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Патент USA US2130549

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Sept; 20, 1938.
J. KIRGAN
2,130,549
REGULATING DEVICE FOR REFRIGERATING APPARATUS _
Filed March 25, 1956
1 1
.‘
'INKENTOR.
tlahn/ lfu'jan.
HIS ATTORNEY
Patentedsept. 20, 1938 v
2,130,549
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,130,549
_ v
anoomrmo DEVICE
FOR gEFRIGERATlNG
APPARATU
John Kirgan, Easton, Pa, assignor to Ingersoll
Rand Company, Jersey City, N. J., a corpora
I tion of New Jersey
Application-March 25, 1936, Serial No. 70,749
12 Claims. (Cl. 62-152)
My invention relates to refrigerating apparatus,
and especially to a regulating device to facilitate
and ensure the continuous and normal operation
of same.
OI
An object of the invention is to provide novel
means for limiting the minimum temperature to
be imparted to a liquid refrigerant and thus pre
.
followed by a reduction in the output of the com- '5
pressor and a reduction in the amount of vapor
removed from the evaporator. The amount of
vapor generated then decreases and the pressure
The invention is particularly adapted for use
10 with a refrigerating system in which a liquid re
frigerant is cooled in a high vacuum by vaporiza
tion of part thereof. In such a system the refrig
and temperature are prevented from falling below
erating e?ect depends on uninterrupted circula
tion and if freezing should occur operation would
15 be suspended.
Systems of the kind mentioned include an evap
orator to receive the refrigerant, an evacuator
and accompanying drawing; and while but one
embodiment is shown I reserve the right to make
changes in the shape, size and arrangement of 15
the various parts within the scope and principle
of the invention.
for the removal of vapor therein and a condenser
in which the vapor is lique?ed. By means of a
in section showing a construction according to
_
20 suitable exhaust device the pressure in the con
denser is made to sustain at a de?nite relation to
the required low pressure in the evaporator to
permit vaporization to proceed. If the pressure
in the condenser becomes too great, the pressure
25 in the evaporator reaches too high a ?gure and
vaporization is ‘checked until pressure in the con
denser again drops to a prescribed level. Hence
by causing the pressure in the condenser to rise
at a predetermined moment, further cooling can
30 be stopped and freezing of the system is averted.
Another object of the invention is to‘ provide an
apparatus by which the risk of freezing of the
liquid refrigerant is eliminated through the oper
ation of the exhausting unit for bringing about
-
tion causes a rise in the pressure of the condenser
coupled to the compressor which is immediately
_
vent solidi?cation or freezing thereof.
to reduce the amount of power ?uid therefor when
the refrigerant is cooled too .much. This reduc~
35 the necessary low pressure in the condenser so
that at'the required moment the pressure in the
condenser is caused to increase and the rate of
‘vaporization is then diminished until normal con
. ditions are again obtained.
40
An additional object of the invention is to pro
vide a connection between the chilled liquid re
frigerant leaving the evaporatorand the power
medium for actuating the exhaust device of the
condenser such that the power medium is regu
45 lated in response to the falling temperature of
the danger point.
(
10,
Other objects and advantages of the-invention .
will be fully apparent in the ensuing description‘
On the drawing the figure is a side viewiiartly
this invention.
\
_.
,
20
The numeral I indicates an enclosed vessel
called an evaporator which is exhausted of vapor _
created therein by means of an evacuator having
the form of a centrifugal compressor 2. The a
liquid refrigerant to be cooled is introduced into 25
the evaporator through a header 3 having open-
' '
ings through whichthe refrigerant is expelled
in the form of jets. or sprays. The compressor 2
communicates with the inside of the evaporator.
through a port 4 and maintains a sufficient -vac- 3o
uum in the evaporator to cause some of the re:
frigerant to be vaporized at once, and heat is "
thus taken out of the main body of the refriger
ant so that the bulk of the refrigerant which re
mains liquid is chilled. It passes out through a 35
pipe 5 and is conducted to a place where the re
frigerating effect is desired. After being warmed
by absorbing heat thereat it returns to the evapo
rator through the header 3 and is cooled over.
The compressor 2 is rotated by a turbine 6 that 40
is operated by steam supplied through a pipe 1
and this turbine may be coupled to the compressor
through any suitable gearing shown at 8.
the refrigerant to give the desired result.
The compressor or blower delivers the vapor
that it takes out of the evaporator to a condenser 45. .
9, while the steam consumed in the turbine is dis- '
. In its preferred form the invention comprises
charged into a condenser l0 through an outlet
’ _
an evacuator of centrifugal design driven by av ?ue II. The condenser 9 receives water or other
turbine, and the discharge of both machines is cooling medium through a pipe 12, and the water
5'0 transferred to condensers that are traversed by‘ flows out of this condenser through a pipe l3 into 50
icooling water in series. To create a low pressure the other condenser l0 and leaves the other con
in the condenser for the compressor, an ejector denser by way of a pipe ll.‘ The temperature of
such as a steam jet may be used, and the outlet the condenser l0 and its internal pressure are
therefore slightly higher than the temperature
for the chilled refrigerant has a thermostat cou
55 pled to a valve in the supply pipe for the ejector
and pressure in the condenser 9.
,
I
55 ._
‘2,180,549
2
To obtain the proper pressure in the condenser
9 below the atmosphere this condenser is con
nected to a steam ejector comprising a casing l5
which connects with the outlet pipe ll of the
turbine. This casing communicates at its other
end with the interior of ‘the condenser 9 and it
has an inside nozzle I6 connected to a steam pipe
' all, the latter having a regulating valve H in a
So long as the valve I8 is
‘ ?tting‘ l9 therein.
from falling below the predetermined minimum.
As soon as the temperature of the chilled water
again exceeds the said minimum normal opera
tion of ejector IE will be resumed. . Hence, it is
seen that the decrease in the rate of vaporization 5
is a direct result of the decrease in the rate of
liquefaction and the increase of pressure in con
denser 9.
.
' . Other methods of decreasing the rate of lique
10 fully opened the pressure in the condenser 9 will
faction and increasing the pressure in the con
be kept low enough to permit the compressor to
continue evacuating vapor from the evaporator I,
but if the water passing out through the pipe 5
should ever become too cold the valve I8 will part-\
15 ly close by the action of athermostatcomprising
denser, such as'increasing the temperature of the
incoming condenser cooling water, will be appar
ent to those skilled in the art. I, therefore, do
not wish to be limited by the specific embodi
a bulb 20 in the pipe 5 and connected by a tube
2i to means to operate this valve. Both the bulb
and the tube are ?lled witha thermally respon
10
ment shown, but desire that the scope of the in
vention be determined by the claims hereinafter
appended.
'
‘
v
I claim:
.
1. The combination of a source of gaseous or
To enable this thermostatic element to move vaporous ?uid, a compressor for removing ?uid 20
the valve the tube 2| is lead to an expansible' from the source, means for energizing the com
casing 22 which is in operative relation with the pressor, a condenser to which the compressor dis
sive liquid.
»
.
outer end of the stem 23 of the valve l8. This
stem has a head 24 on it and is encircled by a
spring 25'which normally tends to close, the valve.
The end of the casing 22 to which the tube 2| is
attached is ?xed, but the other end is movable
and is engaged by'the spring 25 between it and
the ?tting l9. So long as the bulb 20 does not
become too cool the pressure in the casing 22 will
hold the valve l8 fully open, but this valve will
move toward closed position when the thermally
charges, an ejector for exhausting the condenser,
a condenser to which the ejector” discharges, and
means to vary the operation of the ejector in
accordance with variations of the temperature in
said source whereby under certain .temperature
conditions the pressure in the ?rst condenser ap
proaches the pressure in the second condenser to
30
limit the output of the compressor.
2. The combination of a source of gaseous or
vaporous ?uid, a compressor for removing ?uid
from the source, means for energizing the com
responsive ?uid in the bulb and tube contracts.
The condenser In for the turbine is pumped out‘ pressor, condenser means to which the compres
sor discharges, an evacuator for exhausting the
by anypsuitable appliance, not shown herein.
In operation the water temperature will at most condenser, condenser means to which the evacu
times be high enough to keep the valve l8 open ator discharges, means to pass cooling medium
against the spring 25, and the ejector l6 will then serially through the ?rst and second said con
maintain a su?iciently low pressure in the con
40 denser 9 to ensure satisfactory operationthereof.
denser means, the second said condenser means
thereby operating under higher conditions of tem
40
perature and pressure than the first said con
denser means, and means to vary the operation of
the evacuator in accordance with variations of
warmed and then returned to be chilled again. I
the temperature in said source to enable the pres
If, however, the temperature of the chilled wa
45 ter passing out through the pipe 5 approaches the , sure in the ?rst said condenser means to approach
freezing point the contraction of the liquid in the 1, the pressure in the second said condenser means
The water entering through the header 3 will be
chilled, forced out through the conduit 5 to be
bulb 20 and tube 2| will, at say 35° F., allow the ‘L to limit the output of the compressor. '
spring 25 to compress the casing 22 and move the ‘
valve l8 toward closed position thereby cutting
\down the steam supplied to the ejector- l6. The
capacity of the booster will be thus diminished
3. The combination of a source of gaseous or
vaporous ?uid, a centrifugal compressor for re
moving ?uid from the source. a turbine for driv
ing thev compressor, a' condenser to which the
compressor discharges, a condenser to which the
turbine discharges, a connection communicating
denser ! will increase and approach the tem
perature and pressure prevailing inside the other "between the condensers, means for impelling un
55 condenser It). When this occurs the rate of condensed gases from the ?rst condenser through
- liquefaction of vapor in the condenser 9'will de
said connection to the second condenser, and a
crease due in part to the slower removal of gases device for regulating said means whereby under
by the ejector l6 and in part to the slower de
certain conditions the ?ow through said connec
livery of vapor by the compressor 2. The slower tion may be reversed to increase the pressure in
60 deliveryof vapor will in turn cause a decrease the first condenser and‘thereby decrease the out
in the rate of vaporization and an increase in put of the compressor.
pressure in the evaporator G.
4. The combination of a source of gaseous or
The rate of vaporization in the evaporator will
vaporous
?uid,‘ a centrifugal compressor for re
also be greatly in?uenced by the variable com
and the temperature and pressure in‘ the con
65 pression characteristic of the compressor 2, for,
when the back pressure on the compressor is in
creased the ratio of compression of the compres
sor will likewise increase. The increase of com
pression-ratio will be accompanied by a decrease
in capacity and this will in turn be manifested
by a further increase of evaporator pressure and
temperature and a further decrease in the rate
of vaporization. Less heat will then be extracted
from the water entering the evaporator and the
75 temperature of the chilled water will be prevented
moving ?uid from the source,-a turbine for driv 65
ing the compressor, separate condensers for re
ceiving the discharges of 'the compressor and
turbine, a conduit connecting the condensers,
means for impel‘ling uncondensed gases from the
compressor condenser through the conduit to the
turbine condenser, and a device acting in accord
ance with conditions at said source to control the
operation of said means whereby under certain
conditions the ?ow through said conduit may be
reversed to' augment the pressure in the com 75
3
‘ 2,130,549
pressor condenser and thereby regulate the output
of the compressor.
7
of the compressor and the pressure and temper;
ature in the vessel.
_
5. The method of compressing vapor which
consists of removing vapor from its source, com
9. The combination of a source of gaseous or
vaporous ?uid, a compressor for removing ?uid
pressing the vapor, condensing the compressed
, vapor, exhausting uncondensed gases from the
vapor as the vapor condenses, and varying the
. amount of uncondensed gases exhausted in ac
cordance with variations ‘of the temperature in
10 the source of vapor to thereby vary the amount
of vapor compressed and condensed.
6. ‘The method of compressing vapor which
consists in removing vapor from its source, com
pressing the vapor, subjecting the compressed
vapor to condensing‘ action, separating and re
moving uncondensed gases from the vapor as it
condenses thereby to maintain low condensing
pressure and a low ratio of compression, and vary-v
ing the rate oi’ vremoval of the uncondensed gases
20 in response to the temperature at the source of
vapor in order to vary the condensing pressure
and the ratio of compression for maintainin
such temperature above a certain minimum.
'
7. The combination of a vessel containing gas
or vapor, a compressor to reduce the pressure in
the vessel, means to energize the ‘compressor,
condenser means to which the» compressor dis
from the source, a condenser to which the com
pressor delivers} a device for exhausting said con
denser, means'for supplying power medium to
the device, and a temperature responsive device
actuated by the temperature in said source to vary
the supply of power medium to the pump in ac
cordance with variationsin temperature of said
source whereby the operation of the pump is reg- _
ulated to control the pressure in the condenser
and the amount of ?uid discharged by the com
pressor.
10. The combination of a‘ source 01' gaseous or
vaporous ?uid, a centrifugal compressor for evac
uating said source, a condenser into which the
compressor discharges, a steam ejector to exhaust
the condenser and reduce its pressure, means to 20
supply steam to the ejector, and means controlled
by the temperature of the contents of said source
and acting to regulate said steam supply to there
by determine the condenser pressure and the rate
of discharge of the compressor.
11. The combination of a source of gaseous or
r vaporous ?uid, a centrifugal compressor for evac
charges, means for exhausting the condenser to ' uating said source,.a power unit to operate the
reduce the ‘pressure therein, means to supply compressor, a condenser into which the compres
power medium to the exhausting means, and a sor discharges, a second condenser, a pipe through
temperature responsive device actuated by the which said unit discharges into the second con 30
temperature in said source to vary the supply of denser, an exhauster for the ?rst condenser con
power medium to the pump in accordance with nected to said pipe, and means controlled by the
variations of the temperature in said source contents of said source and acting to regulate the whereby the operation of the pump is regulated operation of said exhauster whereby under cer- to control the pressure in the condenser and the ,tain conditions of the source the pressure in the
amount of ?uid discharged by the compressor.
?rst condenser approaches the pressure in the
8. The combination of an enclosed vessel con
taining gas or vapor, a compressor to reduce the
pressure in the vessel, a turbine for driving the
compressor, a condenser to which the compressor
discharges, a condenser to which the turbine dis
charges, an evacuator to reduce the pressure in
the ?rst said condenser and discharging into the
second said condenser, means to supplyv power
medium to the evacuator, and means acting in
response to the temperature in the vessel to con
trol the last said means and the operation of the
evacuator and acting as the temperature falls
in the vessel to cause the pressure in the ?rst
said condenser to approach the pressure in the
second said condenser for controlling the output
second condenser to limit the output of the com-\
pressor.
,
v 12. The combination of a source of gaseous or 40
vaporous ?uid, a compressor for removing ?uid
from the son e, means for energizing the com
pressor, a con epser'to which the compressor dis
charges, means for- exhausting the condenser,
and temperature responsive means'actuated by
the temperature in said source to regulate and
vary operation of the exhausting means in ac
cordance with variations of the temperature in
said source whereby the pressure in the condenser
is regulated to control the output 01' the com-I
pressor.
,
JOHN KIRJGAN.
45
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