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Патент USA US2130457

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Sept. 20, 1938.
E. L. FIICKETT Efr AL
2,130,457
APPARATUS FOR TREATING WOOD
Filed om. e, 1936
-
4 Sheet's-Sheet 1 _
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INVENTORS
7f64/474221 @2032777017.
BY 9,1785%‘. FEE/fed,
C?df/QSHWCW
_
ATTORNEY ‘9327
Sept. 20, 1938.
2,130,457
E. L. FICKETT ET AL
APPARATUS FOR TREATING WOOD
Filed Oct. 6, 1956
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTORS
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Sept. 20, 1938.
E. L. FICKETT ET AL
' 2,130,457
APPARATUS FOR TREATING‘ WOOD
Filed Oct. 6, 1936
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
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> ATTORNEY Wig‘?
‘Sept. 20, 1938.
E. L. FICKETT ET AL
2,130,457
APPARATUS FOR TREATING WOOD
Filed Oct. 6, 1936
4 Sheets-Sheet 4v
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Patented ‘Sept. 20, 1938
'
.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,130,457
APPARATUS FOR TREATING WOOD
Ernest L. Fickett, William 0. Forman, and‘
Charles H. McKay, Fitchburg, Mass, assignors
to Fitchburg Engineering Corporation, Fitch
burg, Mass, a corporation oi’ Massachusetts
Application October 6, 1936, Serial No. 104,250
8 Claims. (Cl. 144-476)
0:
10
15
20
This invention relates to an apparatus for producing wood sawdust, shavings, excelsior, etc.
in commercial form and the commercial utilization of an otherwise waste product thereby.
The principal objects of the invention are
to provide for the cutting of wood, preferably
waste pieces, into whatever shape and form is
desired; to provide a machine which can be made
or adjusted in different forms so that the cutting will be done at different angles to the grain,
thereby producing different products, such as
sawdust, long shavings, short shavings, excelsior,
etc.; to provide means whereby slabs, edgings,
or other mill products can be converted into any
form of wood in small pieces; to provide an improved form of hopper adjustable for feeding the
wood to the cutters at the desired angle; to
provide means for preventing a small piece of
wood caught in the bottom of the hopper from
escaping without going through the knives; to
provide a chute with automatic means for feeding a plurality of slabs, limbs, or the like, longitudinally by a reciprocating motion, and to provide a piston head of such shape as to properly
Fig. 11 is an end view thereof; and
Fig. 12 is an edge view of the same knife.
By this apparatus slabs, edgings or other mill
by-products are introduced into a chute and cut
up in that chute by rotating blades so that the
?ne wood products, which may be in the form
of long or short shavings, excelsior, etc. will be
produced.
The form of wood product is controlled by the
shape of the cutting edge of the knives and
angular position of the chute relative to the
knives. In that form shown in Figs. 1 to 4 in
elusive, the axis of rotation of the cutter is hori
zontal. The machine is supported by a base It
on which are mounted two bearings H and l2
carrying the main shaft I3 which may be coupled
directly with the main shaft of amotor it. The
bearings H and I! are carried in casings mounted
on the base.
The main shaft i3 carries a cutter head i5
which revolves in a stationary casing I6. On the
base is a block H on which through screws 98 a
slide i9 is adjustable. A chute, which comprises
a back 2! and sides 20 mounted on the slide i9,
CI
lo
15
20
25 push the wood against the knives.
has an open front facing the flat end of the 25
Other objects and advantages of the invention
will appear hereinafter.
Reference is to be had to the accompanying
drawings, in which
30
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal central sectional view
of a machine constructed according to this in-
cutter disc l5. The top and sides of the chute
are cast integral but the back 2! of the chute
is hinged by means of a series of slots 22 in the
sides of the chute and two pins on the back 2!.
The back of the chute is free to slide to and. away 30
from the cutter disc l5 along the block ii. The
35
40
45
50
vention;
loosely hung back, which fits closely between the
Fig. 2- is a similar sectional view, on enlarged
scale, showing the cutting operation to reduce
a piece of wood into shavings;
Fig. 3 is a face view of a circular cutter plate
constituting a part of this machine;
Fig. 4 is a radial sectional view of the cutter
plate;
Fig- 5 1s a sectional view of an end bearing
showing the hydraulic pump used in this invention;
Fig. 6 is a side view of a preferred form of feed
chute in which the wood is presented to the
knives at a 60° angle for the production of short
shavings;
Fig. 7 is a side view showing a feed chute that
can be applied to Fig. 6;
Fig. 8 is a face view of a knife adapted to be
used on this machine;
Fig. 9 is a sectional view of the same on the
line 9-9 of Fig.8;
Fig. 10 is a view similar to Fig. 8 showing another form of knife adapted to be used on this
sides of the chute, is held up in position by springs
23 threaded on rods 24. By means of check
nuts 25 the rods provide for the adjustment of
the minimum position of the back. These nuts
also prevent the back from contacting with the
knives.
The cutter disc i5 is shown as provided with
six generally radial openings 26 with inclined
sides and six knives 21 and 31 also running in a
general radial direction and bolted to the sides.
For the purpose of reducing the friction loss
and the abrasions on the front surface of the
cutter head a hardened steel insert 28 is located
in the front of each opening. The hardened steel
insert has a tapered surface at 29 so that the
end opposite the cutting edge is a small dis
tance above the plate surface. The cutting
knives 21 and 3| are arranged at quite an angle
to the flat surface of the disc and the way in
which a shaving is cut off from a piece 30 of
wood is illustrated in Fig. 2.
A construction is shown in which six knives are
55 machine;
35
40
45
50
equally spaced around the disc. Three of these 55
2
2,180,457
are the plain cutting knives 21 ‘and the other ‘rotating knives, it is latched by a weighted lever
42 and remains-latched until the movable end
three knives 3| have their cutting edge inter
rupted by grooves to form a series of chisel points or piston “has gone practically its extreme
32. With this construction and arrangement and travel. At that time a projection 43 on the piston
with the knives set with their‘cutting edges set "engages the latch and unlatches it. This latch
at a short distance beyond the wear strips 23 the is ‘spring-operated into such a position that the
product will be sawdust when used in connection movable piston 35 returns to the loading position.
' with Fig. 6. when used with Fig’. 1 with all'the
edges of all the blades straight, the product is
shavings. With other arrangements other prod
ucts can be made, as long shavings, excelsior, etc.
According to an application ?led in the name
of William O. Forman, October 25, 1937, Serial
No. 170,823, but not apart hereof, the bark is
In connection with the form of feed shown in
Fig. 6, a preferred arrangement can be used for
keeping the wood up against the knives.
This
is shown in Fig. '7 and it involves the sides and
front 45 of a chute open at the bottom along an
inclined surface 43 and having a pair of integral
bars 41 which support the rod 24 and the spring
broken up into dust while the wood. shavings‘ 23 and nuts 25 shown in Fig. 2. This rod is
tend tooling together to some extent and the pivotally connected with the back 43 of the chute.
bark has a chance to escape from it. On the ‘This back, which controls the position of the wood
back of the cutter head preferably are radial ribs as it approaches the cutter, is cut oil at 33 to
form a surface parallel with the face of the cut
34 which act as an impeller. This, in conjunc
tion with the volute casing formed by the shield ter disc as previously described. In this case also
l3 and a recess IS‘ in the main casting, creates the back 43 can be supported by pins 43 enter
a very satisfactory blower which conveys the, ing into either oneof a set of inclined slots 50
‘ processed material to any desired point by means
of standard sheet'metal pipingf
It has been found by experiment that-if the
. lower end of the back II of the feed chute is
cut off parallel to the face of the disc, as'shown
at 33’, the wood will be assisted in being drawn
toward the cutter.
With the knives set at a
su?icient distance beyond the strips .on the face
of the disc, any slab, limb, edging, or section of
tree lumber that is dropped into the chute will
be converted into‘sawdust or shavings and dis
charged by the centrifugal blower.
in the sides 45 of the chute.
’
-Having thus described our invention and the
advantages thereof, we do not wish to be limited
to the details herein disclosed, otherwise than as
set forth in the claims, but what we claim is:
1. An apparatus for reducing wood to small
particles which comprises a rotary cutter having
a ?at face perpendicular to its axis and a chute 30
arranged to feed rough wood to the cutter with
its grain at an acute angle of less than 45° to the
plane of the face of the cutter, the cutter com
prising knives set at a material angle to the face
of the cutter to make long shavings.
35
So far only one form of the apparatus has been
' 2. An apparatus for reducing wood to small
described, the one in which the axis 'of the shaft
is horizontal with an acute angle between it and particles which comprises a rotary cutter having
the chute and alternating continuous cutting a flat face perpendicular to its axis, a chute ar
edge and toothed cutting edged knives are used. ranged to feed rough wood to the cutter with its
grain at an angle to the plane of the face of the 40
The angle between‘ the axis of the cutter shaft cutter, the cutter comprising knives projecting
and the direction of ‘the feed of the wood changes from the face of the cutter, and means for vary
ing the angle to minute degrees at which the wood
the product materially.
engages the cutter to determine the character of
' It has been found by experiment that, if a hori
40 Obviously, all the knives can be of either type.
., zontal feed chute is used and material fed to
‘ the product.
~
the disc with its grain running at right angles
to the axis of the shaft and blades set so that
3. An apparatus for reducing wood to small
particles which comprises a rotary cutter having
they will cut the material, the wood‘ is cut into
a ?at face perpendicular to its axis and a chute
wide, fairly straight shavings.
'
A preferred form of feed chute is shown in
Fig. 6. This is arranged in such a manner that
the wood is presented to the knives at an angle
of approximately 60°. Although not necessarily
so this particular chute is provided with cutters
55 having alternately serrated and straight edges to
produce sawdust but short shavings would be
produced if all the cutters were plain. The chute
is provided with a movable end 33 or piston con
vex on the end operated by a feed cylinder 38
60 connected with the end through a piston rod 31.
Attached to the end of a bearing opposite the
drive pulley is a commercial gear pump 38 which
is driven from the end of the main shaft, not
shown in Fig. 6 but like the shaft l3. This pump
constantly at all times when
66 is arranged to r
the machine is i operation and pumps the oper
arranged to feed rough wood to the cutter with
its grain at a small angle to the plane of the face 50
of the cutter, the chute having a spring pressed
back plate movable to different angles, and ad
:Iustable means for determining the clearance be
tween the back plate and cutters.
'
4. An apparatus for reducing wood to small 55
particles which comprises a rotary cutter disc
having a flat face perpendicular to its axis and
a chute arranged to. feed rough wood to the cut
ter with its grain‘at an angle to the plane of the
face of the cutter, the chute having a back plate, '
the end of which nearest the cutter is flattened
of! to be parallel to the face of the cutting disc.
5. In an apparatus for the purpose described, ’
the combination of a hopper in inclined position,
\a piston in the hopper for feeding wood having a
convex-toothed operating end for engaging the
ating ?uid, as oil, from the reservoir 33, and wood, hydraulic means for- feeding the plunger, a
delivers it to a four-way manually operated valve horizontal rotary vshaft, a disc on the shaft ar
39 which is attached to the side of the chute. A ' ranged at right angles thereto, and knives on the
70 predetermined pressure is maintained on the sys-' face of the disc arranged radially and projecting 70
tem by means of a conventional spring-loaded through the disc angularly.
6. An apparatus for reducing wood to small
relief valve 40 discharging back into the reser
voir 33. The manually operated valve '38 is so particles which comprises a rotary cutter having
arranged that when it is thrown into the proper a flat face perpendicular to its axis and a chute
75 position to feed the sticks or slabs toward the in inclined‘ position arranged to feed rough wood 75
3
2,130,457
to the cutter with its grain at an angle to the
plane of the face of the cutter, a piston in the
chute having a convex coarsely toothed working
surface, automatic hydraulic means for moving
the piston on its operative stroke, a valve for
keeping the piston in communication with a
source of power, a latch for holding the valve
open, and means for automatically releasing the
latch to permit the piston to move back.
'7. An apparatus for reducing wood to small
10 particles which‘comprises a rotary cutter having
a ?at face perpendicular to its axis, a chute ar
ranged to feed rough wood to the cutter with its
grain at an angle to the plane of the face of the
cutter, the chute having a swing adjustable back
15 plate, means for limiting the movement of the
back plate toward the cutter to a position far
enough from the cutter to receive the wood, and
yielding means for constantly pushing the back
plate toward the cutter.
8. An apparatus for reducing wood to small
particles which comprises a rotary cutter having
a flat face perpendicular to its axis, a stationary
chute arranged to feed rough wood to the cutter
with its grain at an angle to the plane of the face
of the cutter, the chute having a series of pairs,
of perforations in its sides, a swing adjustable
back plate for engaging the wood adapted to be
pivoted at its top in any arc of said pairs of per 10
forations, means for limiting the movement of
the back plate toward the cutter, and yielding
means for constantly pushing the back plate to
ward the cutter.
’
ERNES
L, F'ICKETT
. CHARLES
1!§7",->|v"~ fat. ‘ H.
0. McKAY.
15
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