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Патент USA US2130644

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“ I SePt- 20, 1938-
Filed Nov. 25, 19:55
7 Sheets-Sheet 1
Sept. 20, 1938.
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Filed'Nov‘. 23, ‘1935
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‘Sept. 20, 1938.
Filed Nov. 25, 1935
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Sept. 20, 1938.
Filed Nov‘. 23, 19:55
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‘Sept. 20, 1938.
- Filed Nov. 23, 1935
7 Sheets-Sheet s
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Filed Nov., 25, 1935
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B. w. HAMMER ‘31' AL
Filed Nov. 23. 1955
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“ Patented; Sept." '20‘, 1938
1 arraaarvs Fon mama mono FLUIDS " ‘ ‘
.Hammer, Ames, Iowa, Herman C. c ,
,Homemam?idncvli. Guam,‘ and Fred F. Lock- , , ‘
'jjwood,;Danville,,IlL, Howard ‘F. Beery, Omaha,
“Nebr.,‘and‘ Milton E. Parker, 'Danville, 111., as
signors ‘to Sealtest System Laboratories, Inc.,
New‘ York, ‘NrYn a corporation of Maryland ‘
, ‘Application-November 2s‘, idealism. 51,278
‘4‘ Claims.
invention particularly relateswtoyappa
‘ ‘ratus for ‘(1) 'pasteurizing liquids; (2)“ deodoriz
ingliquids (i.‘e., removing undesirable odors and
off-?avors); and (3) cooling liquids» The ap
paratus is useful, for accomplishing‘any two‘of
. these operations, or‘particul‘arly; for carrying out
‘ i all three, as an‘ intermittent, continuous or‘simul
r '
(01. 99-251)
cry of the cream substantially devoid of objec- ‘
,tionable o?c-‘?avors ‘and odor imparting sub
In'the preferred form of the invention, the
cream is compressed and heated; live steam at 5
high, temperature and the compressed cream are
then formed into. ?ne streams or jets of high
velocity. The two jets are‘ directed so as to in
,taneous treatment.‘ The invention is ‘used in
vEconnection withvarious classes of‘liquids and ' tersect with violent agitation, whereby the cream
?uids, of which milk, cream, and lactic ?uids in is‘ bombardedand shattered or sheared by the 10
general are exemplary. , H
. steam. ‘Stated another way, two high velocity
intersecting streams ‘respectively of steam and
' , Milk products such asmilk or cream often ‘have
‘ rcharacteristic odors and ?avors which are unde
_ cream are produced, the velocity of the cream
sirable and must befremoved.
These develop
‘fromyarious sources and during certain periods
of the year.~ Many 1 of these objectionable odors
‘and ?avors are stubborn‘ and tenacious and re
‘ , quire drastic treatment to denude the‘ lactic ?uid
'of them.
I “20,
being assisted by the aspirating effect of the
steam, and the bombardment or contact of cream ' 15
and steam results in heating of the cream, with
(1) simultaneous tearing apart ‘of the cream par
ticles and subdivision thereof and intimate mix
ture of the steam with the cream, forming a
cream-steam-water mixture having substantially 20
In accordancewith ‘the apparatus, of this in
vention, lactic y?uids‘of the order ofrthe milk or
,creamare rendered practically free of off-?avors
of the mixture with enhanced tearing apart of
‘and, odoriferous. substances regardless of their
the, cream particles, in the zone of low pressure
excessive concentration or persistence.- ‘_
created by the high velocity streams.
c 1 ,While conventional, methods of, pasteurizing
f‘and‘cooling lactic?uids such as‘milk or cream,
‘ ‘do, to a limited extent, tend to improve the ?avor
amis't-like form, and ('2) concomitant expansion
As one means for accomplishing these e?ects, 25
we employ a Venturi type of injector device hav
ing means for producing separate steam and
' v ‘and, odor of these products‘ibylpartially volatiliz
‘ cream jets of high velocity and in which the
ing theo?-?avor and undesirable odor impart
,cream-steam-water mixture so formed is caused
,ing substances “therefrom, ' the , present invention
to expand by reason of the reduced pressure ob
taining in the gradually enlarging side of the
' ‘ so augmentsand enhances this volatilizing‘eifect
as to reduce the off-?avors and odors to a neg
,venturi and leading to a conduit which communi
ligible or substantially imperceptible quantity inv _ cates with the vacuum chamber. Hence, a very
‘aqsteam'treatment for‘ (1) pasteurizing a, ?uid,
?ne subdivision is produced, namely, the resultant
of (l) the discharge of the‘ cream at high velocity
through "a reduced ‘opening, ‘(2) the bombarding
‘for example, cream, and (2)
and heating of the cream stream with steam at
,the end product.
, Y Brie?y stated, the‘inven'tion initially provides
subdividing ‘ the
cream to release undesired substances and render
those remainingin‘the cream, which may be in
excessive concentration and/or persistent, poten
tially releasable, i. e,» removable by subsequent
treatment of the‘cream. ‘This initial treatment
“takes place upon a travelling con?ned mass of
‘' odoriferous substances of the most tenacious na
ture, and result in the release of a su‘lastantial‘ 45
eration with the‘initial treatment, thepasteurized f portion of these as volatiles ‘and render the ‘re
,aridsubdivided cream in the form ,of ‘a cream; mainder potentially releasable to the optimum
the fluid-steam mixture.
" 545
. Preferably, ‘as a subsequent and continuous op
steam-water mixture is continuously introduced
through a reduced, outlet into ,a vacuum cham
r to
high velocity,‘ and (3). the expansion of the
cream-steam-water mixture in the tapering out
let in the venturi which latter increases in diam 40
eter toward its jointure with the conduit. This
preliminary treatment will condition cream hav
ing excessive concentrations of off-flavors and
in the continuing procedure of the invention.
Speci?cally, odoriferous and off-?avor substances
“ber Where, under conditions of reduced pressure, are released due (1) to the mechanical tearing
it, spontaneously and with violent and explosive apart of the cream particles, and (2) to the ex
.force, expands into a fog or mist-like state. This pansion of the cream-steam-water mixture. As
?nal ,state of subdivision of the preliminarily the cream-steam-water mixture passes, beyond
50 “
the in?uence of the zone of reduced pressure in
able volatiles simply and completely and recov-_ , the venturi,.the velocity‘decreases and the con 55
‘ treated cream permits separation of the undesir
duit or line leading to the vacuum chamber be
comes ?lled with the cream-steam-water mixture ’
as a liquid column under increasing pressure. As"
will be understood, the ?uid con?ned in the line
will be under an increased pressure accompanied
distributor head causes the mixture to be dis
with the quantitative law with regard to changes
charged into the vacuum chamber with explosive
and violent expansion whereby the mixture spon
taneously assumes a substantially fog-like state.
As will be appreciated, the ?uid, while travelling
to the vacuum chamber, is constantly treated and
in pressure and changes in speed as expressed
conditioned, being (a) heated, compressed, ex
by Vernoulli’s theorem. ‘} The cream is pasteurized
panded and compressed, or (b) heated and com
pressed, and then (0) in either case, expanded 10
in the vacuum chamber. As stated, the pre
by a decrease in velocity‘, v e. g., in accordance
10 and further conditioned to enhance the release
and potential release of undesired substances dur
ing- travel in the line or conduit’ and the com
pressed cream-steam-water mixture‘is introduced
into the vacuum chamber‘ through a reduced out
15 let, spontaneously and violently assuming a fog
liminary treatment and conditioning takes place
whilethev cream is travelling in the line and the
cream ‘is, preferably continuously introduced
in lieu of the initial treatment just described, that
therefrom into‘ the vacuum chamber, providing 15
a continuous system. It is considered that the
optimum conditioning of the cream is due to the
presence of each of the several factors outlined
pasteurization and subdivision of the cream par
‘which cooperate with each other to afford a pre
or mist-like state.
We have also discovered, as a modi?cation and
vacuum chamber and the reduced outlet in the
ticles is satisfactorily accomplished by injecting
' live steam under pressure in the form' of needle
like jets into a travelling liquid column of cream
and producing a multiplicity of impacts or‘ im
pingements by thesteam upon the cream‘whereby
25 mixture of the steam and cream takes place in a
manner to agitate and thoroughly comb the
cream with steam. At the same time, thistreat
ment imparts to the mixture a turbulent and
whirling movement in the direction of travel 01’
30 the cream toward the vacuum chamber.
liminary treatment such that the ?nal product is 20
~ of enhanced quality and the operation economical
and universal for plant practice.
By pasteurizing is meant heating the ?uid dur
ing travel through the conduit in direct contact
with the steam and within both the conventional 25
?ash pasteurizing range of substantially 165 to
190° F., and particularly at higher temperatures,
1. e., above the normal ?ash pasteurizing tem
peratures and within a sterilization range of sub-‘
stantlally 200 to 250° F.‘or higher, In other
peratures in the line, _(2) intimately mixed with
words,‘ pasteurization at a high temperature, that
is, ‘above the boiling point of the fluid at normal
atmospheric pressure, is accomplished with this
steam andagitated and shattered, l. e., the cream
In each of the processes described, the cream
a is preliminarily (1) pasteurized at high tem
35 particles are torn apart and subdivided by the
steam and (3) conditioned to have the‘objec
tionable volatiles released or rendered poten
tially releasable.
In the initial steam treatment‘, the latent heat‘
40 of the steam is very largely transferred to the
cream and (1) part of the steam condenses and
(a) 'the heat of condensation also is transferred
to the cream, resulting in a cream-steam-water
mixture having a pasteurizing or sterilizing tem
perature of substantially 200 to 250° F. or higher;
(b) the condensation of the steam with sudden
collapse of the steam bubbles upon coming in
contact with relatively cooler cream will cause a
breaking up of the fat globules with consequent
release or potential release of volatile odoriferous
substances. occluded within the fat globules, and
(c) the heating effect, the release of volatiles,
and the, uncondensed portion of the steam pro
duces a compression, and (2) the uncondensed
55 steam, exerts‘a sweeping action in that it serves
With respect to the vacuum chamber, we have 35
found‘ that by recourse to either ‘of the pre
liminary treatments described, and the use of a
distributor head having a reduced'outlet, optimum
advantagecan be had of the reduced pressure
maintained within the vacuum chamber. That 40
is, the cream is conditioned in the line~:for
optimum expansion in the vacuum chamber so
that the two stages or steps are interdependent
and assure the desired ?nal result, namely a
cream substantially denuded of its objectionable 45
The vacuum chamber a?‘ords a
simple and efficient means of separating and re
moving the‘ vapor phase constituents, including
the undesirable volatiles, from the cream.
The vacuum chamber is characterized by being 50
heated; . In this manner condensation of water
vapors and condensable odoriferous and off-?avor
stituents of the cream released by the shattering
imparting volatiles and their attendant objection
able return to the cream is prevented;‘likewise
separation of liquid and vapor phase constituents
is maintained orprolonged, and, moreover, com
plete separation of liquid phase particles of cream
actions and heating e?ect' of the steam. ‘
is obtained.
as a carrier ‘for the volatile or vapor phase con
‘The cream~steam-water mixture is compressed
60 in the line or conduit ('a) due to the heating
eifects of the steam as just described, (b) due
to the pumping pressure for conveying the cream
to the line and thence to the vacuum chamber,
(0) because of the injection of steam under'pres
As will be appreciated, where- steam is used,
a cream-steam-water-mixture will be produced, 60
while the lactic product is initially heated under
compression, and the expansion treatment of this
cream-steam-water mixture in the vacuum cham
ber is characterized by removal of moisture and
odoriferous and off-?avor imparting substances. 65
created by the reduced size of the outlet of the‘ As a result, the end product has improved organe
distributor head in the vacuum chamber cooper
leptic qualities and a moisture content substan-v
ating with the positive pumping and steam pres
tially that of the original cream. That is, al
sures. Also in some cases, we continuously inject . though dilution will take place in the initial com~
steam under pressure, e. g. live steam around 325°
pression and‘shattering of the particles with 70
F., eighty to one hundred pounds gauge, into the steam, this condensation‘ water is more or less
cream-steam-water mixture at the distributor removed in the subsequent expansion-subdivision
head for increasing the compression. This com
treatment in the vacuum chamber and the mix
pression of the cream-steam-water mixture in ture is condensed whereby the ?nal eiTect is one
75 cooperation with the reduced pressure in the of recovering the cream in substantially its
65 sure, and (d) by reason of the back pressure
‘ 2,130,644
‘original volume but denuded of’ objectionable
stances. No substantial evaporation of the cream
‘flavors and odors.
takes place and the effect therefore is one wherein
the steam agitates and passes through the cream
Another advantageous step of the process of
this invention, as where the concentration of off
?avors‘and/or odors is‘excessive or of a stubborn
nature, resides in subjecting the “cream either
(1) to a ‘preliminary steam scrubbing or deodor
‘izing distillation treatment prior to‘the initial
. compression, and subsequent expansion ‘in the
‘vacuum chamber‘as abovedescribed, and/or (2)
to a similar‘scrubbing ‘I, (a) continuously in the
‘presence of the expansion treatment, ,(b) con
tinuously in a separate chamber, or (c) in batch
in the vacuum ‘chamber or a separate chamber.
‘ In connection with the scrubbing step where
the ?uid is treated‘while in continuous ?ow, we
‘cause the ?ow to be serpentine, e. g. the ?uid is
‘travelled continuously through interconnected
compartments, and ,we pass the ?uid ‘through
the outer compartments consecutively‘. and‘ into
a central compartment from which it is with
:drawn in ?nally scrubbed condition.
The process of continuous incremental scrub
bing in communicating, compartmentsis insome
25 cases associated with a novel disposition of ‘dis
tributor head, wherein the latter is disposed above
‘ the liquid level in one of the compartments,the
wall, partition or a plurality of the‘ 'sain‘e‘being
‘ elevated to‘ assure that the liquid phase constitu
without appreciably raising ‘the temperature of
the cream, but at the same time, releases and car
ries off the undesired substances.
A primary object of this invention is to pro
‘vide means for pasteurlzing a ?uid such as cream
at temperatures considerably higher than those
conventionally used and without detrimental
effect upon the ?nal product. This is made pos
sible by the rapid heating and instantaneous
cooling to which the lactic ?uid is subjected
whereby pasteurizing temperatures of substan
tially 200 to 250° F.'or higher may be safely
employed. In other words, in conventional op
erations the temperatures of pasteurization must
be below the boiling point‘of the lactic ?uid being ‘
treated at normal atmospheric pressure, whereas,
with the present invention, this limitation does 20
not obtain.
By rapid heating is meant the heating of a
continuously flowing mass travelling at a speed of
the order of substantially three to ?ve pounds
(about 1/2 gallon) .per second past a given point
under the high temperatures recited and under a
l pressure of substantially ten pounds gauge and
In referring to instantaneous cooling, we mean
ents of the fog are‘directed or guided into the ‘ spontaneous cooling obtained by suddenly releas
ing the pressure on the heated ?uid in the con
compartment, the‘ vapor phase constituents being
withdrawn in the usual manner. ‘This step is
best ‘practiced by disposing the ‘distributor head
duit, e. ,g., by introduction of the ?uid into a
vacuum chamber, whence it assumes, by reason
of the cooperation of a distributing head having
.above an end compartment, i. e. one having a
“major wall de?ned by the wall of the‘ vacuum a restricted outlet, a ?nely divided or mist-like
chamber, permitting continuous incremental condition and undergoes a sharp and immediate
scrubbing and in many instances reducing ma ‘‘ reduction in temperature induced by the reduced
terially the possibility of entrainment ofthe liquid
phase‘ constituents of the fog.
40 ‘ ‘ Preferably, the cream is continuously collected
in the‘ vacuum chamber, and successive portions
‘thereofare continuously subjected in the vacuum
pressure in the vacuum chamber.
This combination of steps in a continuous op
eration, of rapid heating and instantaneous cool 40
ing with reduction of the ?uid to a fog-like state,
(thereby exposing maximum surface for cooling)
chamber,,during ‘the expansion treatment there
permits utilization of high temperatures‘ within
i into a‘ steam scrubbing accompanied by odor and
the sterilization range and without detrimental
_ “off-?avor‘ removal.
This operation removes ad
ditional,‘ i‘. e.‘, remaining odor and ?avor im
1 partin‘g,ys‘ubstances from the cream and is‘pref
erably simultaneous‘ and continuous with‘ the
effects on the organoleptic and physical charac
teristics of the ?nal product.
i In fact, it has been found that the physical.
characteristics of the product, e. g., cream, are
forming of ‘the mist or fog by the violent and
actually enhanced, whereby the stability of the
‘spontaneous expansion of the cream-steam-water
?nally recovered cream emulsion is improved to
‘mixture in the vacuum chamber.
In some cases, the scrubbing treatment is car
the extent that separation of the cream. into a
cream and skim milk layer is prevented. Fur‘-‘
‘ried‘out in a separate vacuum-chamber, the
scrubbing with steam being ‘continuous with the
expansion treatment in the other vacuum cham
ber. Again,‘ intermittent. batches are (l)
‘scrubbed in a separate chamber; or (‘2) are
thermorehthe stability of the recovered cream
minimize, and in‘ most instances eliminate, the 55
‘scrubbed in the same vacuum chamber upon
bilizing effect is also valuable in the processing
completion of the expansion treatment therein.
(‘0 I ‘The ‘advantage‘of having the scrubbing sub
‘) ,stantially immediately follow or be continuous
‘with the expansion'treatment ,in any of the
emulsion, i. e., the. ?nal product, is such as to
so-called feathering of cream when used in cof
fee or other hot beverage. This enhanced sta
of ice cream mix and the pasteurization of milk
used in the manufacture of cheese, concentrated 60
milks, fermented milks, and milk powder. The
stabilizing effect is so de?nite that milkpowder
made from milk thus treated possesses improved
processes described resides in the saving effected,
‘ ,in that the ‘cream will be at a temperature such properties when used in baking applications.
-‘ that reheating thereof is, unnecessary as a pre ‘This stabilizing effect is, due to the greatly en
hanced dispersion of fat globules and the in
. liminary to scrubbing.
_This scrubbing takes place upon the cream
while the latter is at its boiling point under the
condition of vacuum ‘being maintained. The live
steam‘ at high temperature and pressure, e. g.
around 325° F. and eighty pounds gauge, is
creased viscosity of the milk, ‘resulting from (a)
the shattering effect during the preliminary
treatment promoting dispersion, and (b) the sub
sequent spontaneous expansion in the vacuum
chamber providing instantaneous cooling.
injected into the mass of cream at the bottom
Another important feature of the invention is
thereof and immediately expands,‘ sweeping
to provide effective control of the temperature
through the cream and mechanically removing
and pressure conditions and assure that the
‘ objectionable odor and’ ?avor impartingv sub
cream, for example, will be thoroughly pasteur
ized and rendered in the optimum state for treat
ment in the vacuumchamber.
‘The present: invention, as will be
shown and‘described in the aforesaid Horneman
embodies apparatus‘ inclusive oijthe subject mat
ter of the-applications of HermanC. Horneman.
Serial No. 654,069, ?led January 28,~-1933,.which
has matured into Patent No. 2,022,419, dated ‘Nov.
26, 1935, and Serial No. 681,658, ?led July '21,
1933, and applications of Hammer, Horneman
and Parker, Serial No. 13,168, ?le'd'March 26,
1935 and Serial No. 32,284, filed 'July 19, 1935,
now Patent No. 2,022,420, dated Nov.‘ 26, 1935.
Other objects and novel features and. advan—
‘tages of this invention will be apparent from the
following speci?cation and the accompanying
Referring to the drawings:
"applications, embodying, however, improvements
which render the invention more, ?exible and
eiiicient both as regards the quality of end prod
uct recovered and economics of operation.
“Tn-Figures 1, 3, 5, 9, 12 and 19 the numeral HI
' represents a closed metal container equipped to
. operate as a vacuum chamber and also in some
‘cases (Figs.1, ‘3, 5 and 9) as a vacuum scrubber
or still._' This vacuum chamber is preferably 10
heated, 8,S_‘Wl11 be later described.
The liquid
to be treated is introduced into a surge tank ll
through a pipe l2 from a forewarmer or other
means where it has been preliminarily heated to
a suitable temperature and/or otherwise treated. 15
In some cases, the surge tank II is omitted and
the liquid ‘or ?uid is introduced directly from the
treating ‘means such as the forewarmer by any
Figure 1 is ‘a view partly in section and partly
in elevation of one form of apparatus.
'suitablejfpumping operation._ Referring to Fig
Figure 2 is a'section on the line 2-2 of Fig- ures 25 and 26, the surge tank H is provided
ure 1.
with a ?oat controlled outlet I2’. ‘The outlet is
Figure 3 is a sectional view‘partly in eleva
connected by a pipe l3 to a motor operated pump
tion showing another form of apparatus.
P, preferably of the positive type, capable of im
Figure 4 is a sectional view on the‘line 4-4 pressing a pressure of 5 to 50 pounds or more on
of Figure
‘the liquid. ‘The liquid is pumped through the 25
Figure‘5 is a sectional view partly in elevation
of a further form of apparatus.
pipe or connection II to a line comprising pipes
. ‘ or. conduits A;~B, suitably connected, and from
Figure 6 is a sectional viewon the line 6-4 of the. conduit B is introduced into ‘the vacuum
Figure '5.
chamberil by the communicating pipe or con
Figures 7 and 8 are detail views‘of the operat
nection l5 having a distributor head I6 01' any
ing means shown in Figures 5 and 6.
" of. the forms shown herein, preferably that shown
Figure 9 is a view partly in‘section and partly int-‘Figures 13 and 15, and providedwith a re
in elevation showing an additional form ‘of ap-" duced outlet I‘Las shown in detail in Figures 11,
. 13 and 16.‘ Referring ‘to-Figures '17 to 24, a steam
‘injection device C or C’ shown in detail in Fig
ure 17 or 18 is interposed between‘ the pump P,
Figure 10 is a section on the line l0-—lll.of
Figure 11‘ is a detail sectional view of ‘a dis
pipe H and the pipe or conduit A, as shown for
example in Figure 1 and in more'enlarged detail
in Figure 19; in Figures 22, 23 and 24 another
tributor'head in accordance with the aforesaid
Horneman and Hammer et a]. applications and
particularly showing the distributor head of Fig
type of steam injection device D, or an injection 40
device as provided in said Horneman applica-_
Figure 12 is a view partly in section and partly
tions, is suitably ‘connected in the line A, in any
preferred manner. If desired, the two devices
C". and D may be combined. In such event,
type of distributor head.
'the steam injection means D is used for fore 45
Figure 14 is‘a bottom elevation of the distribu- ' warming the cream supplied to the surge tank
tor head shown in Figure 13.
ll, beingvinterposed in the line l2, and the usual
in elevation of a further form of apparatus.‘
Figure 13 is a sectional detail view of another
‘Figure 15 is a side elevation of another type
of distributor head.
Figure 16 is a sectional view of the distributor‘
head of Figure 15.
forewarmer, e. g., ?ash pasteurizer or barrel
.jh'eater',klomitted. Either of the steam injection
meansCi‘or‘D or both are used in association 50
with each of the apparatus shown in Figure 1.
Figure 17 is a sectional view of a Venturi mix-i
ing device.
This, brie?y, describes the general system em
ployed and‘details of the apparatus will. be fur
Figure '18 is a similar sectional- view of an ‘
other form of Venturi mixing device.
Figure 19 is a view in elevation'partly broke
away showing the mixing device in position on
the installation of any of ‘the apparatus hereto
fore mentioned.
ther elucidated. As heretofore stated, the ‘use
. o1’ asurge tank is optional in many cases, since
Figure 20 is an end view of the Venturi mixer,
of Figures 17 and 18.
Figure 21 is a section on the line 2i-—2I of
Figure 22 isa detail sectional view of another
form of mixing device.
Figure 23 is an enlarged sectional view of the
construction shown in Figure 22.
Figure 24 is an end view looking in either di- .
rection from the line 24~—24 of Figure ‘23. ‘
vices asshown in Figures 1 and 5 and illustrated
best in Figures 19 and 22.
The-invention is useful for treating a large 60
variety of liquids, and ?nds particular utility in
the case of lactic ?uids such as milk and cream.
These, as heretofore stated, often possess objec
tionable odors and oiT-fiavors, and theinvention
will be exempli?ed in the removal from cream of ‘
substances imparting such undesired character
‘ Generally'stated, the cream is (a) pasteurized
‘within a sterilization range while travelling in
Figure 25 is a detail view ‘partly in section of \ the line_A—~B .and/or pipe i 5 by reason o'i live
the float chamber or surge tank of Figure 1, and 1
steam which'is preferably introduced at proper
Figure 26 is a detail view partly in section of
the valve operating means and valve associated
with said surge tank.
the ?uid may be directly pumped to the line 55
A——B and/or through the steam injection de
In general, the apparatus is similar tothat
pressure and temperature; (b) the cream par
ticles are torn apart by agitation and impact
with the steam and this shattering action, which
takes place while the cream is- moving from the
inlet [8 communicating with a steam line l9 and
pump'to the vacuum chamber, releases the off
a ?uid inlet I9 communicating with the outlet
?avor andlodoriferous substances and/or ren
ders‘them potentially releasable; (c) the cream
steam-water mixture, is discharged through the
reduced outlet of the‘ distributor headi? and
spontaneously with explosive force expanded to
pipe ll of the pump P. This steam injection
means has the form of a venturi, but'any‘suit- ‘
able construction capable of ‘producing warming
or cooling or controlling the temperature of the
a mist or fog-like state; (d) a heated vacuum ‘ cream and compression of the cream, intersect
chamber, is ernployedgwhereby condensation-of
‘vapor phase constituents is prevented and sepa
10 ration of liquid and vapor phase constituents is
prolonged ;7 and (e) maximum subdivision oi.’ the
cream particles is obtained in the vacuum cham~
ing thin streams of cream and steamlat high
velocity, and expansion of ‘ the cream-steam~
water mixture followed by a return of pressure 10'
‘ on the ‘mixture may be .used.
The venturi device C has a‘ pair of outlet ports
ber enabling substantially complete removal of ' 2| and 22, respectively, communicating with the
the odoriferous and off-?avor imparting volatiles. steam and ?uid chambers 23 and 2‘ respectively
supplied-by the inlets i8 and “Land which ports '15
15 The very eifective results are made possible ( 1)
‘by the e?iciency of the preliminary subdivision 2|, 22 are restricted and controlled‘ by the ad
justable valves 25 and 26, respectively. The
of the cream while travelling to the vacuum
chamber and (2) by the cooperation of the vac
uum, treatment, ‘whereby the cream is substan-~
tialiy. denuded of undesired volatiles, or by sim
ple and inexpensive subsequent treatment ren
dered so.‘
Stated brie?y, the cream, while travelling in
the line A--B or A—B-—I5, is compressed, due
25 to the cooperation (a) of the heating effects, (b)
‘of‘the pump P at one end and (c) the restricted
outlet in the distributor head I6 at the other end
of the system, and (d) the steam at high pressure
and temperature which is introduced ‘into the
30 cream initially and, in some cases, into the cream
' steam-water mixture at the
distributor head
and also cooperating with said restricted outlet;
thereafter the cream-steam-water mixture is vie.
lently expanded in the vacuum chamber. In
valve 26 is regulated by engagement of the nut ,
21 with the threaded sleeve 28; the valve 25 is
carried on a stem 29 having adjustable threaded 20
connectionwith a bushing 30 and the stem is
provided with a handle 3! for regulating the '
adjustment. The ports 2!, 22 are continuous,
concentric and preferably circular, and the size
of the openings is minutely controlled by regu— 25
lating the valvesv 25, 26, as described. The ven
turi C’ is ‘similar to the venturi C, but in addi--‘
tion the valve 25 has a closedchannel 32 there
in substantially throughout its .length, water,
gases or other cooling medium entering the same 30
' through inlet ‘33' and up one leg 34 of the chan- 1
nel 32 across the passage 35 at the outlet end
of the venturi to the return channel‘ 36~andv
through the same for discharge at outlet >31‘. .
35 the case of the steam injector devices shown in , By means of a circulating medium control of the
‘ Figures 17 and 18 in detail and, for example, in temperature of the cream and‘prevention of >
Figure 19, the cream is warmed or heated in the burning is obtained. ‘
The steam port 2|v is de?ned by inwardly di- ‘ Venturi ‘device and compressed between thelplump
atone end and the restricted Venturi port at the
40 other, then projected through the port at high
velocity as a thin‘ stream‘ or cone into contact
with an intersecting thin jet or cone of live steam
at high velocity, with accompanying decrease
in pressure, and the cream-steam-water mixture
45 is expanded in the gradually enlarging Venturi
outlet; thereafter the mixture ?lls the line A as
l a liquid column and is under the pressure cre- ,
rected closely spaced sides, one having greater
inclination than the other and forming a taper
lng restricted continuous opening whereby the
steam ‘supplied at a gauge pressure. of eightyto
one hundred pounds, i. e., 325 to 340° F. to cham- < '
ber23 is ejected substantially in the shape of‘ a‘
cone or ?ne‘stream at high velocity into the
constricted portion 38 of the venturi and ‘the
adjacent enlarged portion 39 thereof. The out
ated by ‘the heating e?ect, the pump, distributor . let port 22 for, the cream is defined by parallel,
head ‘and steam pressure, as above described.
continuous, inwardly directed ~ sides ,closely:
‘The venturi device of Figure 18 is provided with
a channel for circulating water to cool and/0r
spaced, i. e., forming a restricted outlet, where
controlthe temperature of the ?uid passing
The heating of the continuously travelling
cream, in addition to accomplishing pasteurizing
‘or sterilizing, also acts to agitate the cream
whereby the cream particles are‘ shattered and
torn,- and the released objectionable substances
are volatilized and retained in this condition so
60 that they are readily removable in the vacuum
chamber, as vapor phase constituents. At the
same time, the breaking up of cream particles
assures uniform and minute subdivision and uni
,forrnhcating for pasteurizing and sterilizing; of
equal importance and, in fact, of particular sig
ni?cance, where the odor or oil-?avor imparting
substances are tenacious and/0r excessive, this
preliminary and intimate subdivision renders
such stubborn substances potentially releasable,
Tl) i. e., readily removable as vapor phase constitu
ents by the vacuum‘ chamber treatment or by a
simple and inexpensive further treatment as will
be later set forth.
by the cream introduced to ‘the chamber 24 .‘
under a pumping pressure ‘and compressed by‘
cooperation of the pump with the restricted out
let port 22, is broken up and similarly discharged
substantially as a cone or ?ne stream at high 55
velocity with the assistance of the asplrating
eiiect created by the steam jet, and intersects
the stream or cone or high velocity steam. The
thin intersecting streams of steam and cream
ejected at high velocity create in the gradually 60
enlarging ortapering side 39 of the venturi a
condition or zone of reduced pressure.
tapering portion 39 at its widest diameter merges
into oriis connected into communicating rela
tion with the line A, as shown at'40 by a threaded 65
collar 4|. ‘Referring to Figure 17, the cream in
chamber 24 is subjected to a heating by contact ~
with the heated wall of the steam chamber 23,
whereas in Figure 18, the cooling liquid forms '
an insulation to prevent heating or undue heat 70
ing of thecream and controls its temperature.
There takes place in the treatment just de
scribed (a) compression and, if desired, heating
Referring to Figures 17, 18 and 19, for example,
of the cream, (b) a tearing apart of the cream
the steam injection means C or C’ has a steam
particles by reason of the bombardment of the
steam and cream, (0) an expansion of the cream
vice and referring to Figures 22, '23, 24 and 5;
steamewater mixture thus produced, resulting ‘nozzles 45 connected to the steam line l9 are
in further and more intimate subdivision in‘ the
zone de?ned by the tapering portion 39, and then
"((1) r compression of the mixture as it ?lls the
conduit A as a liquid column. Subdivision of the
creamis' thus very complete and ?ne, and the
odoriferous and off-?avor imparting substances
are released or rendered potentially releasable.
10. Initial pasteurization and sterilization also take
place and are completed in the line A-B; The
heated mixture in the line A—B islagitated and
compressed and an intimate mixture of steam
with. the cream particles is maintained.‘ This
introduced through fluid-tight ?ttings into the ‘
upper and'lower ends of the conduit A as shown
at“, and to heat the ?uid in the line to a
pasteurizing or sterilizing temperature. For ex
ample, an inert gas such as steam at. eighty to
one. hundred pounds gauge pressure and at a
temperature of approximately 325 to 340° F. is
injected into the ?uid in the conduit A, through
the nozzles 45.
The nozzles 45 are disposed in spaced relation
in the conduit A and extend toward one an
other as shown. Each nozzle is provided with a
15. agitation and. compression continues". during
plurality of narrow or small diameter spirally
travel of the mixture in the line A-—B whereby ., arrangedspaced ports about (116") inclined at‘
the ‘released .volatiles, under conditions prevail
ing in the line, will-'be prevented from returning
substantially ‘30°. The ports 41 open upwardly,
i. e.,'inject the steam in the direction of travel
to their former combined state,v and the release -~ of ‘the cream flow; the ports 48 open downwardly,
.and. potentiallxrelease of‘ additional undesired‘
while the opposed longitudinal ports 49 of the 20
substances will‘ occur;. also the cream is en-~ respective nozzles inject the steam parallel to and
hanced'fso far as rendering potentially releasable~ reversely of the cream ?ow. In this manner, a
the; more tenacious ‘substances. This prelimi-1
turbulence and whirling of the ?uid is obtained,
nary ‘conditioning of the cream ‘and its pasteuri
zation is‘ aided by-uthe high temperature of the
mixture, namely 200 to 250°‘ F. and higher".
While in Figures 1; 3, 5.,‘ 9, Y12 and 19 the steam
injection means is disposed horizontally, it oper
ates with equal facility when disposed in a1 ver
30H tical plane‘and it iszto be understood that either
injection device C or-‘C’ may be employed;
A feature of this construction ‘of particular
importance resides in the minimum of control
of the fluid, and compression of the cream-steam
water mixture because of the pressure created
(1) bythe heating effects, (2) by the steam in
cooperation'with the pressure created by (3) the
restricted outlet in the distributor head at one
end of the ‘line and the pumping pressure at the
other end. A very complete subdivision of the
particles, inv the case ‘of milk‘ and cream with
required.‘ . For example, them-valves 25, 26 can‘ ~be
of volatiles and odoriferous substances therefore
assuring intimate mixing and uniform heating
resultant_ enhanced ‘release and potential release
set and the‘Isteam-and cream at predetermined is obtained.
temperatures and vpressures and "the cooling '
The ports 41 preferably number about twenty
means, as well passed to the injection device C while the ports 48 number abouttwelve and the
or-‘C’, rwhereupon a constant" temperature will ports49 about four. This ratio may be de
be ‘ maintained, “with uniform heating, cooling
parted from as desired, but it is preferable that
40 .gand/orr temperature controlland" subdivision of ~ the ports 41 injecting steam in the direction of
the cream.
Aggreater subdivision is, moreover, obtained in
the vacuum chamber l0 ‘byreason of the ?ne sub
division '-'re'sulting, from? this preconditioning.
45 The restricted: outlets IT‘ in any of the distributor
heads I6‘ may, in some instances, be adjusted
very critically (as low as ten one-thousandths of
an inch for the. head shown in Figure 11 (.010") )
without retarding. the speed of‘ operation. At
athesame timeythe‘mo'st tenacious and stubborn
odoriferous >. and ' ‘oiI-?avorh substances
are re
._ moved. *As to the latter element of speed, the
only partially as shown.
In operating the apparatus at‘ a gauge pres
sure of approximately 10-15 pounds in the line .,
A—-B, the ?uid, when it reaches the vicinity of
the upper nozzle, has a temperature of substan
tially 190 to 205° F. and this is raised to about
210 to'230” F. by the steam treatment at this
point. The temperature of the cream-steam~
water mixture will be controlled through the
medium of this upper nozzle.
For example, it
high‘ velocity: treatment speeds up the flow and,
has been found with a vacuum of twenty-four
moreover, prevents clogging ‘or coating 5of the,
inches‘to‘twentydix inches in the chamber ID,
injection device or the line,'since uniform heat
ing takes-‘place and little or'no opportunity is
presented for precipitation of ‘curd which would
tend to collect in the line ‘were there'any uneven
pounds and temperatures of 210 to 230° ‘F. for
the cream-steam~water mixture in the line A—B
will produce very satisfactory results.‘ There
heatingor overheating. The distributor heads
shown in Figures 13 and 15ja‘reno‘t only efficient
in promoting subdivision of the mixture, but en
able. ‘an accelerated speed of operation to be
Thesubdivision of the cream by using the in
jectiondevice C in. cooperation with line A—-B-—l 5
and associated devices. is ‘very effective and ef?
cient so far as pasteurizingjand release or poten~
tial‘ release of volatiles. is concerned,~because of
the initial bombardment of a thin continuous high
velocity‘stream ofcream ‘with a similar stream
of steam and followed by (1) expansion and (2)
compression, since there actually takes place a
treatment of a small body of cream with a large
bodylof steam;
cream ?ow predominate. The ports may be
formed throughout the length of the nozzles or
As illustrating another form of injection de
that a gauge pressure of about ten to ?fteen
fore, we associate with the upper nozzle a ther
mostatic control indicated as a whole at 50 as (H)
shown in Figure 5 to. regulate the steam injected
and by consequence adjust the temperature of '
the cream-steam-water mixture and. as shown,
and described precisely in Figure 5 of the Ham
mer-Horneman-Parker applications above re
ferred to.
In the use of the ejector D. very satisfactory
pasteurization and subdivision of the cream par~
ticlcs is accomplished in line A—~B by injecting
live steam under pressure through the ‘spaced “
ports 41, 48, 49 of thc‘nozzles 45 in the form of
needle-like jets and'inio the cream. This pro
duces a multiplicity of impacts or impingcmcnts
by the steam on lho column of crcam travelling
in the line A—-B whereby mixing of the steam
br‘e‘a‘if‘takes “place in “a manner jt‘ofagitate and“ a"‘desi“red pressure differential‘ drastic! {we
to ‘ ‘?ve etmespherreewmqrev Q17 “lessfis‘ ibohs‘taritly
and‘ “gthor‘du‘ghly‘i ‘comb ithewsteam‘ with cream.
‘tween th '"vacuum‘f chamber‘ * It l ‘and ‘the
Due‘ t‘o‘f‘the spacing ‘and angular“ disposition‘ of]
the‘ ‘p‘orts,_‘a‘ turbulence and‘ ‘whirling ‘inft‘he dig
Q’rhe l11rie“A—_—~B‘, it will“: be “noted: is relatively
hrcfctioln‘ of‘ ‘travel is impartedhto the‘creamL‘steamT‘ long‘janjd
"this allovvs‘ of very‘ complete‘ pasteurizaé‘
\va‘ter mixture. ‘Substantially similar effects and tion as w‘ell‘a‘s
an extended ‘time periodof‘utili‘ze“
results ‘are obtained ‘as with the‘ injector ‘device
0 or ‘c’; but the latter‘ gives‘ more positivejlc‘o‘n‘f ing, the ‘compression. effects‘ toil) _‘ subdivide the‘
cream‘ and“h(2>) accomplish‘r‘elea‘se and‘ potential
“ trola and! is‘ ‘more effective‘.
‘ to Figu ‘ ‘
have shoiivh‘c‘onnected:
with “the distributor‘ hea‘df l6, \for example ‘that ‘
“The wor'ea‘m“eotionable
‘ I'n‘ix‘ture‘ “‘‘ ‘in‘f ““the?‘ lijne'
is divs?iributed‘iln ‘the ‘vae‘uiile'ehember "91
‘if/Figure 11, astfeemjylinevil, ‘the eurpbse of 4+3
which‘ ‘ is to‘ increase ‘the; compression “ v‘of?’ ‘the by‘ ‘means _ ‘the ‘distributor head"! 6‘ which" has
cream-steam-water mixture in ‘the ‘line ‘A—‘B “or aha‘rrovvp r’e‘ier‘ably" elongated or““cor_itfi_nuous
peripheral,‘ openi‘r‘ig‘ 1],‘a‘s "iii Figure ‘'11, or a Cir-j
c‘ular‘opehi‘rig“as2 i‘n‘“Fig‘ures‘ ‘13‘an‘d‘ ‘15 ‘ At the‘
openingfll, the pressure of the cream1
“mixture-m the‘ lin‘el'Aé'fB‘ is“, ‘s‘u‘d‘d‘ehl‘ leased;
tributor head ‘immediately ‘at the distributor head, ter
but, of‘ccurs‘ekin‘ ‘some cases,‘ the auxiliary line due‘ ‘to the,‘ re‘duced‘press‘ur‘e‘ in ‘vacuum ‘chamber
‘ sl‘ma‘yte connected at‘ a suitable pointfin‘a‘de IMO and‘ it is “e‘x‘pa‘n‘de‘d Withf s‘pontaneo‘us‘and‘
‘force downvfardint‘o the chamber in sub!
vanceo't-‘thehea‘d. ‘Live steam under a‘ suitable violent
temperature, ‘such‘as 325 to 340°“ F. and pressure sta'ntially " a jrog ‘qr mist-like‘ state.“ ‘ ‘We "have.
of‘80‘ to l‘OO‘ pounds gauge ‘is used‘anchin some
casestliepurpose of‘ this steam treatment is ‘to
found that ad'a‘res‘sure ‘differential ors‘ubstanuaig
1y tvvo to ‘?ve “atmospheres ‘more ‘or ‘l‘e‘ssbetwee‘ii
‘' increase “the temperature‘ of“ the ‘ mixture‘; prelim‘; ‘ the‘ line Aé-B‘ ‘and the‘ ‘vacl‘l‘u‘m‘chamber3viiill?proél
i‘n‘ary to‘expansion in the vacuum“ “chamber;
l ‘ ‘It is ‘to be understood‘ that‘ theuauxili‘ary line
5! isu‘sed in‘ association ‘with any‘; of‘the appara
tuswhere‘ illustrated l and any of ‘the distributor
duc‘e‘f‘ ‘very "lament ges‘uits._'~ “The ‘"va‘pors“ '~ and“
gases, released by the “expansion of "the-‘cream
ste‘am'éwater‘ ‘mixture in‘ ‘thefvacuu‘m’ ‘chamber "l‘ll‘
through head“ 16 arelcar‘ried“off‘througha‘fpart
disclosed ‘herein, ‘and the‘ showing of ‘the. 62 and pipe 63 to the condenser Gland associated
>30 ‘ ‘heads
same connected to the ‘distributor head l6‘ of’ with a suitable vacuum pump,‘ hot‘shoxvni" ‘The
portions of the ereamomnk ‘WiHco'al‘e‘s'ce
Figure “11 ‘is purely‘ illustrative. In most “cases, liquid
however, this ‘auxiliary steam line is unnecessary. and collect at thebottom‘ ‘of the“ vacuum“"cham-"
.‘Eurther ‘with reference to the auxiliary‘steam‘ ‘her 10 ‘and will pass by outlet pipe 65.,‘ inFigu‘rés:
line 5L1 associate therewith thermostatic means
‘5 for controlling ‘the ‘steam similar to that‘ shown ‘
I‘ in‘ Figur‘e‘?. ‘:I'hat is, the steam ‘valve is““‘c‘or“1‘
‘ trolled‘ by the temperatureof ‘the‘imixture in the
line in‘ advance‘ of the ‘distributor he‘ad, asfshown
in Figure“ 5,‘ Hence, the ‘compression‘o‘f the mix
“Referring to Figures‘1,_3,“ 5 and‘Q, in ‘someea's'esi
‘ association‘ with "the ‘distributor ‘head ‘16, and
substantially 130“ FL‘to‘-1‘45°{‘F."is‘lsubiec‘ed ‘tibial
excessive concentration‘ of ‘em-estimate
ture at‘the“ distributor head‘ca‘n‘ be {readily held where
sub‘sta‘n‘ce‘s“ are ‘presen?or they are tenacious}
to‘the‘optimum*when‘ever necessary,“
‘ ‘ ‘
pump, “this; ‘in thef‘coales‘c‘ed ‘li‘q‘uid ‘ having" a» temperature ‘of ‘
‘ "In ico‘nn‘e‘ction ‘with the use 0
‘ effectiveness of the process and the capacity of
‘ theh‘apparatus materially‘. ‘Where the-“injection
device‘ ‘D is employed, or Where the auxiliary
‘ steam injection ‘means 5| is‘ used, the tempera?
‘ ‘hire of the ‘mixture in‘ Iine‘A-L-‘B-QIS‘ is‘ regulated‘
by the thermostat 50. The‘pressure head in‘line
A——B—~‘l5 is‘ ‘adjustable by regulating either the
steam “ sc‘ru‘hbin‘g‘ treatment‘, ‘as wi~ll‘"be”later ‘die?
Surrounding the vacuum chamber"!!!: is'a“
spaced wall 10 suitably connected to‘the walliof “
the vacuum ‘chamber as by ‘welding ateac‘hen‘df
as shown at'li," and constituting a‘ jackaetiivl‘ii‘ohi‘
is heated electrically oriwhithin‘ ‘which isio‘i‘rc‘u’ated‘i
a‘heating medium either of‘ga‘s‘ or liquid but:
the several s‘te‘am‘in‘jection means. Those con-i heating“ jacket“ ‘should "be "about twenty degrees -‘
pump or distrihutor‘head‘ IE or bothg‘as Well as
preferably ‘hot Water. The temperature’ ‘of the T
trol features are all available and empioy‘ed‘wher‘e
above the ‘temperature ini‘the vacuum‘lc‘hamber“
and under‘conditions of twentyefour‘to‘“twenty!‘
the injection‘ device C o‘r‘C' is used, but ordinarily“ six
‘inches‘o‘f pressure‘ in ‘the chamber ill, the in; 1
by reason of thehrelatively“ ?ner adjustments‘ af»
fordc'd through the use ‘of the ven‘turi, no‘ there
mostatic‘ control‘ 5!‘! is‘ needed.
‘ ‘
ner ‘wall of chamber‘ 9 ‘should‘have an‘ ‘apprtiXiJ
vmate“‘temperature of 165° Fl‘to 150° F.’1 The‘ inlet‘ »
and‘ ‘outlet for‘the c‘irculating'medium ‘are ‘indiép
‘once, it is ‘possible to exercise ‘a precise con
trol. and the condition of‘the‘cream-steam-ww‘ cate'd‘at T2‘ ‘and 13; respectively.
ter‘ mixture. i.‘ ‘0., ‘temperature and pressure, ‘inf
the‘ line ‘A—-B is susceptible of nice regulation at} Wall ‘surface of ‘the ‘chamber ‘In willbclat'a con-Y‘
all‘ times, using either injection device traccoirh"
sta‘nt ‘ temperature and‘ serves“ to‘iredu‘ce to‘ a
minimum the possibility of ‘condensation of water“
this is very important‘i‘r‘i a“ ‘continuous process vap‘orsan‘d gases‘ on‘thelwall‘fa‘s well as‘producef
- ‘plish optimum‘ results.
As Will‘ be ap‘prec‘ated,
a prolonged" ‘separation of ‘vapors ‘and vodoriierous
such as comprehended‘by the‘present invention,‘ and
o‘?-?avor‘ga‘ses‘ from‘lthe liquid "phase ‘paw
‘ assuring both ‘uniform ‘and complete‘ pasteuriza
tion. ‘ and ‘subdivision of“ ‘the cream-steam-vvater‘
mix-hire. ‘ Slated‘ ‘briefly. the treatment 0.“ the
fluid in‘lin‘e‘ A-B‘is maintained substantially
ticles. This ‘heating jacketll'ls‘erves to “main; f
tain ‘the wall‘ of the‘ chamberfai? ‘at ali‘riin‘es“
heated to “the temperature"above'the boiling?
‘ constant (and the cream is introduced through‘.
point ofthe' cream, ‘according ‘to the c‘onditions'l‘
the ‘distributor head‘ in optimum condition for
the instantaneous‘ and explosive expans‘oh. lo
above that of the chamber ‘lli' should ihelpre‘senee
“ i which ‘it is subjected in the vacuum chamber
of‘ vacuum in the chamberi‘lli. S“As htrét?o‘ref
stated. a‘ temperature at“‘lea‘st‘ ‘twenty degrees
inthe _J'acket ‘Ill for maintaining ‘the wallet eleri
-t - r 2,180,644 I
vB-ted temperatures... ,
7 Referring to Figure 2, we have illustrateda
header I32 connected to the pipe I5 by a'con-, '
a ‘heated vachdmlchtrmber' .is employed, ._linactionI33v to which header is suitably connected
the heating means being constituted-{bf their ‘any suitable’ number of the‘ distributor heads,‘
jacket‘ 'IIlfand by‘ the steam scrubbing, as will be‘ shown‘ invFigure 11, Figure 13 or‘Figure 15; .In,
later described. ‘In some cases, thei
maybe omitted aswhere steam scrubbing isre
sorted to,‘ but its use is preferred. '
> Referring-to Figure :11, the distributor .head
comprises a body 15 and valve ‘I6 adjustably‘ con
the case _of the distributor headshown in Figure,
1Y5, it_is.connected to lie in a horizontal plane
so that the opening I‘! will project the fog down
_The distributor head opening. IT, in any-case,
nected by bolts "to vary the width of the spray - is relatively small as? compared to the size of ‘the
outletcI'I," {I‘he bolts are‘provided _with wing nuts vacuum chamber ID, as shown, It is preferably
‘IQ engagingsprings il?tdisposed between each; substantially centrally located‘in constructions
wing; nut and the adjacent ‘top surface or the shown in Figures ‘3, 9_ and 12, and in all, cases,
15 body 15.‘ Interiorly' of the member,“ are pro.
sufliciently below the outlet port 62 in the cham
jections 19v through which they bolts extend and ber vIll to‘ prevent entrainment and far enough 15
which projectionsfare 'of equal lengthand oiya from the bottom of the chamber .or the liquid
sizewhereby suitable shims may be interposed level therein to give the falling particles project
between the-bottom of‘_the'projectionsoand the
ed from the head a sufficient time for adequate
separationout of‘ the vapor and liquid phase con-7 20
extremely ?ne and critical rangeof adjustment. stituent's andcooling of the latter.
for the outlet opening IT. The valve l6l,_hasian_
The line A-B and/or line I5 is of a length and
opening receiving the end of ‘line I5,‘ the end _ofv diameter to enable the lactic fluid to be‘ continu
line being ?anged and soldered to the _valve' ously pumped to the head I6 and, as stated, dur
as the
as‘shownw ALSO“ 35 Shawn” the auxiliary steam; ing this travel the lactic ?uid is simultaneously 25
" line ‘SL115 threadedly connectedfiritothe top of the‘ pasteurized and intimately mixed with the steam
body portion ‘I5 for delivering steam‘to the cham to be compressed,‘ brokenup and subdivided un
I 2Q; top surface of the valve ‘I6, thereby affording an
ber 80~simultaneouslyiwith the discharge of ‘the
mixture from.-line _I5, whereby enhanced ,com
der the ‘conditions created in the line -A——B.
Referring to Figures 25 and 26, the outlet- I2’
pression is attained. ,
of“ the surge tank is controlled by a ?oat actu
I ‘
~Referring to Figure 13, _.we have illustrateda
‘ated valve IUD. The
preferred ,type- of distributor head I6. 'This head this valve includes the
is-connected _tov the pipe I5 of _the line .A-B as‘ thereto an operating
shown‘: in‘Figures “1 or 12,, for example, and comf bracket I03 carried by
35 prises a barrel I~I5;having.secured at each end,iasj
mechanism. for operating
float IIlI having connected ‘
rod ‘I02. pivoted on the
the wall of thefsurge tank,
the free end of the rod I02 engaging the link’IM
by_welding\ or swagingyaconnectionIll. -The_ which, in turn, is freelyrrccnnected to, a lug‘ I05.
connection II‘! at the upper ‘end is beveled as at carriedby the valve Hill. The ‘valve. I00 is ro
IIB to‘ engage the ‘beveled surface ofv the pipe
tatably mounted on a bolt or stud I06 mounted
H5 and is provided with a ?ange H9 with which; in an extension IO'I of the outlet I2’ anda spring‘
40 is engaged, the ?ange portion I20 of an internally
I08 is interposed between thehead Hi9 of the
threaded connecting nut. [21 engaging ‘threads stud and the inside'wall of the'valve I00‘ for" 40
I22_onithe; end oithe pipe I5 ‘_to bring the beveled maintaining the Valve flush'with the inside__ of
surfaces: of the connection It‘! and pipe I5. into wall I81 at all times, The rotary valvehas an
connected, relation andmaintain a-?rm leakproof opening II!) which is in register with the open
45 joint. The nut I2I is provided withprojections ing in the outlet I2’ when the liquid and the
I23 for manual turning purposes. The connec
tion II'I has an internal circular projection I24
between which and the‘ opposite end of the dis—
level is departed from, the ?oat will act to par—
tributor- head is clamped a spiral ‘member _I25‘.
quired level is again reached in the surge tank.
?oat are at a predetermined level.
When this
tialiy- or entirely close the valve until the re
50 That is to say, the lowercconnection III .is ex
> With each of the processes and apparatus here
tofore described. the ?uid such as cream is pas
ternally threaded as‘at I26 to receive an inter
nally threaded nut- I21 whose bottom I28 engages
teurized and subdivided in the line A-B pre
the other end of the spiral member I25 to clamp . liminary to its introduction into the vacuum
the same in position andis provided with the re
chamber Ill. The diameter of the line A—~B,
56 stricted outlet I‘I. ‘Suitable projections I 23 are.‘ the outlet I1 in the head I6. the diameter of
formed on thenut I21 for manual» turning in,
purposes. -It‘ is found thatvby passing the cream
steam-water mixture from pipe. I5 through open
a ing, I29 in the upper connection _I I] and causing
60 i
it _to follow an’ obstructed path,~ior- example a.’ related that the proper pressure differential will
helical one, that a very excellent breaking upand
‘ subdivision and hence separation and removal’ of '
odoriferous substances from the fog is obtained‘
In "FigureslS and‘ 16,. we‘have illustrated ana
65 other type of distributor head whichis prefer
ably‘disposed horizontally,v as shown in Figure
As heretofore stated. and as referred t'olin said‘
Horneman, Hammer and Parker applications. the
connectionIiIIL. This distributor head is in the
' form of'a substantially circular hollow. casing
coalesced cream is sometimes given a stcamscrub
70‘v I3I‘having the distributor outlet 'I'I disposed sub
stantially centrallyin the bottom thereof. ‘This
bing treatment where the objectionable odorlfer 70
ous substances are in excessive concentration or
distributor headlikewise gives very excellent, re
exhibit persistent tenaciousness.
In the apparatus shown in Figures 1 and 5.’
the crcam-steam-watcr mixture is discharged
sults and producesa more ‘complete subdivision
whereby separation and removal of odolriferous
substances is enhanced,
beestablished and that su?lcient ,time will be
permitted before the mixture-enters the charm
ber (1) for intimate mixing of the steam and
lactic fluid, and ?ne subdivision of the latter.
and (2) for reaching a temperature'su?icicnt for
pasteurization or sterilization.
‘ 16,~and connected to the pipe I5 ‘by any suitable
the steam inletv the temperature and pressure
ofthe steam, and the pumping pressure are se
lected or controlled to produce the required re
sult. In other words, these parts should be so
with violent. expansion and assumes a fog-like .75
state as heretofore. explained. The distributor
head I6. is disposed‘ adjacent, the inner wall"
tributor head is positioned at onetof. the end com
partments, is preferred; but it. may be disposed
‘of the vacuum chamber I0 and a single distribu
in anyone of theother compartments, the walls‘ I
tor 'head or a plurality thereof as showninFige
5 ‘ure 2 isso positioned.‘ iReferring ‘to‘Figures 4
‘ ‘and 10,1the vacuum chamber III is, divided into a
of which ‘willbe‘ elevated asshown at I4]. Pref
erab‘ly the liquid .phase ‘constituents are con-. ,
tlnuouslycollectedin one compartment and then
plurality‘ of. compartments ‘defined by‘ partitions pass while undergoing steam scrubbing in con-1‘
“(I which are welded to :the bottom Ill .of ‘the
tinuous serpentine flow to the central outlet com
vacuum chamber: and to the walls 14 thereof, or
partment and simultaneous ‘with the production
otherwise secured in a ?uid-tight manner as of the fog and separation‘ ‘of liquid and vapor 10
shown at I42. The‘ liquid phase constituents 3 col-, phase constituents. ‘ The: central compartment as
lect in one of these compartments, preferably . shown in Figures‘ 1, .5.and .9. is preferably pro+ .
an .end compartmentas shown. A centraloutp vided vwith a removable coverl I48.
let compartment defined .by theU-shape'd ‘par
In. Figures 3‘and 4, we haveshown a constructition I 43 has ,its‘lower edge and ends ‘welded. tlonl'wherein the partitions I40“ extend ‘in par
or otherwise ‘securedto one} (of the partitions allel lchor‘dal relation, with'the liquid level out
HI], asshown‘at I“. ‘The partitions “II-443 ‘ lets I“. disposedin staggered‘relation and where
‘are provided with‘ overflow outlets or'lllquid“ level
outlets “I44 ‘whereby a constant liquid level is
'20 maintained 'intheITcompartments while,,at the
same timencontinuous flow is permitted from; the
in one .end compartment, I49 ‘constituting the
outlet compartment is relatively‘ smaller than
the other compartments and has communication
with thei‘?uid outlet pipe 66, which leads to the
one‘ ‘compartment in'which the ‘liquid phase con
line 68. "Inthls constructionasingle drain ‘65'. >
stituents collect to .theothers» and to the cen , is employed. If desired, "the ‘distributor head
. tral compartmentfthrough the outlets I“, .It I6 may be positioned in the ,constructionshown
25 will‘be noted . that thefoutlets Illfare in stag .in ‘Figure 3, in‘ one ‘end compartment thereof,‘ .25
‘n?gered relation whereby the ?uid has a serpentine as shown in Figure. 1, or in a central compartment
I )rlow successively through the several compartj," in whichfthe partition walls are’elevated as at
‘ments to the central ‘compartment.’ ‘In Figures
‘1, 5 ‘and 9', ?uid passes‘from the vacuumcham
80 .ber I0 through the ‘outlet‘6‘5 communicating with
I", It is to be noted that the: partitions in the
construction, shown.‘ inFigure ‘3 are flared as
shown at I50 or bent over, divert any 30
the bottom of the central outlet ‘compartment " foam back into the mass portion under treat
defined by‘ the partition ‘I43. In Figure 1, and
in Figures, the outlet .65 constitutes not only
ment. A similar ?aring of ‘thelpartitlons shown
in Figures 1, 5 and‘ 9‘ may be, employed ‘(wherever
.. the means‘for removing the coalesced liquid from
While we have described a continuous serpen
35 the vacuum chamber‘ I0,‘ but also constitutes the
tine flow of the ?uid and its incremental steam
drain outlet for the vacuum chamber. In Fig
ure 9, an outlet ‘65' is provided for each compart “ scrubbing treatment while in continuous flow,
1 ment 'and‘communi‘cates. with the line, it. for ‘I it is to be understood that‘. the outlets in may
draining purposes in‘ ‘cooperation with the‘ cute... be arranged ln‘alignment, although this is not
40 let 65 of the central‘ compartment. ‘
Disposed ‘in the bottom of each ‘compartment
except» the central outlet compartmentris aperq
‘forated steam pipe Ilisuitably ‘connected to a
header I46 from the‘ steam‘supply. “.Llve“ ‘steam
InFigure 3,.the distributor head I6 is centrally
disposed and is‘ associated with an inclined baf
fie Iil which. directs the coalesced cream‘ from‘
the fog‘, into an. end compartment‘. This in:
clin‘ed battle is‘ welded or otherwise secured to 45.
at a suitableftemperature andpressure for scrub
bing the incremental portions of‘ coalesced cream the wall of the vacuum chamber, as shown at
continuously ?owing in a serpentine direction
through the compartments is introduced through '
In Figure ‘9, the distributor head is centrally
the perforated pipes I45 a‘ndthese have a suf disposed within a receiving member I53 of gene
?cient number of openings whereby the steam erally cup4shaped formsecured by brackets I54, 50
imparts an agitationand turbulence to ‘and ,ex- ‘ to 'the wall 'of ‘the vacuum‘ chamber I0. The
verts a sweeping ‘effect upon the cream ‘portions . receiving member has‘an inclined bottom ter- ‘
undergoing the steam . scrubbing treatment ‘in “minatlng in a pipe I55, whereby the coalesced
liquid is directed to one of the compartments,
the vacuum chamber. ‘In‘thls manner,‘ odorifer
ous‘isubstances are ‘swept from ‘the. liquid and ‘ ‘ preferably an end compartment.
Referring to Figures?‘ 1 and 5, it is to be ob
a n
. removed through the outlet ‘62.
The outlets 144 are disposed at a‘level such
served that the vacuum’E chamber-has a generally
that flow of‘cream from one compartment to
concave bottom and that a single combined liq
the ‘other will‘ take‘place continuously and the
uidnremoving outlet and drain pipe 65 is provided I‘
at the lowermost pointof ‘the bottom. " It will be 60.
height of each ‘partition “II-I41 above each
‘outlet ‘I44 is such, that foaming-Lover isv avoided;
appreciated that the vacuum chamber. is of
necessity‘ drained and cleanedat frequent in
5, the adjacent partition
IIII ‘de?ning
to Figures
with1 , tervals and in order that asingle .pipe,may be
used, we provide means‘for rendering the several
the wall of‘ the ‘vacuum chamber I? an‘ endconi
partment in which the distributor ‘head ‘is ‘dis-i. I compartments communicative at the bottom 65
posed, is elevated as shown at
I41,‘ so as ‘to , thereof.
extend above the outlet I1 of the distributor
‘headyewherebyv the‘ coalesced‘ liquid ‘phase par
In Figures 1 and 3 there is secured
to‘ each partition wall as‘ by riveting or ‘welding,
as shown at I60, a spring: m.eta‘l strip IBI having
at its lower end a valve ‘I62 normally engaging
ticles are directed in‘toithe compartment while:
the vapor‘phase particles are withdrawn in the , in and sealing an opening I63 in the ‘lower end 70
usual manner‘ and removed ‘through outlet .62 ‘ of ‘ ea‘ch partition.
and pipe63 to condenser 64. 'Ifhus entrainment
The valves are interconnect
ed bymeans of loose ,links I64 as in Figure 8.
‘ n of ‘liquid phase constituents‘ is prevented while‘f Means for opening all of the valves simultane
removal of vapor phase constituentsisweifectivee _ ‘ ously is desirable and we provide-for this pur-\
‘1y obtained.
‘constructionjwhereby“the dis:
‘pose a rod I66 mounted for sliding movement 75
2,180,644 -
in a thoroughly sealed stu?ing box I61 on the
using a single vacuum charnber for accomplishe ‘
wall of the‘ vacuum chamber with which rod ing simultaneous and continuous (1) introduc
I 66 is rigidly connected 9. ?at rod I66 ‘carrying 7 tion of the cream-steam-water mixture into the
a cam I 69 for engaging‘ the metal valve strips
vacuum chamber and expansion thereof into a
.to unseat the valves.‘ The rod I66" is ,slidably “ fog or mist, (2) steamss'c'rubbing of the collected
vmounted in 'suitable‘guides I10 connected to the
partition, as shown ‘in Figure 7. One spring
coalesced cream while travelling in a serpentine
path in‘the presence of the mist, (3) removal of
metal strip I6I, where it is engaged by the cam ‘ the objectionablejvapor phase constituents re
has secured to it as-byi‘rlvets, a shoe III and sulting from each of these operations, and (4)
'10 upon reference to Figure 6, it will be noted that removal of the ?nally treated cream in a steady
when the handle I12 connectedto the end of rod ‘ ‘
I66 is moved in, the cam I69 will engage the shoe
The vacuum chamber I II is also useful for
I‘II'whereby the valves I62 will each be moved scrubbing batches of coalesced cream. Thus,
. laterally out of the openings,_s'o that the several the cream is collected in one or more ‘of the
15 compartments are‘ in- communication, and“ any a compartments to a desired level, whereupon the‘ 15
liquid in‘the compartments will run into the‘ discharge of the“ cream-steamewater mixture
central outlet compartment“ and be drained through the distributor head I6 is stopped and
through the ‘pipe, 66. When the handle is _re
the steam scrubbing means operated.
tracted‘ the valves are ‘again reseated' by the
spring bands I60 to normal position.
The simultaneous scrubbing or operation of ‘the .
batch treatment immediately subsequent to the 20
Afsimilar construction is utilized in connec-i expansion treatment before the batch has cooled
tioni'wi‘th the apparatus shown in Figure 9.
is advantageous in that the coalesced cream is at ‘ ~
Referring to Figure 3, “a multiplicity ‘of slide a temperature su?ic'iently elevated to render the
valves I15 normally close openings I16 'in the’ steam ‘scrubbing immediately e?ective, thereby
25 lower, ends of the compartmentvgalls and these vmaking possible a substantial saving in steam. 25
slide. valves are pivotally connected to levers
The temperature of the cream-steam-water
I‘I‘I which, in“ turn, are pivotally: connected to mixture in line A—B before introduction into the
a single lever‘ I16, which latter is pivotally chamber through the head I6, is substantially 200
mounted at one end in‘a bracket I". The other
30 end of the lever I16 constitutes a handle and
to 250°‘ F. or higher. A vacuum of twenty-four
to twenty-six inches is normally maintained in
when it is desired to drain the vacuum chamber,
the vacuum chamber.
the closure I80 for ‘the opening III therein is
removed‘ and the lever I16 operated'to liftthe
‘drops in‘ temperature at‘ the chamber to a tem
The expanded cream
perature corresponding to itslboiling point under
valves which slide in suitable guides I62 mounted‘ the conditions of vacuum‘ being maintained.
on the partitions.
‘, Under the ‘conditions recited, namely twenty-four 35
In Figure 12,,‘we have ‘illustrated‘a construe-i to twenty-six inches of vacuum,‘this temperature
' tion wherein the distributor head is centrally‘dis
posed, and in this apparatus it‘ is preferable to
use a distributor head‘of the type shown in Fig-\
While it is preferred to use
a single distributor head in this'ap'paratus .and
to ‘associate the same with'a Venturi injection
means C or ~C’, it is to be‘understoodfthat other
40 ures 11, 13 and‘ 15.
types of injection‘means may be used as well as
a baéztery of distributor heads as shown inv Fig
Likewise, andreferr‘in'g to Figure 9, the‘ sup
' plementary steam'supply‘pipe may be ‘associated
with any of the distributor heads such as those
normally is reduced to about 1315 to 150° F. .High
pressure live steam iswpreferably used in the
scrubbing means, e. g., eighty to one hundred
pounds gauge pressure and each portion in the
continuous ?ow or in batch scrubbed for a varying ‘
period,,usually short, e. g.,‘ five to ten minutes‘
depending on the ‘cream. ‘
A feature ‘of ‘the apparatus resides in the fact
that, the steam scrubbing treatment is performed 45
. under conditions whereby the coalesced cream re
tains substantially its original form without being
appreciably condensed or diluted‘.
The e?ect of ‘
the steam sweeping through the cream is (l) to
shown in Figures‘ill, l3 and 15 in each of the ‘ vaporize to some slightextent and (2) particu
apparatus structures illustrated.
Either'of the ‘valve operating structures for
permitting communication of the compartments
with each other at the bottom thereof for‘ drain;
55 ing purposes may be utilized in any of the con
structions shown, although it ‘is preferred to use
the construction illustrated in detail in Figure 6.
With the apparatus shown in Figures 1', 3, 5
larly to mechanically remove ‘any remaining
small concentrations of odoriferous and o?-?avor
imparting substances and (3) maintain the tem
perature of the cream at‘ substantially its boiling ‘
‘point at the prevailing pressure.
The apparatus described is preferred and the
treated cream may be used in the manufacture
of dairy products, particularly butter and sour
and 9, successive ‘portions of coalesced cream cream‘ of enhanced qualityl
are given a consecutive steam scrubbing in each
The results obtained are exemplified in the 60‘
compartment. The ?ow is continuous and ser
case of cream used in butter making, where the '
pentine and the treatment ‘simultaneous with, butter has been found to have a score advantage
i. e., in the presence of, the fog produced upon ‘of from two to three pointshigher than that ob
the introduction of and expansion of the cream? . tained by conventional methods.
65 steam-water mixture in the vacuum chamber In.
The steam scrubbing will, in some instances, as 65
The ?nally treated cream'is withdrawn through will be appreciated, not be necessary to produce
the central _or another ‘outlet compartment jby a butter of a satisfactory score or quality, the
the‘medium of thepipe 66 or‘ pipe 66 and pump . previous operations of the process being su?lcient.
61 and thereafter suitably cooled. In this con
As heretofore stated, the cream introduced into
, nection=-§Qntrol of ‘the ';_t_‘low through" the com
the line A—B is continuously under the in?uence
partments is provided 'for by regulating the ‘of (a) the heating eifects, (b) the pumping pres
quantity of cream-steam-water mixture intro;
duced to the vacuum chamber through the dis
sure ‘of the pump P, (c) the steam pressure im
pressed upon the ?uid by thev injector means and i
ad I6‘.
‘for the supplementary ejector 5I,_ and (d) the
The app “ms of Figures 1‘ and 2 involves ‘back’ pressure created‘by reason of ‘the restricted
said outlet and means for injecting steam
“ outlet II. in thedistributor head‘ilt cooperating the
with said pressure components. The cream‘or into‘ the steam ?uid mixture‘ at ‘said outlet,
subdivided to obtain a preliminary‘, but neverthe
whereby a pressuredi?ferential is built up be
tween‘ the line side‘of the outletv and the vac
“less‘ very complete subdivision of the particles and
the cream-steam-water mixture is brought, by
introduced to the chamber violent and sponta
. fluid is consequently thoroughly pasteurized andj
uum chamber side, and when the mixture is '
neous expansion of the mixture will .take place,
‘ ‘ means ofthe control‘ provided, to optimum con
said outlet, discharging- the mixture inffreely
suspended finely'broken "state, and being dis
posed "su?icientlyj below, the said ‘pressure reduc-‘ 10
. dition and temperature andpressure for ‘intro
' l l duction into the vacuum chamber through the
distributor head. That is to say, the subsequent
explosive expansion to' which the steam-cream
water mixture issubjected in the vacuum cham
, 10
ing passage to prevent substantial entrainment
‘and far enough from the bottom of the chamber
to‘ give the falling particles‘ projected from the
ber will result in the maximum release of volatiles outlet su?icient time for adequate separation of
and odo‘riferous substances. These latter will be
vapor ‘and liquid phase constituents, said 15
‘continuously removed through the port “~66 ‘ the
means for creating a reduced-pressure operating
and the cream will continuously coalesce in a to‘ remove vapor phase constituents through‘ said
highly puri?edlcondition and be collected in or
and ,1 ‘another . outlet remotely, spaced
‘from the bottom ofthevacuum chamber Ill. The -passage,
from said" passage ,for removing liquid phase
collected ‘cream is continuously removed from the
vacuum chamber and cooled in a suitable cooler
2. An apparatus for treating liquids such as
1 to substantially 70450" F. l
the vacuum chambers shown, and described‘here
‘ Instead of using a circulating medium such as
‘hot wateror a gas, the heating jacket about the
‘vacuum chamber may be provided with an elec
‘trical resistance element as shown in said Horne
man and Hammer, Horneman and Parker appli
' sectional area is a small fraction of. the cross
‘ sectional area of the line, means for injecting
c In some cases the cream is given a preliminary
treatment of steam scrubbing as described herein,
‘before introduction to the surge tank and its
pumping into the line. Also, in this connection,
the treated cream removed from any of the ap
" ,paratuamay be introduced to a second apparatus,
, for example, similar to that shown in Figure 1,
and given a further steam-scrubbing treatment.
Such preliminary or subsequent out of the
40 vacuum chamber scrubbing treatments are not
ordinarily required. and are not preferred.
lactic fluids‘ comprising ‘a vacuum chamber,
means for maintaining a reduced pressure there
in including a withdrawal passage adjacent one
end of the chamber, a line communicating with 25
a source of liquid supply and extending within
said chamber, said line terminating at its end
within the chamber in an outlet ,whose cross
‘Either an ejector-condenser system or‘ a wet
pump and condenser are employed with each of
-,As will be appreciated-the steam sweeping op
‘ eration affects a heating of the cream collecting
45 in‘the vacuum chamber in that the temperature
‘of the cream is maintained constant in accord
‘ a ance with the degree of vacuum in the chamber,
, ‘and the cream‘does not suffer any substantial
cooling below that which results from 'its intro
duction into the vacuum chamber, 1. 2.,there is
no appreciable decrease in temperature on ac
‘ count of any slight evaporation which may take
place. This steam sweeping,»moreover,‘ serves
steam into the line at a su?icient distance from
the said outlet and means for injecting steam
into the steam ?uid mixture at said outlet,
whereby a pressure differential is built up be
tween the line side of the outlet and the vacuum 35
chamber side, and when the mixture is intro~ ~
duced to the chamber, violent and spontaneous
expansion of the mixture takes place, said out
let discharging the mixture in freely suspended,
finely broken state, a plurality of compartments
in ‘the bottom of'said vacuum chamber, said
compartments communicating with each other,
the ?nely broken suspended mixture being de
livered initially to one of said compartments,
means for introducing steam to the ?uid con— 45
tained in certain of said compartments, said
means for creating a reduced pressure operating
to remove vapor phase ‘constituents through
said passage, and an outlet communicating with
one of said compartments for removing liquid 50
phase constituents.
3. An apparatus for treating liquids such as
lactic ?uids comprising a vacuum chamber,
, means for maintaining a reduced pressure there
‘ the purpose of maintaining the temperature oi _‘ ' in including a withdrawal passage adjacent one 55
55 ,
the metal wall of the vacuum chamber adjacent
to the coalesced liquid, as well as the temperature
‘ of the metal partitioning means,‘constant, there
‘ by preventing any objectionable condensation of
the steam: '
The invention may be modi?ed in various ways
i and is subject, of course, to numerous changes,
all of which are considered to be comprehended
‘ within the scope of_ the appended claims.
We claim:-—
l ‘,1, An apparatus for ‘treating liquids such as
lactic ?uids comprising a vacuum chamber,
a ‘ means for maintaining a reduced pressure there
, in including a withdrawal passage adjacent one
' end of the chamber, a line communicating with
a source of liquid supply and extending within
said chamber; said line terminating at its end
within the chamber in an outlet whose cross-'
end of the chamber, a line communicating with
a source of liquid supply and extending within
said chamber, said line ‘terminating at its end
within the chamber in ‘an outlet whose cross
sectional area is a small fraction or the cross
sectional area of the line, means for injecting
steam into the line at su?icient distance‘irom
said outlet whereby a pressure differential is
built up between the line side of the outlet and
the vacuum chamber side su?icient to cause
violent and spontaneous expansion of the mix
ture introduced to the chamber, said outlet‘dis
charging the mixture in freely suspended, ?nely
broken state, a plurality of compartments in the
bottom of the vacuum chamber, said compart 70
ments being in communication,’ one of said com
partments being substantially centrally disposed,
the freely suspended ?nely brokenmixture be
sectional area is a small ‘fraction otthe cross— ‘ ing discharged into one of said compartments
sectional areaof the line, means for injecting other than the centralcompartment, means for 75
steam into the‘ line at a sumcient distance from
' 2,180,644
injecting steam into certain of said compart 7. violent and spontaneous expansion 01 the mix
ments, said means for creating‘ a1 reduced pres
sure operating‘ to remove vapor phase constitu
ture introduced to the chamber, a plurality of
ents through‘ said passage, and‘ an outlet from‘
1 said central. compartment for‘ removing liquid‘
phase constituents.
4. An apparatus for treating liquids such as
> lactic ?uids comprising a‘ ‘vacuum chamber,
means for maintaining reduced‘ pressure therein
10 including a withdrawal‘ passage adjacent one end
of the chamber, a line‘ communicating‘ with a‘
source oil-liquid supply and extending within
said chamber, said line terminating at its end
within the chamber in an outlet whose cross
15 sectional‘ area is a small‘ fraction of the cross
sectional area of the‘ line, means for injecting -
steam into the line‘ at suiiicient ‘distance from
said‘ outlet whereby a pressure di?erentiail ‘is
built up‘ between the line side of the outlet and
the vacuum chamber side sui'il‘cient to cause
compartments injthe bottom of said chamber,
said outlet discharging the mixture in freely sus
pended, ?nely broken state directly into one of 5
said compartments, said compartments being in
communicating relation, means for injecting
steam into the‘ ?uid in certain of said compart
ments, said means for creating a reduced pres-‘
sure operating to remove vapor phase constitu
ents-through said passage, and another outlet
remotely spaced from said passage for ‘removing
liquid phase constituents from another of said
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