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Патент USA US2130545

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Sept. 20, 1938.
Filed Oct. 20, 1936
Patented Sept. 20, 1938
‘ 2,130,545
Walter N. Heath, Rockport, Mass., assignor to
Birdseye Electric Corporation, Dover, Del., a
corporation of Delaware
Application October 20, 1936, Serial No. 106,589
11 Claims. (Cl. 91—12.2)
The present invention consists in an improved the surfaces to be treated, and a liquid ?lm is
apparatus for use in applying a metallic re?ect
thus interposed at all times between the glass and
ing surface to glass articles such as lamp bulbs. the precipitate and consequently no detrimental
An important ?eld of use is in the application of contact occurs.
5 metallic silver coatings to the inside surface of
The di?iculties above described have been suc
lamp bulbs and for purposes of illustration the cessfully solved in accordance with the method
invention will be described in that connection.
disclosed in the application of Pincus Deren, Ser.
Many attempts have been made heretofore to No. 42,227, September 26, 1935. The subject mat
provide an inside silvered- surface for lamp bulbs, ter of the present invention is an apparatus by
but serious di?iculties have been encountered and which the method of the above application may
prior to the present invention no commercially be best put into practice under commercial con
successful process has been available. Conse
ditions of lamp manufacture.
As herein shown the apparatus comprises a
quently resort has been had to the application to
lamp bulbs of an outside coating of silver. An bulb-holding device in combination with means
outside silver coating is noticeably less efficient for imparting thereto a movement such that
as a re?ector than an inside coating because of
metal-precipitating solution in the bulb or bulbs
the fact that the light must pass twice through is maintained in a state of continuous agitation,
the glass in reaching and leaving the re?ecting ?owing across the bulb surface in a constantly
changing path and never permitting the second
surface. This loss of course, is eliminated in
ary deposit to settle upon the glass walls of the
20 the case of an inside re?ecting surface. . Further,
the outside re?ecting surface is likely to become bulbs. The desired results may be secured as
herein shown by moving the bulbs being treated
damaged or scratched in use. In fact, this
danger is so pronounced that it is the practice to transversely in a circular path and simul
protect outside re?ecting surfaces, as heretofore taneously moving them axially or longitudinally
and also rotating them about their own axes.
25 I used, .by a shell of copper or the like and this ex
pedient introduces another problem because in Preferably these motions may also be combined
time the copper tends to diffuse into the silver with a wabbling or swaying motion about their
and impair its re?ecting efficiency.
longitudinal axes. All of these different com
On the other hand, it is difficult to secure a ponent movements may be, and preferably are,
30 smooth continuous and tightly adherent silver modi?ed by the interposition of yielding means in
coating upon the inside of the bulb on account of
the operating train of the bulb-holder so that
the severe treatment imparted to the bulb in the bulbs lag behind or overthrow the move
lamp manufacture and use. In the ?rst place, it ments of the actuating elements.
is necessary to remove every particle of occluded
The apparatus herein shown comprises a base
member and a bulb-holding plate yieldingly sup
35 air or gas from the walls of the bulb before de
positing the silver coating thereon, because if any ported thereon in spaced relation. To the base
gas is left beneath the silver coating, it will ex
member is imparted movement in a circular path
pand and rupture the coating when the bulb is in its own plane, that is to say,. a movement of
exhausted prior to the sealing step, thus damag
equal longitudinal and transverse components so
that each point of the base member moves in a
40 ing the reflecting surface.
Where a silver-depositing solution is employed horizontal circle of perhaps one half inch in
it also becomes important to prevent contact with diameter. Combined with this circular move
the walls to be plated of precipitate which may ment the base member also partakes of ‘a vertical
be formed in the solution as a result of secondary movement, each end thereof being raised and
reactions or otherwise. If such precipitate is al
lowered perhaps one-half inch in each cycle. The
lowed to settle against the walls the silver will movement of the base member may be cyclic in
not subsequently unite with the glass in the con- ' that the lateral and vertical movements thereof
tacted spots and pin holes or imperfections in
coating will result. Further problems arise on
50 account of intense heat developed within the bulb
under conditions of use, caused by the concen
trated heat rays reaching the re?ecting surface
of the bulb.
The problem of preventing contact or settling
of precipitate in the silver-depositing solution
upon the walls of the bulb I have solved by only
partially ?lling the bulb with the solution and
then imparting a special movement of predeter
mined character to the bulb, such that the solu
60 tion is caused to ?ow or slosh continuously across
occur in de?nitely timed relation.‘ However, the
bulb-holding plate is yieldingly supported upon
the base member and its movements are not cyclic 50
but vary in accordance with the action\of the
springs under different conditions of load and
movement of the liquid solutions in the bulbs
The bulb-holding plate as herein shown is 55
equipped with a series of sockets in which the
‘individual bulbs may be mounted in stoppered
and inverted condition with the silver depositing
solution therein. The sockets may be so de
signed and their connection with the stoppered 60
bulbs so arranged that the bulbs are free to ro
tate about their own longitudinal axes. Under
the conditions of movement above explained, it
has been discovered that the bulbs will of their
own accord rotate slowly'in ‘a reverse direction
to the circular movement imparted to the bulb
holding plate. If desired this connection be
tween the sockets of the bulb-holding plate and
the bulbs may be designed to permit the bulbs
also to partake of a wabbling or swaying motion
about a vertical axis, thus further contributing
ed laterally with the rotation of the eccentric -
pin l1 and that portion of the base member 22
to which its lateral movement is transmitted so
to cause the ?ow of the silver precipitating so
lution to take place in an irregular and non
that its operative relation to the cam I8 is not 10
disturbed, in other words, both the cam l8 and
the supporting pin 20 rotate about the axis of
the eccentric pin I1 and in addition to this ro
cyclic path.
tation they are moved bodily in a path concen
The invention includes within its scope a novel
‘combined stopper and support for the individual
bulbs. The problem of tightly stoppering the
inverted bulbs without breaking them, but so ef
fectively as to prevent leakage of the silver pre
20 cipitating solution presents many dii?culties.
These have been solved however, by providing
a holder which includes one or more soft rubber
washers which may be inserted in the neck of
the bulb and then expanded into engagement
25 with its wall by relative longitudinal movement
trio with the axis of the shaft IS.
The four sprocket wheels [6 upon their respec
tive standards are driven simultaneously at a
uniform rate of speed by the sprocket chain 29
which in turn is driven by a sprocket wheel 28
upon the upper end of the vertical shaft of a re
ducing gear unit 21 which is bolted to the sta
tionary support I 0 in any convenient position
beneath the base member 22. The reducing gear
unit 21 is driven by a motor 25 also secured to
the support I0 and having a. driving belt 26. All
of the holder parts. In this connection an im
portant feature of the invention consists in a
the cams 18 are set in the same angular posi
holder for an inverted bulb having a well or
base are set 180 degrees in advance of the pins
located at the other end of the base. ‘The re
sult is that in the rotation of these cams one 30
end of the base 22 is being lifted while the other
end is being lowered and accordingly a contin
uous rocking movement is imparted thereto and
this, as already‘ explained, is combined with the
depression in its inner end in which the precipi
30 tate formed in the solution may collect during
the process, and thus be prevented from settling
against portions of the bulb which it is desired
to coat by deposition from a continuously ?ow
ing solution.
These and other features of the invention will
be best understood and appreciated from the
following description of a preferred embodiment
thereof, selected for purposes of illustration and
shown in the accompanying drawing in which
ing pin 20 which rests upon the face of a cam
i8 secured 'to the pin l1. Each cam I8 has an
abrupt throw of perhaps a half inch and in its
rotation it periodically lifts one corner of the
member 22 and then allows it to fall by gravity.
It will be noted that the supporting pin 20 is shift
Fig. 1 is a view in perspective of the appara
tus, parts thereof being shown as broken away,
Fig. 2 is a view in elevation showing a stopper
tion, while the pins 20 located at one end of the
component of circular movement imparted to the
base by the eccentric pins IT.
The bulb-holding plate 30 is yicldingly sup
ported above the base member 22 and in'spaced
relation thereto by four compression springs 3|,
one located near each corner of the plate.
The 40
upper end of each of these springs is secured in
ing and holding device, and
place by a screw 32.
In order to check the re
bound of the plate 30 a chain connection 33- is
upon a stationary support l0 by. means of four
standards each having a' ?ange II and a sta
tionary barrel l2. The standards directly sup
sockets 34 arranged in spaced rows, as for ex
ample, four rows of six sockets‘each.
_- The bulbs are presented to the bulb-holding
50 port the base member 22 of the apparatus and
plate 30 stoppered and in inverted position and
partially filled with a silver precipitating solu
tion. One of the combined stoppering and bulb
supporting elements is shown in Fig. 2 and this
Fig. 3 is a view in elevation of-one of the sup-_ provided between the base member 22 and the
_- plate 30 adjacent to each of the springs 3|. The
porting posts of the base member.
As herein shown the apparatus is mounted plate 30 is further provided with a plurality of
upon this is mounted the bulb-holding plate 30.
Each of the barrels l2 carries on its upper end
a vertical thrust bearing l3 above which is 10-‘
cated a collar l4 fast to a vertical shaft i5 which
55 is journalled in the barrel l2 of the standard.
The shaft l5 and the collaremember M are ro
tated through the medium of a sprocket wheel l6
which is fast upon the collar member and is
arranged to mesh with a sprocket chain 29, to
60 be hereinafter described.
A vertical pin I1 projects upwardly from the
collar member ll of each standard and is ar
ranged eccentrically with respect to the axis of
the shaft l5. Each pin I'I extends through a
65 bushing in a horizontal bracket 23 secured to
one corner of the base member 22, the bushing
being formed with spaced collars l9 and 2| which
engage opposite faces of the bracket. The col
lars H are all set with the pins H, in the same
angular position and consequently their rota
tion' is transmitted to the base member 22 as a
circular movement in a horizontal plane.
Each bushing with itscollars l9 and 2| is free
ly slidable upon its eccentric pin i1 and from
75 each of the lower collars l9 extends a support
will now be described. It comprises ?rst a cen
tral shaft 35 to which is pinned a fixed sleeve 55
member 31 having a collar 36 at its lower end
and a radially projecting pin.‘ Supported upon
the ?xed sleeve 31 is a rotatable cam sleeve 38
also having a radial pin‘.‘ Above the cam sleeve
38 is a loose sleeve 39 having a spline» connec 60
tion with the shaft 35. interposed between the
‘upper end of the loose sleeve 39 and a head 40
formed upon the upper end of the shaft 35 is a
pair of rubber washers 42.
The sleeve 39 is also provided with a soft rub
ber bushing 43 arranged to?t in the open end
of the bulb neck. The construction is such that
after the silver-precipitating solution has been
supplied to the bulb the end of the stoppering
element may be inserted into the neck thereof
while the bulb is held right side up and then
by turning the cam sleeve 38, thewashers 42
are compressed and caused to expand into liquid
tight engagement with the walls of the bulb neck.
The bulb 50 thus stoppered may now be inverted 75
and the end of the spindle 35 inserted in one of
the sockets 34. This is usually done by the oper
ator while the bulb-holding plate 30 is in motion
in the direction of said axis, thereby causing the
so that a turbulent agitation is at once imparted
2. A device of the class described comprising
a holder for lamp bulbs containing metal-precipi
tating solution, means for mounting an inverted
bulb thereon with its larger end free to sway and
rotate, means for imparting to the holder and the
bulbs supported thereon a combined movement
to the solution in the bulb. It will be noted that,
as shown in Fig. 2, the spindle v35 projects fully
into the socket 34 permitting the weight of the
assembled bulb and stoppering element to be
supported by the‘collar 36 and as it rests upon
10 the ?ange of the socket. The spindle 35 how
ever, ?ts loosely in the socket so that not only
is_ the bulb assembly permitted to rotate about
its longitudinal axis, but also to partake of a
Wabbling or swaying motion within some such
v15 limits as indicated by the dash lines in Fig. 1.
A portion of the metallic silver deposited from
the solution does not adhere to the walls of the
' bulb but collects in the neck thereof and may
interfere to some extent with the formation of
20 a smooth continuous surface in the neck of the
bulb. In order to prevent this as far as possible
the head 40 of the stoppering element is provided
with a well ill and in this the precipitate tends
to collect, thus being prevented from piling up
v25 against the walls of the neck.
The nature of the movement imparted to the
base member 22, as already explained, is a cyclic
or uniform movement having components trans
verse to the bulb axis and in the direction of
30 the bulb axis and on account of its timing includ
ing also a rocking component. The bulb-holding
.plate 30 partakes of all these movements, but in
a modi?ed and more or less irregular fashion on
account of its spring connection with the base
35 member 22. The bulb stoppering and supporting
element is held for free rotation in the socket 34
and in practice it is found that the bulb with this
element will revolve slowly in a rotary direction
opposite to that imparted to the plate, that is,
40 if the movement imparted to the plate is in an
anti-clockwise direction as suggested by the circle
in dash lines in Fig. 1, then the rotation of the
bulb itself will be in a clockwise direction as indi
cated by the arrow in the same ?gure. The
45 result of all these movements is to impart to the
solution to ?ow continuously over the bulb sur
in directions transverse to and in line with the 10
bulb axis, and springs for cushioning the latter
component of the movement of the holder.
3. A device of the class described comprising a
holder, a socket and spindle for supporting a ‘
lamp bulb on said holder for free rotation about 15
its own axis, and means for imparting to the
holder an up-and-down .movement combined
with a sidewise movement such that the bulb is
caused to rotateas ‘the holder is moved.
4. A device of‘ the class described comprising a 20
holder for supporting a lamp for free rotation
about itsv own axis and‘ for a swaying motion
about one end, and means-for imparting to the
holdera rocking up-and-down movement com
bined with circular sidewise movement.
5. A device of the class described comprising a
base member mounted for continuous movement
having combined vertical and horizontal com
ponents of ?xed magnitude, a bulb-holding plate
supported on the base for yielding movement in
respect thereto, and sockets located on said plate.
6. A device of the class described comprising a
plate having a plurality of sockets, in combination
with bulb stoppering and holding elements shaped
to ?t loosely in said sockets.
7. A device of the class described comprising a
plate having a plurality of sockets, in combina
tion with bulb stoppering and holding elements
each having an expansible portion to ?t the
neck of a bulb, and a cylindrical portion to ?t
freely in one of said sockets.
8. A device of the class described comprising a
plate having a series of sockets, in combination
with bulb stoppering and holding elements each
silver precipitating solution 5| an irregular whirl
ing ?ow carrying it over all parts of the inner
having an elongated spindle with a head adapted 45
to be inserted into the bulb neck, an expansible
section and a lower end shaped to ?t freely in
surface of the bulb in an irregular manner with
the result that a continuous coating of metallic
bulb neck for expanding said section to close the
50 silver is deposited upon the bulb surface, the
one of said sockets, and means located outside the
coating being of uniform thickness throughout
9. A device of the class described comprising a
and free of pin holes or other imperfections. It
base member, means for supporting said member
is contemplated that even further irregularities ' ' at separated points and for imparting to each
may be introduced into the movement of the
55 bulb-holding plate 30 by ?tting the bushings car
rying the collars l9 and 2| loosely in the brackets
23 or by ?tting the pins I1 loosely in the bush
ings. All such expedients tend to prevent the
point a rising and falling movement combined
with a lateral rotary movement, a bulb support 55
ing plate mounted above the base member upon
springs, and spaced sockets in said plate.
10. In apparatus of the class described, the
plate 30 and the bulbs thereon from moving in
combination of a bulb-holder having a socket
a regular or cyclic manner and‘ cause the current
and means for imparting a continuous agitating 60
of the silver-depositing solution to ?ow always
movement to the. holder, with a device having an
in an irregular manner upon the walls of the
expansible bulb-stoppering section arranged to
The nature and scope of the invention hav
ing been indicated and a preferred embodiment
thereof speci?cally, described, what is claimed as
be positioned within the neck of the bulb and an
new is:
bined bulb stoppering and supporting element in
cluding a spindle having an open well sunk in its
upper end, an expansible section in the element
located below the opening of said well, and means
arranged to be operated from outside the bulb-for
expanding said section within the bulb neck
without affecting the well in said spindle.
l. A device of the class described comprising
a holder for lamp bulbs containing metal-precipi
70 tating solution, means for mounting an inverted
bulb thereon with its larger end free to sway and
rotate, and means for imparting to the holder
and the bulbs supported thereon a [combined
movement transverse tothe axis of the bulb and
elongatedstem shaped to make a rotary ?t in_
said socket.
11. In apparatus of the class described, a com
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