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Патент USA US2130452

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Sept. 20, 1938.
H, L__ BONE
2,130,452
SPEED RESPONSIVE APPARATUS
Original Filed May 17, 1935
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BY
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ATTORNEY
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Patented Sept. 20, 1938
2,130,452
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,130,452
SPEED RESPONSIVE APPARATUS
Herbert L. Bone, Forest Hills, Pa., assignor to The
Union Switch & Signal Company, Swissvale,
Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Original application May 17, 1935, Serial No.
22,029. Divided and this application April 2,
1937, Serial No. 134,633
8 Claims. (Cl. 175—355)
My invention relates to speed responsive ap
electrical connection is continuously completed
between the segment 3 and one or the other of
An object of my invention is the provision of
novel and improved speed responsive apparatus
CR
which is actuated by electrical means, and by
which an unsafe indication due to loss of power
or breakage of a part is avoided.
Speed responsive apparatus embodying my in
vention is particularly suitable for, although in
10 no way limited to, use in connection with speed
control systems for railway trains.
This application is a division of my copend
:ing application, Serial No. 22,029, ?led May 17,
1935, now Patent No. 2,103,706, Dec. 28, 1937,
15 for Speed responsive apparatus.
I will describe two forms of apparatus em
bodying my invention, and will then point out
the novel features thereof in claims.
In the accompanying drawing, Fig. 1 is a dia
20 grammatic view illustrating one form of appa
ratus embodying my invention, and Fig. 2 is a
diagrammatic view of a modi?cation of the ap
paratus of Fig. 1.
Similar reference characters refer to similar
25 parts in each of the two views.
Speed responsive apparatus embodying my in
vention embraces a suitable speed responsive cir
cuit interrupting means and a time limit electro
magnetic means adapted to come into action a
30 short period after the conditions actuating it have
begun to exist. As shown in Fig. 1, the circuit in
terrupting means is a commutator, designated as
a whole by the reference character CI, and the
time limit electromagnetic means consists of two
35 relays RI and R2 of the direct current neutral
type. The shaft I of the commutator CI is op
eratively connected with a member the speed
of whose movement it is desired to determine
through the medium of any suitable drive mech
40 anism such, for example, as a train. of gears not
shown. When the apparatus is utilized to con
trol the circuits of a speed control system for
railway trains, the shaft I is preferably opera
tively connected with an axle of the vehicle on
the segments 4 or 5, depending upon the posiiion of the contact brush 2, but that with the
shaft I rotated, electrical connection is alter- 5
nately completed between the segment 3 and the
segments 4 and 5, the duration which the con
nection is completed in each case being depend
out upon the speed of rotation of the shaft I,
and hence, in turn, dependent upon the speed pa 0
of the driving member. It is to be understood,
however, that my invention is not limited to any
speci?c form of circuit interrupting means and
ih commutator CI is shown for illustration only.
It is clear that the commutator CI may be con- 15
structed with the segments 3, 4 and 5 mounted
rigid on the shaft I for rotation therewith, and
the contact brush 2 held stationary should it
seem desirable to do so.
The commutator CI controls the energizing 20
circuits for the relays RI and R2, the arrange
ment being such that the circuits are alternately
opened and closed with rotation of the shaft I.
The segment 3 is connected over wire 6 with
one terminal of any convenient source of direct
of the operating winding of relay R2 is connected
over wire II with the segment 4. Consequently, 35
when brush 2 is in the position to engage the
segment 4. current flows from the battery ‘I over
wire 6, segment 3, brush 2, segment 4, wire II,
operating winding of relay R2, and wire 8 back
to the battery ‘i’, and the relay R2 is energized, 40
the potential difference across the terminals of
the relay R2 being substantially the full voltage
of the battery 1 since the ohmic resistances of
wires 6, 8 and II, and the contact resistance of
45 which the apparatus is mounted, with the re
sult that the speed of rotation of shaft I is in
brush 2 with segments 3 and 4 are negligible.
When the brush 2 is moved around and engages
accordance with the speed of the railway train.
the segment 5, current flows from the battery
‘I over wire 6, segment 3, brush 2, segment 5, wire
III, operating winding of relay RI and Wire 9
back to the battery 1, and relay RI is energized.
A contact brush 2 is rigidly mounted on the shaft
I for rotation therewith and is adapted to en
50 gage three annular segments 3, 4 and 5, the ar
rangement being such that the segment 3 is a
complete ring and continuously engages the
brush 2, but the segments 4 and 5 span only a
little over 180° and alternately engage the brush
55 2. It follows that with the shaft I stationary,
5
current such as a battery 7!, and which battery
is preferably of a predetermined given voltage.
The other terminal of battery ‘I is connected with
one terminal of the operating winding of each
of the relays R! and. R2 over wires 8 and 9, re- 30
spectively. The second terminal of the operat
ing winding of relay RI is connected over wire
III with the segment 5, and the second terminal
the potential difference across the terminals of
the relay RI being substantially the full volt
age of the battery ‘I since the ohmic resistance
of the circuit other than that of the operating
winding of the relay is negligible. When the
2,130,452
brush 2 is rotated in response to rotation of
snait l, the relays El and
are alternately
supplied with current, the duration of each cur
It is to be noted that at
(3. 271k;
plied with current whatever the position of brush
, a " one oi‘ the relays Bi and R2 is always sup
2, since the segments ll and are made to slight
ly overlap, as explained hereinbeiore. When the
brush ii is in a horizontal position, as viewed in
Fig. 3', both relays are supplied with current in
parallel.
The relays Bi and
are each provided with
a circuit controlling armature in the usual man
15 nor, the armature E2 of relay Rt being adapted
to be raised into engagement with a front con
tact it when the relay is energized, and to ‘drop
out of engagement therewith when the relay is
deenergized. In like manner, the armature iii of
20 relay R2 is adapted to be raised into engagement
with a front contact i5 when the relay is ener
gized, and to ore-p away from engagement therm
with when the relay is deenergized.
25
constitute
As set forth
a time
hereinbefore,
limit electromagnetic
the relays Bi and
means
adapted to come into action a short period after
the conditions actuating it have begun to exist,
and to this end, each relay Rt and R2 is provided
with slow pick-up char c 'eristics. That is to say,
the armature ii of relay
for example, is not
raised into engagement with the front contact
i3 until a predetermined time interval subse~
quent to initiating the energization of the relay
by supplying current to its operating winding.
Likewise, the armature ill of relay
is not raised
into engagement until a predetermined time in
terval subsequent to initiating energization of
that relay by supplying current to its operating
winding. In other words, the relays Bi and R2
40 each become effective to operate its respective
armature a short period after current is initially
supplied to the operating winding of the relay.
The time delay in operating the armature is pref
erably the same for both relays RE and R2. Such
time delay in pick-up may be accomplished in
any convenient manner, several arrangements be
ing well-known in the art for providing a direct
current relay with slow pick-up characteristics.
In addition to being provided with slow pick~
up characteristics, the relays RS and
are each
provided with relatively high pick-up character
istics. For example, the relay Ri is so propor
tioned and adjusted that the tractive effort nec
essary to raise the armature l2 into engagement
is produced when the
01 CI: with the front contact
value of a current ?owing in its winding is, say,
75% of the ultimate current value resulting from
a potential difference across the terminals of the
relay equal to the full voltage of the battery '5.
60 Likewise, the pick-up current of relay R2 is ap
proximately 75% of the ultimate current e?ected
when the full voltage of the battery ? is impressed
across the terminals of the relay. The relays R!
and R2 possess two constants—-resistance and in
ductance. Due to inductance, the current result
ing from a voltage impressed across the termi
nals of the operating winding does not at once
rise to the value ultimately reached, that is, the
value as indicated by Ohm’s law. It follows that
with the brush stationary at the position illus
trated in Fig. l, the relay R2 is supplied with
current the ultimate value of which is equal to
that produced by the full voltage of the battery
7, as determined by the resistance of the relay,
75 since the inductance delays the building up of
the current for a relatively short period only.
Under his condition, the energization of the re
lay RE is sumcient to attract the armature l4
and raise it into engagement with the front con
tact i5 at the expiration of the slow pick-up CA
period. If the brush ‘2 is rotated at a speed such
that the time interval the brush 2 makes engage
ment with the segment during a half revolution
is a little greater han the slow pick-up period
of relay R2, the armature id is raised into en~
gagement with contact
duri
this half revolu~
tion of the shaft l since the time constant re
sulting from inductance is loss than the slow
pick-up period and the ultimate value ol’ the cur
rent as indicated by Ohiil law is effected for a
sufficient length of time. During the hall‘ revo
lution the brush it breaks engagement with the
segment 1i, the energization of relay
dies
away to substantially zero and the armature I4
is released. Hence, at such speed of shai't i the El)
relay R2 is picked up and released once each
revolution of the shaft i. In the event the brush
2 is rotated at a speed such that the duration of
the connection between the segments 3 and it by
brush 2 is slightly less than the slow pick-up ‘I
period of relay R2, the armature iii remains down
out of engagement with the contact it. Under
this condition of speed, the time interval between
two successive impulses is suf?cient for the en~
ergization of the relay to die away to substan
tially zero, notwithstanding the inductance
causes a slight delay in the dying away of the
current. Again, if the speed at which the brush
2 is rotated is relatively high, and rapid im
pulses of current are supplied to the winding of 35
relay R2 and build up the magnetism in the mag
netic circuit, the average value of the current
?owing in the operating winding, however, does
not reach the ‘75% pick-up value due to the in
ductance of the relay, and hence the armature l4 ._
is not raised into engagement with contact l5
at such relatively high speeds.
In other words,
there is a critical speed above which the relay
R2 is not picked
and below which the relay
is alternately picked up and released, while at 45
zero speed the relay is steadily energized in case
the brush 2 stops at a point where it makes en
gagement with the segment fl, and the relay is
deenergized in case the brush 2 stops at a point
where it is out of engagement with the segment 4. 50
Since the relay Ri is proportioned and ad
justed similar to relay R2, the operation of the
relay R5 in response to the different speed con
ditions of brush 2 is the same as just explained
in connection with relay R2, except for the fact
that the circuit for the relay R! is governed dur
ing the opposite half revolution of brush 2. The
speed of shaft l below which the relays R5 and
R2 are picked up is hence determined by the
pick-up time provided for the relays. For ex
ample, if it is desired to operate ‘the relays RI
and R52 at speeds up to ten revolutions per minute
oi the shaft i, that is, one revolution every six
seconds, the pick-up time would be three seconds
since each relay is energized during one—half of
each revolution. Thus, at all speeds below ten
revolutions per minute, each relay would be
picked up while its circuit is closed by the brush
but that at all speeds above ten revolutions
per minute both relays would remain down. At
zero speed one or the other of the relays R5 or
R2 would be picked up, and in the case the brush
2 should stop at the horizontal position, as viewed
in
1, both relays would be picked up.
The relays El and R2 may be utilized to con 75
2,130,452
trol indication and control devices to determine
whether or not the driving member is moving at
all, or is moving above or below a predetermined
critical speed. As here shown, relays RI and R2
Oi
govern an indication lamp l6 and a control mag
net 18 by virtue of two simple circuit-s, both of
which circuits include a battery Ill and one of
3 .
connection with the apparatus of Fig. 1, except
for the fact that the critical speed is relatively
low.
Although I have herein shown and described
only two forms of speed responsive apparatus em
bodying my invention, it is understood that vari
which includes the contact l2-l3 of relay R5,
and the other of which includes the contact
I4--I5 of relay R2. Hence, the lamp i6 is stead
ily illuminated and the control magnet 18 is
steadily energized when the speed of shaft 1 is
ous changes and modi?cations may be made
therein within the scope of the appended claims
without departing from the spirit and scope of
10
my invention.
Having thus described my invention, what I
is:
zero, since at zero speed at least one of the relays
RI or R2 is steadily picked up‘. When the speed
of shaft I is not zero but is below the critical
speed, and the relays are alternately picked up
1. Speed responsive apparatus comprising a
shaft adapted to be rotated at different speeds,
a commutator including a. pair of successive seg 15
net
and released,
48 is intermittently
the lamp 16 is
supplied
flashed with
and the
current.
brush operatively connected with said shaft for
rotation therewith and adapted to successively
When the speed is above the critical speed and
20 neither relay is picked up, the lamp I6 is dark
and the ‘magnet .58 is deenergized. As here
shown, the magnet 48 is provided with slow-re“
lease characteristics, and hence is energized at
zero speed and at speeds ‘below the crh.
“' 111 speed.
25 When the apparatus of Fig. 1 is us»
.
tion with speed control systems for rai
y trains,
the lamp l5 may be used to indicate to the oper
ator of the train the zero and low speed condi
tions, and the magnet 18 may be used to effect
30 a control over the train. brake equipment, and
when so used an unsafe indication due to loss of
power or oreakago of a part is avoided.
If it were desired to have the critical speed of
shaft l relatively low, additional segments may
be added to the commut ' r.
paratus is the same as Fig. 3., e.
In Fig. 2, the ap
ct the ccrnmu~
ments each of a predetermined length, a contact
engage said segments, a ?rst and a second relay
each provided with slow pick-up characteristics, 20
a current source; a control circuit for each relay
including a winding of the relay, a particular one
of said segments, said brush and the current
source for successively and periodically energiz
ing said relays with current impulses of a given. 25
polarity in response to rotation of said shaft;
an indicating device, and an operating circuit for
energizing said device including a front contact
of each of the two relays in parallel.
2. Speed responsive apparatus comprising a
shaft adapted to be rotated at different speeds, a
commutator including a pair of successive seg
ments each of a predetermined length, a contact
brush operatively connected with said shaft for
rotation therewith and adapted to successively 35
engage said segments, a ?rst and a second relay
tator CZis provided with four annular segments
each provided with slow pick-up characteristics,
I9, 26, 2! and 22, and a second contact brush
23 is mounted “igid on the shaft l. Each seg
ment !9, 23, ‘2! and 22 spans approximately 46°
a current source; a control circuit for each relay
with an adjacent space of approximately 44° be
tween each two segments, and the brush 23 is
positioned with respect to the brush 2 so that
when
brush makes engagemef
with a seg
45 ment the other brush is positioned at one of the
insulating spaces. The battery ‘I is connected
between the segment 3 of commutator C2 and
one terminal. of the operating winding of each of
the relays Bi and R53 the same as in Fig. 1.
The
second terminal of the operating winding of relay
R2 is connected with the segments .19 and 21 in
parallel, and the second terminal of the operal'~
ing winding of relay R! is connected with the
segments 26 and 22 in parallel, as will be readily
55 understood by an inspection of Fig. 2. Conse
quently, each relay R! and R2 of Fig. 2 receives
two current impulses each revolution of the shaft
I, and current is supplied to at least one of the
two relays whatever the position of the contact
60 brushes 2 and 23. With the relays RI and R2
proportioned and adjusted in the manner ex
plained in connection with the apparatus of
Fig. 1, a critical speed of 5 revolutions per minute
of shaft l is provided since at such speed the
65 duration of a current impulse is substantially
three seconds, inasmuch as each segment spans
approximately one-eighth of a revolution and
each impulse lasts for two segments due to the
position of the two brushes.
In Fig. 2, the control circuits for the indication
70
lamp I6 and the control magnet !8 are governed
by the relays R! and R2 the same as in Fig. 1,
and hence these devices are governed by the ap
paratus of Fig. 2 in response to rotation of the
75 shaft I in exactly the same manner explained in
including a winding of the relay, a particular one
of said segments, said brush and the current
source for periodically energizing each of said
relays with impulses of a current of like polarity
in response to rotation of said shaft and the dura
tions of which impulses are dependent upon the
speed of the shaft; an indicating device, and an .
operating circuit for said device including a front
contact of each of the two relays in parallel.
3. Speed responsive apparatus comprising a
shaft adapted to be rotated, a commutator in
cluding a plurality of successive segments each of
a predetermined length, contact brush means
operatively connected with said shaft for rota
tion therewith and adapted to successively en
gage said segments with engagement made with
the next preceding segment before the receding
segment is disengaged, a ?rst and a second relay
each provided with slow pick-up character
istics, a current source; a control circuit for each
relay including a winding of the relay, the cur
rent source, said contact brush means and alter
nate segments of the commutator for succes
sively energizing each of said relays with im
pulses of current in response to rotation of the
shaft and the durations of which impulses are
dependent upon the speed of the shaft; an indi
cating device, and an operating circuit of said
device including a front contact of each of the
two relays in parallel.
4. Speed responsive apparatus comprising a
member adapted to be actuated through an op 70
erating cycle at different speeds, circuit con
trolling contact mechanism operatively connected
with said member and including a plurality of
contacts which are successively closed once for
each cycle and which contacts are each closed 75
4
2,130,452
said contacts made overlapping so that the pre
ceding contact is closed before the receding con
tact is opened, a ?rst and a second slow pick-up
cating device continuously only When the shaft
is rotated at less than a speed predetermined by
the pick-up period of the relays.
'7. Speed responsive apparatus comprising a
relay, a current source, a control circuit for each
shaft adapted to be rotated at different speeds, a
relay including a winding of the relay and alter
commutator provided with four spaced segments
of substantially equal lengths, two angularly dis~
during substantially equal portions of the cycle,
nate contacts of said mechanism as well as the
current source, an indicating device, and an op
erating circuit for said device including a front
10 contact of each of the two relays in parallel for
energizing said device continuously when said
member is stationary and deenergizing said de
vice continuously when said member is actuated
above a speed predetermined by the pick-up
period of said relays.
.
5, Speed responsive apparatus comprising a
member adapted to be actuated through an op
erating cycle at different speeds, circuit control~
ling contact mechanism operatively connected
20 with said member and including a plurality of
contacts which are successively operated once
for each cycle and which contacts are each closed
during substantially equal portions of the cycle,
said contacts overlapping so that the preceding
contact is closed before the receding contact is
opened, a ?rst and a second slow pick-up relay,
means to connect one terminal of said source to
one terminal of the Winding of each relay in
parallel and to connect the other terminal of
the source to both of said brushes, means to con
nect the otherterminal of the winding of the Lil)
?rst relay to a ?rst and a third one of said seg
ments in parallel and to connect the other ter
minal of the winding of the second relay to a
second and a fourth one of the segments in par
allel to pick up at least one of the relays for actu
ating said indicating device continuously only
a current source, an indicating device, an op
when the shaft is rotated at less than a speed
erating circuit for said device including a front
contact of each of the two relays in parallel, and
a control circuit for each of said relays including
a winding of the relay and alternating contacts
predetermined by the pick-up period of the re
of said mechanism as well as the current source
lays.
8. Speed responsive apparatus comprising, a member adapted to be actuated through an op
erating cycle at di?erent speeds, circuit control~
to pick up at least one of said relays for inter
ling contact mechanism operatively connected
mittently displaying the indicating device when
with said member and including a plurality of
said member is actuated at less than a speed
contacts which are successively closed once for
each cycle and which contacts are each closed
predetermined by the pick-up period of the re—
lays.
6. Speed responsive apparatus comprising a
shaft adapted to be rotated at different speeds, a
40 commutator including two oppositely disposed
and overlapping segments, a contact brush op
eratively connected with said shaft for rotation
therewith and adapted to successively engage said
segments, a ?rst and a second slow pick-up re~
lay, a'slow release indicating device, an operating
circuit for said device including a front contact
of each of said two relays in parallel, a current
source, means to connect one terminal of said
source to one terminal of the winding of each re
50
posed contact brushes ?xed on said shaft for
engaging said segments in response to rotation of
said shaft with engagement with at least one 1'
segment whatever the position of the shaft, a
first and a second slow pick-up relay, a slow re
lease indicating device, an operating circuit for
saidv device including a front contact of each of
said two relays in parallel, a current source, 15
during substantially equal portions of the cycle,
said contacts made overlapping so that a preced
ing contact is closed before the receding contact
is opened, a ?rst and a second slow pick-up re
lay, a current source, a control circuit for each
relay including a winding of the relay and alter
nate contacts of said mechanism as well as the
current source, an indicating lamp; and an op
erating circuit for said lamp including a front
contact of each of the two relays in parallel for
illuminating said lamp continuously when said
member is stationary, for ?ashing the lamp when
said member is actuated at a speed below a pre
lay in parallel and to connect the other terminal
determined speed and for causing the lamp to
of the source to said brush, and means to con
remain dark when the member is actuated at a
nect the segments to the other terminal of the
speed above said predetermined speed.
windings of said relays respectively to pick up
at least one of the relays for actuating said indi
HERBERT L. BONE.
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