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Патент USA US2130688

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Sept. 20, 1938.
Filed June 5, 1934
JIM/e21 for.
I 0/201} amm.
Patented Sept. 20, i938
I, ‘ 2,130,688
Uno Lamm, Ludvika, Sweden, assignor to All
miinna. Svenska Elektriska Aktiebolaget, Vas
teras, Sweden, a corporation of Sweden
Application June 5, 1934, Serial No. 729,091
In Sweden March 1, 1933
4 Claims.
When an electric current traverses a ?uid,
either a liquid or an ionized gas, the electrody
namic forces alwaystend to contract the con
ducting strand or column of ?uid. When the
5 said ?uid consists of a highly rare?ed gas or
vapor which is intended to admit the current
only in one direction, it is known that this valve
action ceases or at least is jeopardized as soon as
the gas or vapor pressure rises above a certain
10 value.
A strong contraction‘of the conducting
gas or vapor column involves, however, a local
. increase of pressure which has about the same re
sult as a general increase of pressure, and it is
probably this circumstance which has caused that
15 in ionic valves the current per anode can gener
ally not exceed a certain absolute value without
causing risk of back-arcing.
The present invention relates to an arrange
ment for counteracting the contraction of the
20 conducting vapor or gas column in ionic valves
which consists in arranging, concentrically with
said column, a metallic return conductor for the
current passing therethrough, so that the repul
sion between the two oppositely directed current
25 causes an expansion of the vapor or gas column.
In practice this will hardly be possible otherwise
(Cl. 250—27.5)
which also prevents the formation of an upper
footpoint for the arc on the conductor 2. The
anode and grid are surrounded by a' sleeve 12.
The active portion of the cathode liquid is lim
ited by a surrounding insulating screen I3 which 5
is continued upwards by a sheet iron screen 14
and together with the latter prevents the imme
diate contact between the arc and the wall H of
the main vessel. 0n the other hand, it is desir
able that the rising cathode vapor shall come 10
into contact with said wall in order to condense
In order to prevent the undesirable for
mation of a cathode spot on the wall II, the vapor
should be substantially deionized when reaching _
the Wall, and to accomplish this, the sleeve i4 is “5
terminated at its upper end by a grid l5, prefer
ably consisting of plates having a rather large
extent in the vertical direction and forming nar
row channels between them so as to effect a thor
ough deionization. The grid may for instance be 20
much denser than an ordinary anode grid, as it
is not necessary to pay attention to the passage
of a normal arc therethrough. The grid l5 sepa
rates the space. enclosed by the said sleeve l2, M
from the rest of the vessel, and may also serve the 25
purpose of supporting the anode sleeve 12 in an
than in such ionic valves which contrary to the
usual mercury vapor valves have one cathode for
insulated or uninsulated manner.
each anode, and then the arrangement involves
rounded by protecting and insulating tubes I1, I 8.
30 either that the conductor leading from the oath
ode. concentrically traverses the anode or that the
conductor to the anode concentrically traverses
the cathode. The invention is in the first line
suited for such ionic valves in which only one
35 pair of electrodes is present in each vessel. The
invention further relates to other improvements
in valves of the latter kind.
Two forms of the invention are illustrated in
vertical sections in Figs. 1 and 2 of the accom
40 panying drawing.
In Fig. 1, the conductor 2 to the anode i is car
ried through the cathode. The latter consists of
a quantity of mercury 3, resting in abowl 4 which
is insulated from the rest of the vacuum vessel
45 wall H by a packing 5. The bottom of the bowl
is traversed by an insulator bushing 6 for the an
ode conductor 2 which is further surrounded by
an insulatintg tube 1 for instance of quartz.
Outside this tube there is a tubular conductor 8
a 50 leading to an anode grid 9, and outside the con
ductor 8 is another tube H) which may be of
quartz and which insulates the conductor ther
mally as well as electrically from the surround
ing arc space. The same function is ful?lled for
55 the upper end of the conductor 2 by the tube 1
I6 is an excit
ing anode projecting through the bottom and sur
In the form shown in Fig. 2, the conductor 30
leading from the cathode is carried through the
anode. The cathode consists also here of a quan
tity 23 of liquid metal, as mercury, and is here
contained in a bowl 24 of insulating material.
The current is led away by a conductor 25 intro- 35
duced from above and terminating in a plate 26
immersed in the metal. The conductor is em
braced by a tube 22, for instance of quartz,
which protects it against the surrounding arc and
insulates it from the surrounding anode 2| and 40
anode conductor 21. The latter is in its turn
embraced by a protecting sleeve 28, and all these
concentric parts are sealed against each other
and the vessel by vacuum tight joints in a cus
tomary manner. 29 designates an anode sleeve, 45
30 an exciting anode, and 3| an ignition anode.
I claim as my invention:
1. In high current ionic valves having a con
ducting gaseous path, a metal vessel, a solid
main anode and a liquid cathode therein, and a 50
straight leading-in conductor for one of said
electrodes passing through, the other electrode
and through the major portion of the arc path
between said two electrodes.
2. In high current ionic valves having a con- 55
ducting gaseous path, a metal vessel, a liquid
cathode at the bottom thereof, a solid main anode
above said cathode, a conductor leading to said
anode and passing centrally through said cath
ode and through the major portion of the are
path between said two electrodes, and a tubular
insulator separating said conductor from said
3. In ionic valves having a conducting gaseous
path, a metal vessel, a liquid cathode at the bot
tom thereof, an insulating annular screen sur
rounding the central portion of said liquid cath
ode, an anode above said cathode, sleeves sur
rounding the space between said anode and cath
ode, and a deionizing grid separating the space
enclosed by said sleeves from the rest of the ves
4. In ionic valves having a conducting gaseous
path, a metal vessel, a liquid cathode at the bot
tom thereof, an anode arranged centrally above
said cathode, a conductor leading to said anode
passing centrally through said cathode, two con
centrical insulating tubes surrounding said con
ductor, a grid beneath said anode, a conductor 10
to said grid between said two insulating tubes,
and a sleeve surrounding said anode and part of
the space between it and the cathode.
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