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Патент USA US2130499

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Sept. 20, 1938. v
2,130,499
c. s. KNOWLTON'ET AL
RELAY
Filed April 17, 1936
l6
.
40
3a__®
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36-" , 4/
INVENTORS H‘MSPICER
B)’
'
'
$654,740!»
ATTORNEY
2,130,499
Patented Sept. 20, 1938
[UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
,
2,130,499
I
'
RELAY
(?arcnee S. Knowlton, Spring?eld, and Hobart 1!.
Splcer, Bidgewood, N. 1., asaiznors to Bell Tele
phone Laboratorlcs, Incorporated, New York,
N. Ya, a corporation of New York
Application ‘April 17, 1936, Serial No. 74,916
.7 Claims.
(Cl. 200-»97)
This invention relates to a time delay relay mined. When the magnetic circuit is deener
or circuit controlling device. The object of the
invention is to provide a relay, the contacts of
which ‘may be‘ opened or closed an appreciable
5 interval after the energization of the relay wind
ing.
It is often desirable in electrical systems to
provide for delaying the closing or opening or
a circuit for an appreciable interval, for example
10 of several seconds or minutes after the establish
ment of another circuit or to make and break a
circuit periodically at a slow predetermined rate.
In accordance with the present invention a re
lay having the desired characteristic of delaying
15 the operation of its contacts for a considerable
interval after its winding is energized is pro
vided which comprises an electromagnetic ?eld
surrounding an envelope within which is a pool
of mercury or other ?uid having similar char
'20 acteristics. Ayn, annular displacer or core of mag
netic material is positioned within the envelope,
?oated on the mercury pool, and subject to the
magnetic ?eld. Centrally positioned in the en
velope and inside the annular core is a giass
-25 tube partly submerged in the pool of mercury.
This tube is closed with the exception of an open»
ing near its base and a restricted vent in its
upper end. Extending from outside the envelope
into the tube and sealed to both the envelope and
30 tube are two contacts electrically insulated from
each other. A ?oat member having a conduct
ing surface is positioned in the tube and subject
to the rise and fall of the mercury in the tube
for bridging the contacts. This ?oat member may
35' be arranged to normally bridge the-contacts and
to open the circuit between them when the mer
cury rises in the tube and lifts the ?oat, or may
be arranged to bridge normally open contacts
when the mercury rises in the tube, as may be
40
desired.
.
If the relay is of such a character that the ?oat
normally closes the contacts with the magnetic
field unenergized, the core ?oats on the pool of
mercury and the level of the pool is such ‘that
gized the core rises quickly and the level of the
mercury drops at once thereby again bridging
the contacts.
'
\
Should it be desired to delay the closure of
normally open contacts the relay could be con
structed in the same general manner except that
the contacts would be positioned above the float
and would be closed only after the ?oat has been
lifted by the rising column of mercury in the tube.
For a clearer understanding of the invention
reference may be had to the following detailed
description taken in connection with‘ the ac
companying drawing of which:
.
Fig. 1 is a vertical section through the relay 15
showing the relay in its unoperated condition
with its contacts closed;
Fig. 2 is a top plan View of the relay;
Fig. 3 is a section similar to Fig. 1 with the
magnet yoke and winding omitted showing the 20
relay in its operated condition with its contacts
013611;
Fig. 4 is a perspective view of the displaces or
core of the relay;
Fig. is a perspective view of the float and up
Fig. ends
per
1; and
of the contacts of the relay shown
Fig. 6 is a sectional view of a relay similar to
Fig. 2 but modi?ed to enable the closure of nor»
mally open contacts when the relay winding is
energized.
In the several ?gures Ill designates a glass
envelope in the form of a cylinder sealed oif at
H and having a thickened base it. Centrally
positioned within the envelope is a second glass “
tube l3 having a thickened base l4 and provided
at its upper end with a restricted vent 15. This
vent is made very minute for the purpose oi.‘
restricting the ?ow of gas from the tube into the
envelope. A small opening I8 is also provided in
the side wall of the tube l3 for a- purpose to be
later described.
As disclosed in Figs. 2. and 2 two terminal wires
' l1 and I8 extend upwardly through the base E2
45' the ?oat is unaffected thereby. When the ?eld of the envelope Hi and through the base it of 45
is energized, however, the. coreis submerged in— ' the tube l3 and terminate in arcuate contact por~
to the mercury pool raising the level of the pool tions i9 and 20 extending at right angles there~
so that mercury is displaced through the open
from. The terminal wire I‘! is sealed into the
ing in the lower end of the tube and raises the bases of the envelope and tube and the terminal
?oat thereby opening the circuit between the .
,wire It! extends through a glass sleeve 2| which
contacts. The rate at which the pool of mercury ‘extends substantially the entire length of the
rises in the tube is determined by the size of the
restricted vent in the upper end of the tube and wire and is sealed to the ‘base ll of the envelope
therefore, by‘ proportionlng the size of the vent, and to the base H of the tube thereby e?ectiveiy
insulating wire ill from fwirc H. The wires H 55
55 the operating time of the relay may be deter
,
.
..
..
0
araooeee
and it also serve-to rigidly support the tube i3
within the envelope.
222
amount.
u i. the
Positioned
level
within
been the envelope
to
surround"
the tube i3 is an annular
*
solenoid coil it is wound on an insulating
spool iii which surrounds the magnetic sleeves 3i
and
between the arms or the yoke 35. As dis
“. ‘l the operating circuit for cell 4|]
extends irons one terminal of a source of electrh
energy ti o‘
'1
coil, over terminal wire
it?
th'
that portion Llil thereof, bridging
"i core 23and
of magnetic
low resi cal mag
verti
29
such that
to t‘e :
the tube
‘_
.
is positioned in the lot.
the envelope ill and a second spring . .~ ‘
tinned
the upper end oi the envelope, these
springs being of non~magnetic material and serv
ing to protect the envelope against shock in ship~
ping and handling. The lower spring 2%} may be
suitably anchored to the base ii? of the envelope to
prevent it from ?oating upwardly in the mercury
although anchoring is not necessary since no harm
would be done if it should ?oat upwardly into
engagement with the lower edge or" the core
A host member 21 is provided within the tube
35 l3 having a disc-shaped head 23 provided with
teeth 29 for guiding the ?oat in its vertical move
ment within the tube. vThese teeth are of small
contact area for the purpose of reducing to a
minimum the frictional contact thereof with the
40 inside wall of tube i3 and to permit the free flow
of gas past the edge of the head. The ?oat is
made of metal having good conductivity, tungsten
being suitable for the purpose. Normally it rests
upon the contact portions l9 and 20 or“ the ter
minal wires l1 and i8 thereby establishing a con
ducting bridge therebetween. In. this position its
lower end is out of contact with the upper surface
of the mercury pool. For insuring a good contact
with the contact portions l9 and 20 a light coiled
spring“ is inserted between the upper face of the
head 28 of the ?oat and the upper end of the tube
[3. The spring 30 also serves to hold the ?oat 21
in position to prevent damage to the tube l3 dur
ing shipping and handling.
55
After the assembly of. the elements above de
scribed within the envelope Ill and the insertion
of the mercury pool and before the upper end of
the envelope is sealed oil at H, the envelope is
evacuated and charged with an inert gas, such
as helium, argon, hydrogen or the like.
ormaliy closed contacts, the relay
r‘. 63 is arrange . to close normally open con-v 25
tacts. For
purpose the terminal wires 42
and
are extended downwardly through the up—
per ends 01. the envelope l0 and tube l3 and ter
mina e in horizontal arcuate contact portions 44
and lid positioned above the ?oat member 45.
These terminal wires are sealed into the envelope
and tube and serve as supports for the tube. The
?oat $8 is similar to the ?oat 21 disclosed in
Fig. 5 and establishes a bridge across the con
tact portions 44 and 45 when it is ?oated upward
ly in the tube I3 by the mercury. -
It will be assumed that the relay is connected
as disclosed in Fig. 1 for interrupting its own
operating circuit and that it is in its normal
condition with the core 23 ?oating on the mer
cury, the level of the pool of mercury extending
just below‘ the opening IS in the tube I3 and
the ?oat member 2? resting on the contact por
tions of the terminal wires i1 and Hi. If now
electrical energy is applied to the relay the coil
80 will become energized and will draw the core
23 downwardly into the pool of mercury until
it assumes the position shown in Fig. 3. As the
core moves downwardly it will displace mercury
which will rise in the envelope. Some of the
mercury will flow through the opening lb‘ of tube
13 until when it rises above the upper edge of
the opening IS the tube I3 will be sealed except
for the restricted vent IS in its upper end.
The mercury which has been displaced by the
core 23 will continue to seek a stable level by
continuing to rise in the tube H! but the rate
at which it is permitted to ?ow into the tube
will now be delayed by the pressure of the gas
trapped in the tube.
However, as the gas es
capes slowly through the vent IS the mercury
level in the tube will slowly rise until it engages
and lifts the ?oat member 2'! against the ten
sion of spring 30. When the mercury level has
The envelope I0 ‘is ?tted loosely within two
metal sleeves 3i and 32 preferably of magnetic
material and held in position by- the friction of
a coil spring 33 wrapped closely around the en
velope and bearing against the adjacent ends of risen su?iciently the ?oat member will be raised
until its head portion 28 is disengaged from the
the sleeves. This spring is of non-magnetic ma
terial such as phosphor bronze. The sleevesi‘i contact portions i9 and 20 of the terminal wires
and 32 are clamped by clips 35 and 35 to a thereby opening the circuit through the coil 40
laminated yoke 36 of soft iron or other suitable
70 magnetic material. Bolts 31 serve to fasten the
as disclosed in Fig. 2.
Tbs coil 46 now being deenergized the core 70
23 will at once ?oat upwardly in the mercury
and the mercury level will drop in the envelope
iii permitting the mercury in the tube I3 to flow
out of the tube through the opening l6 thereby
clips to the yoke and to clamp the laminations
of the yoke together. Other bolts 38 pass
through the yoke and serve to further clamp the
laminations of the yoke together and to secure
' lowering the ?oat member 21 until its disc 15
75 mounting brackets 39 to the yoke.
3
shaped head 2! is again forced into engagement
with the contact portions of the terminal wires
by the spring 30. The circuit through the coil
7
40 will again be made ‘and the relay will thus
5 intermittently operate at a predetermined rate
an opening communicating with said pool oi’ mer
cury and a restricted vent in the upper end there
of, a pair 01’ terminals extending into said'tube
and insulated from each other, and a ?oat in said
tube normally bridging said terminals and mov
so long as it is connected to the source oi en
able out of contact therewith when the mercury
cray
‘
To prevent mercury vapor formed by the mak
rises in said tube in response to the submersion‘
of said core in said mercury upon the energiza
ing and breaking of the relay contacts from ris
19 ing and collecting in the upper end of the tube
It about the vent it, which might cause a vari
ation in the ?ow of gas through the vent and
thus cause a variance in the delay period oi the
tion of said coil.
.
4. In a relay, a sealed envelope, a solenoid coil 10
surrounding said envelope, a pool of mercury in
said envelope, an annular core within said en
'velope ?oated on said mercury and within the
relay, a' small quantity of asbestos ?ber, felt,v ?eld of said coil, a tube supported in said en
'18 steel wool or the like I1 is packed lightly in the
upper end of the tube which will intercept the
7 particles of mercury vapor and preserve the.
normal gas ?ow.
The modi?ed form of relay disclosed in part
U in Fig. 6 functions in a similar manner.
When
the core II is depressed into the mercury pool
22 by the energization of the relay coil, mercury
is displaced ‘and its level rises in the envelope,
a part 01' the mercury ?owing through the open—
28 ing it in the tube i3. As the level of the mer
cury continues to rise in the tube It as permit
ted by the escape of trapped gas through the
restricted vent 15, the float member 46 is raised
until it engages and bridges the contact por
a tions l4 and I5 oi the terminal wires 42 and 43.
When the relay coil is deenergized the core 28
at once ?oats upwardly in the mercury and the
> mercury level drops in the envelope iii permit
ting the mercury in the tube l3 to ?ow out
35 through the opening i6 thereby lowering the
?oat ‘member 46 and opening the bridge across
the contact portions of the terminal wires.
_ It will be obvious from the disclosure that the
- length of the time delay when breaking or mak
40 ing an electrical circuit may be varied within
limits by increasing or reducing the size of the
vent i5.
What is claimed is:
1. In a relay, a sealed envelope, a solenoid
46 coil, a pool of ?uid in said envelope, an annu
lar core within said envelope and ?oated on said
~?uld, a tube supported in said envelope having
an opening communicating with said pool of ?uid
and a restricted vent in the upper end thereof,
50 a pair of terminals extending into said tube and
insulated from each other, and a ?oat in said
tube for bridging said terminals and operable
when the ?uid rises in said tube in response to
the submersion oi’ said core in said ?uid upon
55 the energization of said coil.
2. In a relay, a sealed envelope, a solenoid coil,
a pool of mercury in said envelope, an annular
core within said envelope and ?oated on said
mercury, ‘a tube supported in said envelope hav-.
60 ing an opening communicating with said pool of
'
mercury and a restricted vent in the upper end
thereof, a pair of terminals extending into said
tube and insulated from each other, and a ?oat
in said tube for bridging said terminals and op
66 erable when the mercury rises in said‘ tube in
response to the submersion of said core in said
upon the energization of said coil.
3. In a relay, a sealed envelope, a solenoid coil,
a pool 0! mercury in said envelope, an annular
70 core within said envelope and ?oated on said
mercury, a tube supported in said envelope having
velope having an opening communicating with 15
said pool of mercury and a restricted vent in the
upper end thereof, a pair of terminals extending
into said tube and insulated from each other,
and a ?oat in said tube normally bridging said
terminals and movable out of contact therewith 20
when the mercury rises in said tube in response to
the submersion of said core in said mercury upon
the energlzation of said coil.
5. In a relay, a sealed envelope, a solenoid coil,
a pool of mercury in said envelope, an annular
core within said envelope and ?oated on said
mercury, a tube supported in said envelope having
an opening communicating with said pool of mer
cury. and a restricted vent in the upper end
thereof, a pair of terminals extending into said 30
tube and insulated from each other, a float in said
tube, and a spring for normally holding said ?oat
in bridging engagement with said terminals, said
?oat movable out of engagement with said ter
minals when the mercury rises in said tube in 35
response to the submersion of said core in said
mercury upon the energlzation of said coil.
6. In a relay, a sealed envelope, a solenoid coil,
a pool of mercury in said envelope, an annular
core within said envelope ?oated on said mercury, 40
a tube supported in said envelope, partially sub
merged in said mercury,‘ having an opening in
the wall thereof just above the normal level of
said mercury pool and a restricted vent in the
upper end thereof, a pair of terminals extending
upwardly through the bases of said envelope and
tube and insulated from each other, and a ?oat
in said tube normally resting on the upper ends
of said terminals forming a conducting bridge
between them and movable out oi contact there
with when the mercury rises in said tube in re
sponse to the submersion of said core in said mer
cury upon the energization oi‘ said coil.
'7. In a relay, a sealed envelope, a solenoid coil,
8. pool of mercury in said envelope, an annular
core within said envelope ?oated on said mercury,
a tube supported in said envelope, partially sub
merged in said mercury, having an opening in the
wall thereof just above the normal level of said
mercury pool and a restricted vent in the upper
end thereof, a pair of terminals extending down
wardly through the upper ends 01' said envelope
and tube, and a ?oat in said tube normally out
of contact with said terminals and movable into
bridging contact therewith when the mercury
rises in said tube in response to the submersion
of said core in said mercury upon the energisa
tion of said coil.
CLARENCE S. KNOWL'IUN. _
HOBART M. SPICER.
70
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