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Патент USA US2130710

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Sept. Z0, 1938.
J. w. ALEXANDER
2,130,710
MANUFACTURE OF METAL CUTTING TOOLS
Filed Jan. 12, 193e '
2 sheets-sheet 1
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SepL‘ZO, 1938.
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J. `w.~ ALEXANDER
2,130,71()
_MANUFACTURE OF METAL CUTTING TOOLS
Filed Jan. 12, 1938
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2 Sheets-’Sheet 2
'Patented Sept. 20, 1938
2,130,710
UNITED sTATEs PATENT OFFICE
2,130,710
MANUFACTURE 0F METAL CUTTING TOOLS
James Wolfe Alexander, Birmingham, England
Application January 12, 1938; Serial No. 184,695
In Great Britain January 15, 1937
8 Claims. <(Cl. 82-14)
This invention has for its object to provide im
to these slides and being interconnected by the
proved means for facilitating the manufacture of
metal cutting tools of the kind known as ‘,‘form”
tools, that is to say rotary tools having a config
lever r which is plvoted at its centre to the
uration o‘f complex shape.
The invention comprises, for use with a lathe
in which the work piece can be rotated, the com
bination of a slide adapted to carry the cutting
tool and movable in longitudinal and transverse
10 directions relatively to the work piece, optical
saddle c.
The optical projection apparatus above men
tioned is of any known and convenient form, 5
and comprises a horizontal projector s arranged
at right angles to and at a lower level than
the work piece a.
The front end of this pro- .
jector is situated beneath the rear portion of
the work piece and contains a light-defiect- l0
means for projecting a silhouette or image of a
ing- prism t.
portion of the profile of the work piece on to a
screen carrying an enlarged drawing of the de
sired profile, and means for causing the position
s terminates in a housing u which contains a
on the screen of the projected silhouette or image
to vary in a manner correlated with the move
ments of the cutting tool.
In the two accompanying sheets of explana
tory drawings:
Figures l to 3 are respectively a side elevation,
a rear elevation, and a fragmentary plan of
means constructed in accordance with the inven
tion and applied to a lathe.
v
In carrying the invention into elîect as shown,
I employ any suitable lathe in which the “form”
tool a (hereinafter termed the work piece) to be
shaped can be rotated; On the bed b of the
lathe there is provided a longitudinally slidable,
saddle c which is adapted to be actuated by the
30 interaction of a pinion d on a rotary spindle e
and a fixed rack f on the bed b of the lathe, the
spindle e being carried by the saddle c and being
provided with an operating hand wheel g. On the
saddle c is mounted a transversely movable slide
._ h which carries a holder i for the cutting tool 7',
and which is adapted to be actuated by a screw
threaded spindle lc engaging a nut m on the
underside of the slide h, the spindle k being ro
tatably supported by the saddle c and being pro
40 vided at its front end with an operating hand
wheel n.
By the arrangement above described
the cutting tool ¿can be moved parallel with and
At its other end the projector
light source in the form of an incandescent bulb
(not shown), and from which a beam of light
can be directed through the interior of the pro- 15
jector. This beam of light is directed upwardly
by the prism rt through a lens w in the wall of
the projector s above the prism, and passes thence
through a vertical projector :r which is situated
above the rear portion of the work piece a, and 20
which carries at its upper end another light-de
fiecting prism y whereby the beam of light is
directed horizontally and rearwardly on to the
screen p, the latter being arranged in a vertical
plane parallel with the axis of the work piece a. 25
The vertical projector x is carried by a bracket z
on a vertical support 2 which is mounted on the
horizontal projector s, and the latter is carried
on the slide o` by a slidably adjustable base piece
3 which is adapted to be secured in its adjusted 30
position on the slide by a thumb screw 4.
For enabling the screen p to be moved horl
zontally with, but at a higher speed than, the
saddle c, a bracket 5 mounted on the underside
of the rear portion of the saddle is connected at 35
its lower end to one side of an endless chain B
which is carried by and is adapted to actuate
sprocket wheels 'I.v These sprocket wheels are
respectively secured to corresponding ends of a
pair of horizontal rotary spindles 8 which‘are 40
arranged one at each end oi the lathe and are
carried by brackets 9 secured to the rear of the
at right angles to the axis of rotation of the work
piece a. On the saddle c I provide another
transversely movableslide o on which is mounted
lathe supporting structure I0. The other ends
of the spindles 8 are connected by bevel gearing
an optical projection apparatus for projecting
upper side of which is engaged by a half-nut I3
on to a vertical screen p, mounted immediately
behind the lathe, a silhouette or image of a
at the lower end of a rod I4. This rod I4 is
slightly inclined to the vertical for the purpose
hereinafter described, and is connected to the
part of the periphery of the work piece a.
The slide o is arranged in alignment with the
slide h and is connected to the latter by links
q and a lever r so that movement of the slide
h in either direction is accompanied by corre
"sponding movement of the slide o in the opposite
55 direction, the links q being respectively connected
II to opposite ends of a horizontal screw I2 the 45
screen p by brackets I5 which are slidable on the 50
rod I4 and are secured to the rear of a support
ing plate I6 carrying the screen p. The support
ing plate I6 is carried by rollers I1 engaging hori
zontal guides> I8. By the arrangement above de
scribed movement of the saddle c causes rotation 55
i
2
2,180,710
of the screw I2 which imparts horizontal sliding
movement at the desired speed to the screen p
through the half-nut I3, rod I4, brackets I5 and
supporting plate I6, the said speed being de
termined by the gear-ratio oi’ the bevel wheels
II. In the example shown the half-nut I3 is
made separately i'rom the rod I4 and is held in
engagement with the screw I2 by springs I3 slt
uated partly within recesses formed in the upper
side of the half-_nut and partly within recesses
formed in the adjacent face of a collar 20 Se
cured to the lower end of the rod I4, upward
movement of the rod I4 under the action of the
springs I9 being prevented b_y horizontal guide
bars 20a which are secured at opposite ends to the
supports 24 and against which the upper surface
of the collar 20 abuts.
A
For enabling the screen p to receivevertical
movements correlated to the horizontal move
ments of the slide o, the guides I8 are carried by
nuts 2| on a pair of rotary screw threaded spin
dles 22 which are inclined to the vertical in a
similar manner to the rod I4, and which are
journalled one behind each end of the lathe in
brackets 23 on vertical supports 24 mounted on
the brackets 9 above mentioned. The screw
threads on the spindles 22 are oppositely directed,
and the lower ends of these spindles are respec
tivelyl connected by interengaging bevel wheels
30 25, 26 of suitable ratio to a pair of coaxially ar
ranged horizontal rotary spindles 21, the adjacent
ends of the latter spindles being each connected
by a bevel wheel 28 to a bevel wheel 29 secured
on the adjacent end of another horizontal rotary
Z3 Cil
spindle 30, the latter spindle being arranged at
right angles to the spindles 21. At its end remote
from the‘bevel wheel 29 the spindle 30 is connect
ed by gearing 3| to the adjacent end of the oper
ating spindle k of the slides h, o.
rI‘he bevel
40 wheels 26 are formed on sleeves 32 which are
keyed or splined to the spindles 21 so as to per
mit sliding movement of the latter relatively to
the bevel wheels 26, the sleeves 32 being journaled
in bearings 33 on the supports 24 and being in
45 capable of endwise movement. At their adjacent
ends the spindles 21 are journalled in a bracket
34 which also carries the spindle 30, and which is
secured to the saddle c.
By the arrangement
above described rotary motion of the slide-oper
ating
spindle k causes vertical movements to be
50
imparted to the screen p, these movements being
suitably correlated to the movements imparted
by the spindle k to thel slides h, o.
The inclination of the‘spindles 22 and rod I4,`
55 and also the gear ratio of the mechanism by
which the screws 22 are actuated from the hand
wheel n are made such that the horizontal dis
tance between the screen p and the prism y oi'
the optical projection apparatus remains constant
60 irrespective of the movements imparted to this
apparatus by the slide o.
~
‘
In the example shown the screen p is adjustably
screen p a semi-elliptical line showing accurately
to a'large scale the configuration required to be
produced on the work piece a. In this simple ex
ample, the operator would start with a work piece'
or blank of cylindrical form. After mounting the U!
work piece in the lathe, the optical projection ap
paratus would be adjusted to throw on the screen
a silhouette or Image of the part of the work
piece in the zone immediately adjacent to the cut
ting tool j. The portions of the work piece a to
be cut away would then be removed by moving
the cutting tool j in directions at right angles
to and parallel with the axis oi' rotation of the
work piece, and with the cutting away of the
work piece by the tool so would the shape oi'
the projected silhouette or image be varied. The
aim of the operator is progressively to cut away
the work piece until the projected silhouette or
image coincides exactly with the corresponding
part of the pattern on the screen.
20
By this invention the production of form tools
o1' complex form is greatly facilitated, as some oi'
the tedious manipulations at present necessary
are eliminated, and the operator is able accurately
to bring the work piece to the desired shape with 25
out removing it from the lathe for measurement or
for checking it with a pattern.
Having thus described my invention what I
claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Pat
ent is:---
.
30
1. Means i'or facilitating the. manufacture of
cutting tools of the kind specified by lathes in
which the work piece can be rotated, comprising
the combination of a slide adapted to carry the
cutting tool and movable in longitudinal and 35
transverse directions relatively to the work piece,
a screen for carrying an enlarged drawing of the
profile to be given to the work piece, optical
means for projecting on to the screen a silhouette
or image of a portion oi.' the profile of the work 40
piece,`and means for moving the screen and op
tical means in a manner correlated with both
the longitudinal and transverse movements oi'
the cutting tool.v
2. Means as and for the purpose claimed in 45
claim 1, comprising the combination with the
slide, of another slide carrying the optical means
and connected to the iirst mentioned slide so that
movement of the latter slide in either direction
is accompanied by equal movement of the sec 50
ond mentioned slide in the opposite direction, a
slidable saddle on which the slides are trans
versely movable relativelyto the work piece, a
fixed support on which the saddle is longitudinal
ly movable relatively to the work piece, means 55
for moving the ñrst mentioned slide and thereby
imparting movement in the opposite direction to
the second mentioned slide, and means for actu
ating the saddle.
3. Means as and for the purpose claimed in 60
claim 1, comprising the combination with the
slide, of another slide carrying the optical means
secured to the supporting plate I6 by pairs of4 and connected to the ilrst mentioned slide so that
links 35 and screws 36. The links 35 in each pair movement of the latter slide in either direction
are respectively connected to the adjacent4 sur
is accompanied by equal movement of the second 65
faces of the screen p and supporting plate I6, mentioned slide in the opposite direction, a slid
and are interconnected by a thumb screw 31,
Awhilst the screws 36 are secured to the rear ci'
the screen and are adjustably connected to the
,
70 supporting plate by nuts 38.
For enabling the operation of the mechanism
above described to be understood, a simple ex
ample will n'ow be described. Let it be supposed
that the operator desires to produce a “form”
75 tool of elliptical form.
There is drawn on the
able saddle on which the slides are transversely
movable relatively to the work piece, a fixed
support on which the saddle is longitudinally
movable relatively to the work piece, means for 70
moving the iirst mentioned slide and thereby im
parting movement in the opposite direction to the
second mentioned slide, means for actuating the
saddle, the screen being adapted to receive hori
zontal and vertical movements correlated respec 75
3
2,130,710
tively with the movements of the saddle and the ing the said member to the saddle, the said means
comprising gearing arranged between screw-and
movements of the tool slide.
4. Means as and for the purpose claimed in nut mechanism for actuating the said member
claim 1, comprising the combination with the and chain-and-sprocket mechanism responsive to
.
5 slide, of another slide carrying the optical means the action of the saddle.
7. Means as and for the purpose claimed in
and connected to the iirst mentioned slide so
claim 1, comprising the combination with the
that movement of the latter slide in either direc
tion is accompanied by equal movement of the slide, of another slide carrying the optical means
second mentioned slide in the opposite direction, and connected to the ñrst 'mentioned slide so
that movement of the latter slide in either direc
10 a slidable saddle on which the slides are trans
versely movable relatively to the work piece, a tion is accompanied by equal movement of the
second mentioned slide in the opposite direction,
ñxed support on which the saddle ‘is longitudinal
ly movable relatively to the work piece, means a slidable saddle on which the slides are trans
versely movable relatively to the work piece, a
for moving the iirst mentioned slide and there
by imparting movement in the opposite direction iixed support on which the saddle is longitudinal
ly movable relatively to the work piece, means
to the second mentioned slide, means for actu
ating the saddle, and horizontal guides on which for moving the iirst mentioned slide and thereby
the screen is supported in a vertical position, and imparting movement in the opposite direction to
along which the screen can be moved in a manner the second mentioned slide, means for actuating
20 correlated with the movements of the saddle, the saddle, horizontal guides on which the screen
the said guides being adapted to receive vertical is supported in a vertical position, and along
movements correlated with the movements of the which the screen can be moved horizontally, ro
tary screw threaded spindles carrying the said
tool slide.
.
5. Means as and for the purpose claimed in guides and adapted to impart thereto vertical
25 claim 1, comprising the combination with the movements correlated with the movements of the
slide, of another slide carrying the optical means tool slide, another rotary spindle for actuating
and connected to the first mentioned slide so the slides, gearing interconnecting the` latter spin
dle and the said screw threaded spindles, a mem
that movement of the latter slide in either direc
tion is accompanied by equal movement of the ber for imparting to the screen horizontal slid
ing movements correlated with the movements of
second mentioned slide in the opposite direc
tion, a slidable saddle on which the slides are ' the saddle, the screen being vertically slidable rel
transversely movable relatively to the work piece, atively to the said member, and means for oper
atively connecting the said member to the sad
a iixed support on which the saddle is longitudi
nally movable relatively to the work piece, means dle, the said means comprising gearing arranged
for moving the first mentioned slide and thereby between screw-and-nut mechanism for actuating
imparting movement in the opposite direction to the said member and chain-and-sprocket mech
the second mentioned slide, means for actuating anism responsive to the action of the saddle.
8. Means as and for the purpose claimed in
the saddle, horizontal guides on which the screen
' is supported in a vertical position, and along
40 «which the screen can be moved in a manner cor
l related with the movements of the saddle, ro
tary screw threaded spindles carrying the said
4l tool slide, another rotary spindle for actuating
the slides, and gearing interconnecting the latter
versely movable relatively to the work piece, a
tion isvaccompanied by equal movement of the
versely movable relatively to the work piece, a
fixed support on which the saddle is longitudinal
ly movable relatively to the work piece, means
for moving the ñrst mentioned slide and there
l0 by imparting movementA in the opposite direction
to the second mentioned slide, means for actuat
ing the saddle, horizontal guides on which the
screen is supported in a vertical position, and
along which the screen can be moved horizon
`05 tally, the said guides being adapted ‘to receive
vertical movements correlated with the move
ments of the tool slide, a member for imparting
to the screen horizontal sliding movements cor
related with the movements of the saddle, the
25
30
a slid'able saddle on which the slides are trans
iixed support on which the saddle is longitudi
nally movable relatively to the ’work piece, means
for moving the ñrst mentioned slide and thereby
imparting movement in the opposite direction to 50
the second mentioned slide, means for actuating
the saddle, horizontal guides on which the screen
is supported in a vertical position, and along
which the screen can be moved in a manner cor-v .
related with the movements of the saddle, rotary
screw threaded spindles carrying the said guides
.and adapted to impart thereto vertical move
ments correlated with the movements of the tool
slide, another rotary spindle for actuating the
slides, and gearing interconnecting the actuating 60
spindle and the said screw threaded spindles,
the latter spindles being inclined to the vertical,
so that vertical movements of the guides cause
the screen to approach and recede from the work
piece in a manner correlated with the movements
of the slides, and thereby enable the horizontal
distance through which the silhouette or image is
projected on to the screen by the optical means
tol be maintained constant.
'l0 screen being vertically slidable relatively to the
- said member, and means for operatively connect
20
and connected to the first mentioned slide so
that movement of the latter slide in either direc
tion is accompanied by equal movement of the
second mentioned slide in the opposite direction,
A, second mentioned slide in the opposite direction,
ß a slidable saddle on which the slides are trans
15
claim 1, comprising- the combination with the
slide, of another slide carrying the »optical means 40
` guides’and adapted to impart thereto vertical
` movements correlated with the movements of the
spindle and the said screw threaded spindles.
6. Means as and for the purpose claimed in
claim 1, comprising the combination with the
l0 slide, of another slide carrying the optical means~
and connected to the nrst mentioned Vslide so
that movement of the latter slide in either direc
10
JAMES WOLFE _ALEXANDER
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