Патент USA US2130681код для вставки
Sept. 20, 1938.‘ ' 2,130,681 PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR DERIVING‘FIBER, FROM FLAX STRAW on THE LIKE Original Filed July 23, 1931 ‘ 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 1 ,, .‘., \mm b um .um. H1“,Q :. . m, . 0%.8, 2‘ 4.k“mmwm\/H]x It.,:l I l 57% Sept. 20,1938. R. FORSYTH 2,130,681 PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR DERIVING FIBER FROM FLAX STRAW OR THE LIKE Original Filed July 23, _l931 \2 Sheets-Sheet 2 ulon.di.. l?u,.lRN w4W|l . 00 o - N“ 29w.an.\ oA .H ~mo wom.omwm w Q\ mw9woQ mwo.ewom“voo. w wa vwo NW\ v ..-.N%. oe -o0oQQQwoW‘.k7..WJ~ 0 , v 2,130,681 Patented ‘Sept. 20, UNITED STATES2,130,68lPATENT OFFICE PROCESS AND APPARATUS FQR DERIVING FIBER FROM FLAX STRAW OR THE LIKE mum Forsyth, cramming ‘assignor to Robert ‘ N. Burton, Chicago, Ill. - . Application July 23, 1931, Serial No. 552,618 Renewed November ‘I, 1936 1 Claims. (01. 19-7) of typical construction, all for treating the straw This invention relates to a process and to ap ' paratus for performing the process of separat ing or deriving from certain vegetable stalks or in the dry state. - Figure 2 illustrates diagrammatically in verti cal section the ?rst series of troughs in which the ?ber is treated for softening the gums and 5 resins and also squeezing rolls associated with adapted for use in the textile art for spinning - said troughs, together with a portion of the sec and weaving thread and cloth in the nature of ond series of troughs from which the material is linen; it is also valuable for the manufacture of stems the ?brous structure thereof in the form 5 of individual ?bers. Such ?brous material is fed from'the rolls. certain grades of paper commonly known as 10 “bond" paper and for the paper stock employed for currency; another and quite different use for such ?ber is for packing or wicking for which it is suitable by reason of its capillary structure and in which capacity it may replace. the cotton 15 waste commonly employed for packing journal - Figurel3 is in'effect a continuation of Figure 2 10 showing the terminal portion of the second set of troughs with additional squeezing rolls and also a neutralizing acid bath, a rinsing water bath, the ?nal squeezing rolls, a traveling dryer belt and a set of rolls for mechanical softening 15 . of the dry ?ber. bearings like those of railway car axles. These Figure 4 is a diagrammatic detail mainly in are only afew examples of the range of uses of section, showing the corrugations of the ?ex such ?ber. The process is designed and illus» ing rolls illustrated in Figure l, and including. ‘ trated with respect to the treatment of threshed one of the hook shaped picker teeth to which said 20 20 ‘flax straw, or like material, in such manner that rolls feed the straw. , the entire straw can be made available for use by ~-separation into its‘component parts includ ing the Woody portion or shive, the gum and resin, the tannin and chlorofyl and the ?ber itself. 25 An object of the invention is to provide a proc ess and apparatus for mechanically accomplish ing this purpose; another object is to insure a rel atively gentle treatment of the ?ber throughout 3“ the process so that it shall retain all of its origi nal tensile strength and other desirable qualities without the ‘impairment which might result from excessive chemical treatment or rough mechani- ' cal handling; another object is to maintain the ?bers as far as possible in their original unbro-_ 35 ken length and in substantial alignment through _ the process to avoid tangling and breakage; and Figure 5 is a transverse section of one of the ' ‘ tanks ‘or trough assembliesQbeing taken sub stantially as indicated at line, 5-'—5, on Figure 2. Figure 6 is a- detail elevation of the squeezing 25 rolls shown in Figure 2. Figure '7 is a detail section on a larger scale showing the construction of the troughs of Fig ure 5. . t - . Figure 8 is a partial plan view of said troughs. 30 This process having been designed primarily _ for the treatment of ?ax stalks or straw and par ticularly for handling thrashed ?ax straw, will be described with reference to that material al though it may be understood that‘ the process 35 may be suitable wholly or in part for deriving the ?brous content of other similar plant it is also an object of the invention to provide growths. It may be understood‘that the process is designed primarily to employ the straw shortly a substantially continuous process adapted to op after the threshing process has been completed, 40 40 elate on a de?nite time schedule whereby a given ‘but preferably with the straw thoroughly dried. , plant may be depended upon to turn out a known That- is, it is‘not intended or contemplated that quantity of ?nished ?ber in a given time with straw shall be retted as was once the prac the various ‘steps of the process under de?nite the by permitting it to partially rot on the control at all times. Other objects will appear i tice, ground or under water to allow deterioration of 45 5 as the description proceeds. _ The invention wood portion, since such treatment has a therefore consists inthe various steps of the proc the tendency to deteriorate and weakenthe ?ber it ess in combination and in certain features and self as well as to waste the woody material or elements of the apparatus and the relative ar shive which itself has a de?nite value, as for rangement of the parts thereof, all as hereinafter use in various wood pulp products, including news 50 50 described and shown in the drawings and as in print. ' dicated by, the claims. Assuming then that the straw is supplied in Figure 1 is a diagrammatic side elevation of a dry condition, it is fed by any convenient means the apparatus for the initial steps of the process such as by a conveyor belt, I, for delivery be including a feeding belt, ?attening rolls and ad tween a pair of plain rolls, 2, 2, which serve to 55 55 ditional rolls for flexing the straw and a picker 2 2,180,681 ?atten the straw and tend to split the ?bers apart to some extent, and partially break up the woody ll, openings, 2'. , tom. Near the top of the tank and below the up per edges of the side walls. II, a series of longi several pairs of ?uted rolls whose grooves or cor rugations are smoothly rounded and extend longi tudinally extending troughs, 2|, aresupported on tudinally, that is, parallel to the axes of the rolls any suitable framing, I2, and are provided with perforated bottoms, 23, as indicated in Figures 1' and 8. Steam pipes, 24, are shown supported adjacent the side walls, II, and it may be un 10 - and without any sharp edges. Four pairs of such "10 inwardly from _ the side walls, I ‘I, with communication ports or material adhering to them. For further loosening this material, ‘the, straw passes'directly- between rolls are shown at 3, 4, 5 and 8 in Figure 1, and from Figure 4 it may be noted that these rolls are‘ designed'to operate so that the ?utings 01' each pair are lntermeshed witheach other but with clearance space between them, and it may be fur ther observed that the rolls are disposed. in a 15 graduated arrangement such that the. ?utings of the rolls, 3, 3, are somewhat wider than the ?utings of the rolls, 4, 4, and likewise the clear derstood that with the tank, l4, substantially ?lled wardly between the sidewalls, l8, and their adia- . cent bailles, II, and thence horizontally over the troughs, 2|, and downwardly through their per . ance space between the ?rst pair of rolls is great ' er than that between the second pair, while the 20 width of the ?utings and the clearance space be ‘ , several so called "slivers" or assemblies of fibers will be disposed7 in the respective troughs, 2!, as many as three slivers to'each trough if dedred, tween the ?nal pair of rolls, 6, 6, is the least in the The purpose of this arrangement is to series. and that as soon as these cause the rolls to mildly ?ex the straw as it passes tered in the feed rolls, II, through them, tending to break the woody por tions into short-sections and to loosen them from the ?bers themselves, this treatment being slight- , ly more severe when vthe straw reaches. the ?nal set of rolls, I, 8, than when it enters a set of rolls, F. and 212° F. by means ofthe livesteam in the 8, I. As a result of this treatment‘ the ?brous pipes-24, andthe convection currents set up in the-tank, l4,as describedwiliserveto stalks shed a considerable portion oi’their woody ~insure the treatment oft-he?berbysubstantialiy content or "shive" before they reach. the drum, 1, thewhole-mass of waterinthetankratherthan of the picker, 8, and are caught up by the hook byanylocalized like teeth, I, 0! said drum to be carried through the picker. This machine may be similar to those used for a like purpose and of generally standard it being'u'nder'stood that its func tion is to comb the ?brous material by means of toothed rolls-tendlne'to split the ?bers apart and straighten themout and at the same time serving softens the gum and reslnom material rendering to break oil’ most ‘or the-remaining fragments and it relatively plastic. If the‘ process is continuous particles of the woody material or shive. Merely the water in the tank or vat, i4, maybe changed ‘ as a suggestion for‘ the pickerJ, _I have indicated periodically or continuously by the introduction ‘ in dotted outline two pairs of so-called "working" of fresh water, as through a supply valve, 25, the rolls at II and I4“, and a ?nal large delivery roll excess water over?owing the end wall, I‘, of the t, 21, having, or drum, II, by which it may be understood the tank, into a short open com ?ber is discharged over a suitably inclined chute _'an outlet, II, which may lead into the sewer or to _ construction, any suitable receptacle if it is desired to recover or table, it, into a receiving basket or car, It. The dry ?ber which is‘thus loosely piled or the dissolved matter from the water. A drain coiled in the receptacle, l3, may be-accumulated' plug, 29, may also be provided near the bottom - as desired, as for example, until the receptacle is of the partition wall, 20, for use in occasionally well ?lled, at which time the accumulated ?ber ?ushing out the entire tank, i4,'at which times will be de?nitely cut or vbrolren .o?' from that-_ any resinous matter which has settled in the which continues to discharge from the picker, - tank may be collected and removed. The ?ber will not be injured by treatment with another receiving car or basket being placed in position and the ?rst car being wheeled to the re-v the hot water for a longer period than thirty ?ve minutes. Therefore the initial portion of ceiving end'of the tank, l4, at A. The cut or bro ken ends of the ?ber in the receptacle, ll, are , the ?ber maybe allowed to lie in the troughs, 2|, this length of time and then may be started , bunched or assembled to form a "silver" which may be started through the trough-like structure ' through the feed rolls, ll. These rolls are held of the tank, I4, either by tying it with a string toward each other under adjustable spring pres and leading the string through the feed rolls, ii, sure as indicated in Figure 2 and to accommo at the opposite end oi’ the tank, l4, or by leading date the sliver. form in which the fiber is being handled, it may be preferable to provide one of the “sliver" itself through the tank and'starting ‘said rolls _ with circumferential grooves, ll‘, - 7 its end portion through these rolls, l5. It is de sirable, however, that the ?ber shall experience a valigned with the several troughs, It, and Dro soaking treatment in the heated water bath of the viding space for the thicker portions of the silver so that substantially equal pressure may be ex tank, l4, for a‘ period of at least thirty-five min utes; therefore, if the lead string is not employed, the sliver will be merely drawn through the length 70 of the tank, i4, and allowed to lie there for this period before being started through the feed erted by each of the ‘rolls upon all the ?bers of each sliver‘. This pressure serves .to squeeze oil.’ from- the fiber the major portion of the gum which hasbeen softenedland loosened by the hot water treatment in the vat, l4, and this gummy material with the water which is also The tank, l4, as more clearly indicated in Fig ure 5 consists of outer side walls, I1, and a bottom pressed out by the rolls, ii, is discharged into wall, l8, within which are shown longitudinally - a special accumulating trough, ill, and thence through any suitable conduit, 2|‘, may be car rolls, II. - ' ‘ f _ . , 3 a1‘so,ee1 'ried-off for reclamation in accordance with well understood methods. In the process of squeez ing the hot-water—saturated sliver between the spring-pressed rolls, the rolls are exposed to the hot'water by their contact with the silver. Whatever length of “silver” it is possible to continuous belt conveyor, ll, which may be un derstood as of any suitable reticulated form, as for example, a series of belts or ribbons with ' transverse supporting bars secured to them at intervals. Associated with the dryer belt, 40, are make from the initial quantity of ?ber in the" receptacle, it, it- will be understood that the silver may be rendered continuous by splicing onto it from time to time additional units of ?ber ‘as delivered from the picker, 8, and before the trail ing end of the silver has entered the trough of thetank, II. It should also be understood that in. the structure as illustrated with, multiple 15 troughs, 2|, a plurality of these slivers will be‘ started‘ simultaneously and, ‘will continue to suitable heating means such as steam pipes, ll, and a blower, 42, for supplying air through a distributing conduit, 43, with ports, 44, through which the air passes for heating contact with the pipes, GI, and thence through the conveyor belt, 10 "I. for drying the ?ber. 'At the discharge end of the belt, 40, the fiber is preferably passed through a series of ?uted rolls, l5, which may be similar to the rolls, 3, 4, i, S, employed at the beginning of the process except that they need not have corrugations of graduated dimensions, travel parallel to each, other through the apps ratus. The ?ber continues its movement through the rolls, l5, and enters the second set of troughs. as in the other series, but ‘may be all substan tially alike; the function of these rolls, 4!, is sim ply to mildly ?ex the ?ber atthe completion of the drying to soften it and loosen from it any 20 20 30, in a tank, 3|, these troughs and tanks being . film of foreign material which may have adhered structurally similar to the troughs, 2i, and their through the various washings and rinsings; and tank, It. The bath in the tank, 3|, however, is may have been dried onto the surface in the ?nal a weak solution of sodium carbonate, preferably step of the process. about'three percent, and for this reason the ex As it emerges from the softening rolls, 45, the 25 posed metal of this structure should be of ‘copper ?ber may be further treated by combing or card-' or heavily nickled to prevent corrosion and to ing devices of any suitable design, as may be prevent discoloration of the ?ber which might ‘readily understood by those skilled in the art. occur if ordinary iron piping and tanks were It will then be baled for shipment to the user. used. The ?ber travels through the troughs. S0. For some uses, as for packing or wicking, 30 30 at the same rate as it moved through the troughs, where the matter of color is not important, the 2|. As a matter of convenience, if each set of acid dip in the tank, 35, may be omitted and the troughs is made about thirty-?ve feet long- the water in the tank, 31, may be relied upon to sum ?ber will be moved through them at the rate of ciently wash out the alkali from the fiber. Where one foot per minute. And to avoid cooling and the matter of color is of vital importance, as in 35 35 hardening of the gum during the transfer of the spinning, it may be desirable to' subject the fiber , ?ber from the tank H‘ to tank 3|, it may be subjected to hot water sprays at i5’, and is? adjacent the squeezing rolls, I5, as shown in Fig ure 2. 40 The function of the alkaline bath of sodium carbonate is to remove any remaining gum from the ?ber by dissolving it, thus freeing any asso ciated resin from' the ?ber and permitting it to fall to the bottom of the vat from which it may to ?nal chemical bleach, but this can be extreme ly mild by reason of the fact that the material has already been so thoroughly cleansed and washed in the process herein described. As a result, the spinning ?ber will be much stronger than that which has been subjected to a relatively severe bleaching, as such process always acts to weaken the cellular structure and therefore tends to weaken the strength of the fiber. Fiber produced 46 45 be collected at intervals for reclamation in mer- } in accordance with my process having been de charitable form. A small quantity of the alkaline gummed almost entirely by mechanical means solution may be added from time to time to com which at the same time is designed to handle pensate for evaporation and for that which is carried off with the gum and resin-removed in the vat, it. At the end of the tanlr, 36, the ?ber again passes through squeezing rolls shown at M which remove most of the alkaline solution from it. These rolls may be mounted directly in the end of the vat, ti, or, as shown, may be separated from it and provided with a collecting trough, 33, for the solution squeezed from the ?ber. Asthe ?ber approaches the rolls it may be further clari ?ed by a rinsing spray of clear water indicated at M. , - For certain uses such as the manufacture ofv paper, it is desirable that even the small quan tity of alkali remaining in the ?ber be neutral ized, and for this purpose it may be passed from the rolls, it, directly into a neutralizing bath of wealr acid indicated at so. Brief dipping in this bath is all that is necessary, therefore the tank, 35, may be of much less length than the preced ing tanks employed in the process and from it the fiber may be passed through wringing rolls, 36, and then through a rinsing bath of clear water, ii, to ?nal squeezing rolls. it, which will press most of the moisture from the ?ber. Emerg ing fromthe rolls, 38, it proceeds across any suit able feed table or support, 3!, to a dryer which 75 is indicated diagrammatically in Figure 3 as a the‘ ?ber always gently throughout the process, will be found to present a softness of texture and 50 a. luster almost rivaling a silk ?ber, and since it has been thoroughly washed and cleared, it will take a fast dye rendering it suitable for spinning and manuiiacture into cloth for a wide range of purposes for which linen has not heretofore been 55 thought suitable. in theapparatus shown, as indicated in Figures 2 and b, I have included vapor hoods, tile, extend ing slightly above the side lls, ill, of the tanks and communicating with the suction passages, it", so as to draw ch as" and other vapors tending to rise from the surface of the liquids in the tahknthus facilitating handling of the material if necessary by workmen and keeping the premises clear of unpleasant steam and odors. Another feature of construction of the apparatus which is quite important is the provision of oiled pressure pads of absorbent material such as felt or the like shown at 90 in contact with upper and lower rolls of each pair of squeezing rolls for the 70 purpose of cleaning the rolls of any adhering par ticles or fiber which would otherwise cling to their ' surfaces by reason of the gum and resin associ- ated with the fiber. These pads serving to coat the rolls with a thin ?lm of oil will prevent ad . 4 2,130,681 hesion of the material and will also act as scrap ers to remove ?ber which might otherwise be carried around the rolls. ' ‘Although I have shown and described herein ‘ a speci?c group of mechanisms and apparatus for ing the shive or woody material, and-then con tinuing the movement through a picker arranged for combing out and removing most of said woody material, forming into a sliver the ?brous portion of the straw emerging from the picker and feed ing said sliver longitudinally at a relatively ‘slow 5 performing the process and have indicated cer tain modes of treatment, it is to be understood rate through a liquid bath maintained at tem that theproeess and apparatus described are il lustrative and that my invention is not speci?cally . perature suitable for softening the gum, then without intermission in the exposure of the silver 10 limited thereto except as indicated by the ap the liquid maintained at said gum-softening 10 pended claims; it being evident that various ‘to changes and modi?cations vboth in the process temperature, passing the sliver between squeezing rolls in direct contact of the ?ber with the sur and the apparatus may be made without depart of the rolls on opposite sides of the sliver ing from the spirit and scope of the invention. - face while maintaining the sliver in exposure to the I claim: 15 1. A process for the purpose indicated which liquid maintained at said gum-softening tempera includes forming the ?brous material into a sliver ture, splicing additional ?brous material from after the shive has been removed therefrom and the picker to the sliver at intervals to- extend feeding it slowly through a heated water bath the length inde?nitely, feeding the silver after 20 to soften the gum and resin and dissolve out the passing the rolls into a mild chemical water bath water-soluble material, passing the ‘silver between through which it moves‘ longitudinally at the same 20 rolls for removing the softened gum and resin and rate of speed to permit the remaining gum to be protecting the sliver against atmospheric cooling by spraying it with hot water in its passage to and through the rolls. . 2. A process for the purpose indicated which includes loosening the shive or woody material ‘so mm the ?ber in its dry state and separating a substantial portion of the said material there from, then submerging the ?ber i'or soaking it in liquid maintained at a temperature suitable for. softening the gum and resin, and directing a > liquid current maintained at said temperature into impact with the sliver while the latter is free from mechanical pressure and without substan tial time interval between the submergenee of the dissolved and the associated resinto be freed from _ the ?ber, then feeding the ?ber through addi tional pressure means, rinsing and drying it, and ?nally subjecting said ?ber to mechanical ?exure 25 for softening‘it, and to combing or carding means for removing any adhering particles and straight ening the ?ber. , I , 5. A process for the purpose indicated which includes forming the ?brous material into a sliver 30 after’ the shive has been removed therefrom and ,feeding it slowly through a heated water bath to soften the gum and resin and dissolve out, the water soluble material, feeding the sliver out of said bath and then passing it between rolls for‘ 35 ?ber for soaking it and its exposure to the impact dislodglng the gum and resin while applying heat of the liquid current; whereby the gum is main— to protect the sliver against atmospheric cooling tained in said softened condition throughout the during its passage to and through the rolls. 6. A process for the purpose indicated which 40 step of separation by liquid current impact. 3. A process for the purpose indicated which includes forming the ?brous material into a silver includes forming the ?brous material into a sliver after- the shive has been removed therefrom and feeding it slowly through a heated water bath after the shive has been removed therefrom, feed ing the sliver slowly through" a bath of water to soften the gum and resin and dissolve out the water soluble material, feeding the sliver out of maintained at a temperature suitable for soften ing the gum, exposing the sliver to the directim- ' said bath, then subjecting it to mechanical pres pact of a current of water maintained at said sure to dislodge the gum and resin and applying ‘temperature without substantial intermission in heat to the sliver immediately upon its emergence from the heated water bath to prevent cooling the exposure to liquid maintained 'at said gum softening temperature and while exposed to said ' and hardening of the gum before its dislodgement. 7. A process for the purpose indicated which in liquid ‘current impact, passing the sliver between cludes forming the ?brous, material into a sliver squeezing rolls the surfaces of which make con ‘ tact with the surfaces of the sliver for squeezing, after the shive has been removed therefrom, sub the surfaces of the rolls being thus exposed to said jecting the ?ber to .a heated liquid bath to dis-' solve out the coloring matter and soften the gum liquid. ' and resin, then separately dislodglng and collect 4. A continuous process for the purpose in dicated which consists in feeding dry stalks or ing the softened gum and resin outside said liq bath while applying heat to prevent cooling straw through instrumentalities adapted to apply ‘ uid and hardening of the gum and resin. pressure and limited ?exure thereto forloosen __ as ROBERT FURSYTH.