by means of a vacuum-tube oscil
ator or other power source 83.
When the circuit of the coil 13 is open, land the
:lutch |03, |05 is, therefore, ineiîective, the syn
:hronous motor 8| rotates the cylinder ||4 and
,ts associated, fixed parts, without turning the
disk |03, the needle shaft |0| and the needle 10
mounted thereon. If a current is now sent in
through the brush | | l, and out through its brush
||3, or vice versa,- the clutch control coil 13 will
magnetize the clutch face |05, thus causing the
shaft |0| to turn with the gear ||1. The needle
10„with the shaft |0| and the needle structure
associated therewith, will continue to rotate, the
needle 10, progressing along the scale 1|, just as
long as there is current in the clutch coil 13. To
upper clutch, the clutch disc |03, that is connected
rigidly with the needle structure being- adapted to
become clutched to a lower clutch disc |43. The
space between the clutch discs |03 and |43 is made
suíilciently large so that they do not come in con
tact. In this way, rotation of the clutch structure
will simply bring the needleback to zero, as deter
mined by a stop |41.> Further rotation of the
lower clutch structure will in no way harm the
needle structure because of the above-mentioned
space between the elements |03 and |43 and the
resulting “slip”,
A controlling relay 15 is connected with the
radio receiver 2| by the conductors 30 and a
controlling relay 11 is similarly connected with
the amplifier 29 of the acoustic receiver 26 by the
conductors 24. The relay 15 controls normally
open or disconnected contact members |6| and
the relay 11 controls normally closed or connected
contact members |69. The conductors 30 are re
spectively connected with contact members 81
and 89 and the conductors 24 with contact mem
bers 9| and 93. Contact members |5|, |53', |55
and |51 are mounted upon the sliding rod 31, so
as to be caused to engage simultaneously the re
spective contact members 81, 89, 9| and 93.
Assuming that the needle pointer 10 is at zero,
and that the control knob 19 is depressed, the re- .
spective pairs~of contact members 81 and |5|,
89 and |53, 9| and |55, and 93 and |51, will be
come engaged, and the contact members |21 will
have become opened, the latter condition preclud
ing th'e existence of any current in the Zero-return
clutch coil |3|. Let it further be assumed that a
distant ship sends out, simultaneously, an audio 35
pulse, modulating a radio wave, and an audio
pulse, acting on the air or water medium directly.
The radio pulse, obviously the iirst to arrive. will
cause the closing of the contact members |6I of
the relay 15. The closing of these contact mem 40
bers |6| will effect the sh'ort-circuiting of a por
tion of a voltage-divider wire |63, connected be
prevent the needle from moving 01T the scale 1|, a .
the iilament 91 and the grid 95 ofthe con
protective relay |23 is arranged to short-circuit trol tube
18. The bias of -the grid 95 will thus be
the clutch coil 13 at points |25 and |26 and is ac
come reduced to a point where an arc discharge 45
tuated by the pressure of the needle 10 as it
will take place between the ñlament 91 and the
reaches the upper end of its scale range.
The needle 10 may at any time be brought back plate. 99.
The plate current will course from the plate 99,
to the zero position, as long as the synchronous through a limiting resistor |65, past the terminal
motor 8| is in operation, by closingcontact mem
|25, in through the brush HI, the commutator
bers |21, causing current from a battery |29 to
|08 and the conductor 39, through thellclutc'h con
course through a second clutch coil |3I, through trol
coil 13, conductor 40, commutator |01 »and
brushes |33 and |34. One of the contact mem ~brush |f|3, then, past the terminal |26 and
bers |21 is mounted upon a sliding rod 31, so as to
through a plate battery |61, and through relay '
be manipulated by an operating switch handle 19, contact |69, back to the iilament 91. Owing to 55
and the other contact member |21 is stationary.
the characteristics of the control tube 18 already
The circuit is from one terminal of the battery
described, this condition will prevail even after the
|29, by way of a conductor 66, through the contact initiatingrpulse
has passed, thus permitting the
members |21, by way of a conductor 42, to the contact members |6| of relay 15 to reopen. Thus
brush |33, a commutator |31. by way of a con
the needle 10 once it has become actuated, will 60
ductor 69. to the coil |3|; and from the coil |3I,
continue to move up the scale 1| until the acoustic
by way of a conductor 12, to a commutator |39, pulse received by the acoustic-receiving device 21
the brush |34, and by way of a conductor 61, back causes the contacts |69 of relay 11 to open, thus
to the other terminal of the battery |29. Upon opening _the plate circuit of the control tube 18
the closing of this circuit, to send current through
Upon the opening of' 65
this clutch coil |3I, a magnetic ñeld will be and interrupting the l arc.
regain control
created. The entire, lower, magnetic-clutch of the tube 18 since the contact to`
members |6| of
structure, carrying the coil |3|, the commutators the relay 15 have already opened,v and therefore,
|31 and |39 disposed about an insulating lcylinder
the original, higher negative bias already prevails
.46, and a gear I4 | , also carried by the cylinder 46,
will thereupon be actuated to rotate the needle 10 in the tube \18.
If the needle 10 and its moving system have
in a counter-clockwise direction. This is effected
by the synchronous motor 8| driving a pinion |42 been critically damped by the friction of a thread
that meshes with the gear |4|, the pinion |42 edly adjusted, 'clamping screw 14, its rotation will
being driven from the pinion |20 by a pinion 41 cease the moment the current through the clutch 75
and a gear 48. The lower clutch is similar to the AAcoil is` interrupted. The needle 10 will thus come
to rest on the scale 'Il at a distance corresponding
to the time interval between the radio-received
and the acoustically-received pulse signals from
' the transmitting ship.
There will be a definite
relationship between this time interval and the
distance between the transmitting and the receiv
ing devices. The scale 1| may, therefore, be cali
brated to read distance directly.
Modifications within the scope of the present
invention will readily occur to persons skilled in
the art. It is therefore desired that the above
electric-wave signals, means for receiving acous
tic-wave signals, an indicator, means for actuat
ing the indicator, the said actuating means being
normally ineffective,V a normally open relay, a
normally closed relay, a circuit controlled by the
normally open relay, a circuit controlled by the
normally closed relay, means controlled by the
electric-wave signal receiving means for closing
the normally open relay, thereby to close the ñrst
named circuit, means controlled by the closing of I
the ñrst-named circuit for rendering the actuat
ing means eñective to start to actuate the indi
cator and for thereafter maintaining the actuat
ing means effective to actuate the indicator ir
respective .of the position occupied by the normal
ly open relay, means controlled byV the acoustic
described embodiment of the invention shall be
regarded as illustrative of the invention, and not
restrictive, and that the appended claims be con
strued broadly, except insofar as it may be neces
sary to impose limitations in view of the prior art.V
What is claimed is:
Wave signal receiving means for opening the nor
1. A receiver comprising, means for receiving mally closed relay, thereby to open the second
electric-wave signals, means for receiving acous
named circuit, and means controlled by the open
20 tic-Wave signals, an indicator, means for actuat
ing of the second-named circuit for rendering the
ing the indicator, the said actuating means being 'actuating means ineffective, thereby to stop the
normally ineffective, two relays, a grid-controlled, further actuation of the indicator.
arc tube having input and output circuits respec
3. Apparatus for measuring time intervals,
tively controlled by the relays, means controlled comprising a time indicator, means for actuating
by the electric-wave signal _receiving means and the indicator, a relay with contact members nor
operative upon the receipt of an electric-wave sig
mally open, a second relay with contact members
nal thereby for actuating the input-circuit relay, normally closed, a grid-controlled arc tube having
means controlled by the input circuit upon the an input circuit in which the normally open con
actuation of the input-circuit relay for rendering
30 eiîective the actuating means to cause the actuat
ing means to start to actuate the indicator and
for thereafter maintaining the actuating means
effective to actuate the indicator irrespective of
the position occupied by the input-circuit relay,
35 means controlled by the acoustic-Wave signal re
ceiving means operative upon the receipt of an
tact members are connected to maintain the in
put circuit normally open and an output circuit
in which the normally closed contact members
are connected to maintain the output circuit nor
mally closed, means for closing the normally open
contact members to close the input circuit, means
controlled by the closing of the input circuit to
render the actuating means effective to actuate
acoustic-wave signal thereby for actuating the
the indicator, means for opening the normally
output-circuit relay, and means controlled by the
output-circuit upon the actuation of the output
circuit relay for- rendering the actuating means
ineffective, thereby to stop the further actuation
of the indicator.
closed contact members to open the output cir
cuit, and means controlled by the opening of the
output circuit to render the actuating means in
eiîective, thereby to stop the further actuation of
the indicator.
2. A receiver comprising, means for receiving _
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