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Патент USA US2130799

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sept. zo, ~193s.
R. vl-lox-‘YsTl-:TTER
HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM
Filed March 16, 1934
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2,130,799
Patented Sept.' 20, 193s
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UNITED- 'STATES PATENT GFFICE"
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2,130,799
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HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM
nchen nofstetter, Jackson, Mich.
Application March v16, 1934, Serial No. 715,846
2 claims.
I
(ci. sos-.sh
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'I’hel present invention relates to improvements'
in the hydraulic brake system for automotive ve-
Fig. 1 a suitable casting Ill constitutes a master
reservoir Il for> the operating ñuid. A master
`hicles, and the like.
_
.
In hydraulic brake systems in use at the present
cylinder I2 is provided centrally of the casting I@
and at' one end of which a piston I3 is received
5 >time frequently >line failures occur between the
for longitudinal reciprocation.
Located withîn‘ 5
cylinder directly associated with the brake shoe » the piston I3 for limited relative movement rela
vand the master cylinder. When this happens the
entire system is rendered useless.
'
Thus one of the objects ofthe present inventionv
m is to provide a system which overcomes the above
' stated condition and which greatly' increases the
ltive thereto is provided a hollow valve I4. As
shown,_ a springk seat I5 is associated with the
valve It with which the spring I6» abuts to- con
tinuously urge the valve It and the piston I3 to Al0
the right, as viewed in Fig. l.
The valve It is ‘
factor of safety of the vehicle by assuring the closed at the right and with the left end opening
proper operation of, at least, two brakes in the >into the cylinder I2 forward of the piston I3. 'A
lconveriientyfour wheel‘brake system, upon line port Il is located in the valve Id which com
15 failure.
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municates with the reservoir H through a pas- l5
Another object is'to provide simple, inexpensive
and eifective means for assuring a proper supply
of operating fluid` tol the braking system at all
sage I8 opening into a space I9, located at the
rear of the piston I3.
Ports 2li are provided which communicate with
>times as Well as providing for expansion and con-
the auxiliary cylinders 2| which are two in num
20 traction of the ñuid under temperature changes.
ber in the _embodiment illustrated.
Pistons 22 20
A further object is to provide a simple and _ .are received within the cylinders 24 for longitudi
‘ effective mechanical booster for brake application' nal reciprocation. These pistons, as shown, have
which is under the direct control of the manually
operated v,braise pedal and which does not affect
25 the manual operation of the braking system, if
`
desired, or should lt become necessary upon failure of-the mechanical booster.
’
longitudinally spaced cylinder engaging portions
which approximate the diameter of the cylinders
2l for guiding purposes with the major extent of 5
the pistons, preferably of substantially less diam
eter than the, cylinders 2|.
'
Other objects and advantages of the invention
residing in the combination and construction and
30 arrangement of parts will become apparent from
the following description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawing.
The
With such a con»
struction the pistons 22 will reciprocate without
binding and aS the area 0f the DÍSÈODS 22 in actual
sliding contactwith the walls of the cylinders 2l 30
is not greet e suñioient amount of oil is permitted
to seep pest the pistons 22 to compensate for any ~
invention is clearly defined in the claims.
slight leakage, in the system. I‘n order to take
- In the drawing wherein there are illustrated,
care of expansion due to temperature changes
„by -way of' example, several of the innumerable
Check Valves „23 are Preferably 100M/ed in the PÍS- 35
forms which the present invention may take,
Fig. l is a longitudinal cross sectional view
tOnS to enable the Operating fluid to flow back
into the reservoir il. >Springs 24 continuously
_ through the master cylinder, reservoir and me-
urge the piston tothe left as viewed in Fig. 3.
chanical booster showing the association with the
Upon the directing 0f fluid pressure against the
40 brake pedal,
,
Fig. 2 is a >fragmentary end view taken from
,the left of Fig, 1,
Fig. 3 is a cross sectional view taken upon line
3--3 of Fig. 2 `through the master'and auxiliary
45 cylinders,
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Fig. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary cross _sec50 tional view of a modified auxiliary cylinder show«
ing valve mechanism for sealing a line upon fail\
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary view taken on line 6-6
of Fig. 5 showing the washer construction.
55
through the outlets 25 which are coupled to the
lines (not ShOWn) extending t0 the Operating Cy1-.
ìnder located upon the wheel brake of the front
and rear wheels, for example.
Fig, 4 is a fragmentary longitudinal cross Sectional viewof a modmed form of mechanicalbooster,
f
-
ure or rupture thereof, and
left end of the pistons 22,»the fluid located for- 4o
ward of the right ends cf‘the pistons is forced out
`
Having specific reference to the drawing in
Upon failure of 4f
either line connected to the auxiliary cylinders
2I. the release of pressure forward of the piston
will result in the piston 22 being urged to the
right and the'ClOSing of the inner end- 26 of the
outlet 25 by the forward end of the piston 22 to 50
avoid further loss of the operating fluid from the
reservo
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It should become .apparent from the foregoing
descripticnthat by coupling the front wheel brake
cylinders with the `fline communicating with one do
2
arcaico
of the auxiliary cylinders and the rear Wheel shown. The link dil, which may be connected
brake cylinder with the other, upon line failure Atothe brake pedal in any suitable way, is shown
only the front or the rear brakes, as the case may
be, arerendered useless. @bviously an auxiliary
cylinder may be provided for each wheel .brake
with individual lines. It is further to be under
'
stood that the present arrangement possesses the
same equalizing characteristics of the systems
now in use.
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For creating the necessary operating pressure
' within` the system a longitudinally `slidable rod
as attached at te to an arm ¿it which is rocked
about the shaft äil as a unit with the brake pedal.
At the upper end oi the arm ci) a horizontal link
E)
5i is provided which has a lost motion connection
with the rod 2li as at 52.
In operation, with the brake pedal in the posi- l
tion shown with the brakes released, fluid under
pressure will :dow through the inlet
hence into 10
the passage 35 filling the space_back of the piston
É'l is provided which may be actuated by the usual , 29. Because of the light compression of the spring
brake pedal, a mechanical booster or both as 35, the pressure of the fluid will force the valve
will be hereinafter described. This rod is closely 3l .from its seat and ñowout through the outlet
ñtted within the hole 2i’ which constitutes a
guide therefor. Initial movement of the rod 2li
to the left from the position shown in Fig. 1 will
result in the valve lil _being moved to the left
relative to the piston i3. Such movement by
the rod 2l and valve ld Will result in the closing
of the port Il by the guiding wall of the piston
i3. Further movement of the rod 2l will bring
the same into abutment with the piston i3 which
will then be urged to the left to create the neces
25 sary additional operating pressure in the system.
As illustrated in Fig. 1 a cylinder 28 is located
at the Vright end of the casting it in axial align
ment with the cylinder l2. A piston Z9 is re
ceived with this cylinder for reciprocation through
30 which the rod 2l extends. The piston 29 may be
either I'lxedly secured to the rod 2l or slidable
thereupon. Preferably an annular shoulder 30
is provided upon the rod 2l against which the
piston abuts when urged to the left, to mechan
35 ically operate the brakes. The shoulder 3u also
acts to return the piston to the position shown
in Fig. 1. With the piston 29 slidably received
upon the rod 2l, manual actuation of the rod is
vfacilitated as it is not necessary to traverse the
40 piston throughout'the length of the cylinder 28.
The end of the cylinder 28 is closed by a casting
Si having a bore 32 through which the rod 2l
@t without building up sufl‘icient pressure to move 15
the piston 29 to the left. When the brake pedal
is depressed thecarriage ¿il will be moved to the
left gradually increasing the compression of the
spring 38 to urge the valve 3l toward a seat to
gradually decrease the flow of fluid through the 20
outlet 3G. The result is the gradually building up
of pressure back of the piston 29 to move the
same to the left to eiîect a smooth, uniform ap-,
plication of the brakes. Additional movement of
the link dil after the valve 3l has been fully 25
seated will result in the compression of the spring
Alt which, it is to be understood is considerably
stiller than the spring 38. In >the event of failure
of the mechanical booster or desire to manually
operate the brakes, the rod 21 is moved to the 30
leftthrough the lost motion linkage 52; the link
5l being capable of o‘nly a limited movement with
out actuating the rod 2li; Conventional means ’
(not shown) return the brake pedal and the asso
clated mechanism to the position shown in Fig.
1 after manipulation. Conduit. 53 communicating
with the outlet 36 drains into the crankcase any
of the operating fluid which may pass the piston
29. A conduit 5G, likewise communicating with '
the outlet 35, drains any accumulation of operat 40
ing ñuid which may pass the rod 2l and carriage
di.
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extends. Within the casting 3i is disposed and
In Fig. 4 is shown a modified embodiment of
housed the necessary ports and valve mechanism my mechanical booster in which an inlet 55 com- , `
45 for directing' the iiuid pressure against the pis ' municates with the cylinder 28 through a bore
ton 29 to mechanically apply the brakes. In my 55. A hollow piston valve 5l having a tapered 45
preferred form, oil, or other suitable ñuid, under port 58 is slidably received within the bore 56 and
_pressure is admitted through the inlet 33 and is . when mov‘ed to the left fromtheposition shown
directed into the cylinder 28 against the piston permits a gradually increasing ñow of operating
29 through the passages Sil-35. An outlet 36, fluid to be directed against the piston 29. As the
which would be connected with the crank case valve t1 is moved to the left to open the inlet 55 50
when the pressure oiling system of the vehicle is the forward end of the valve 5l gradually closes
employed as a source of operating power, is in the outlet 5t’. As will be readily understood this
communication with the passage 35. Such com varrangement will result in a smooth, gradual
munication is interrupted or constricted by a actuation of the brake mechanism.
55
valve 31 Which is lightly urged to a seat by the l
Referring to Fig. 5, a modii‘led auxiliary cylin
spring 38 with the brake pedal 39 inthe manner der structure is shown in which the travel of the
shown. The stern 40 of the valve 31 is» axially piston to the extreme right upon decrease in
slidable relative in its carriage“ received for pressure upon the forward end of the piston, as
60 reciprocation in a bore 42 of the casting 3l. It would take place upon line failure, closes a check
60
vis to be understood that the slot of the lost mo
valve to avoid loss of operating-huid. As illus;
tion linkage 52 is-so designed and its relation so trated the piston 59 carries a plunger t0 which
corelated'with reference to the strength of the extends beyond the forward end of thefpiston. A
spring 38 that the ?luid pressure built up behind ball valve 6i is located within the chamber t2
65 the piston 29 always opens the Valve 3l before
which communicates with the outlet t3 leading
the piston 29 has moved sumciently to take up to the Wheel brake cylinder. A spring stressed 65
the lost motion and thus avoid urging the link plunger 56 urges the ball valve 6i to a seat
5i to the left under full pressure. This carriage against the washer t5 which has a serrated edge
is reciprocated through the linkage connected to
the brake pedal consisting of a rod 43 having one
lend connected to the carriage di and the other
end slidably received within the tubular link till.
The link lill is enlarged at 45 to house the spring
d6 which acts against an annular shoulder ¿l1
75 upon'the rodllä to urge the rod ¿i3 to the position
t6 to permit the operating fluid to ñow past the
ball valve through the channels 6l into the cham 70
ber t2 and hence to the outlet 63. Upon line fail
ure the piston te will be urged to the extreme
right of the auxiliary cylinder by the pressure in
the master cylinder with the result that the ` `
plunger 60 forces the ball valve >to the dotted
75
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.anonce
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- ' line >position closingthe outlet. The valve ¢iv
NHaving described my invention what I claim as "
in this position will` be held to a. seat bythe . new and desire to-protect by Letters Patent is:
plunger M. After repair has been made it be
, comes necessary to manually force the ball valve
'to the position shown in Fig. 5.
'K From theu i'oregoing- description it should be
come apparent to those versed in th'e art that the
present invention consists of three major fea.-`
tures all of which may be advantageouslyvem
1. In ahydraulic brake system. a mastercylin
der, a _plurality of auxiliary cylinders having
communication with said master cylinder, out->
llets associated Vwith each of said auxiliary cylin
ders, pistons located in said master and auxil
iary cylinders. means acting upon said master
piston to direct uuid under pressure against one
v10 pioyed in combinations and arrangements other end of said auxiliary pistons to move Ãthe same 10
ln one direction to build up ñuid'pressure, valves '
than those shown. At the same time I have com
hined all?- these features i'nto a compact unitary , located in said outlets and means' associated with
"commercial structure, which may be inexpem," said pistons for actuating said valves to close said
sively constructed, which provides a factor of voutlet‘upon reduction of fluid pressure in the
15
safety not heretofore obtained, and which re-_ outlet end of said auxiliary cylinders.
suits in smooth. uniform actuation, at all times, -
2. In a hydraulic brake system. an auxiliary
cylinder, an outlet from said cylinder, a piston
of the brake mechanisml either manually or
located in said cylinder, means directing fluid
mechanically. It istol be understood that .I do ‘ under
against said piston to _move the
not intendv to limitl the invention to the exact same inpressure
a direction to build up pressure in said 20
details and combinations and arrangement of cylinder, a valve in said outlet, and means con
parts shown'but do intend to -include such obvi "nected to said piston for actuating` said valve to
i ous changes and modiñcations as will readily sug
close said outletv upon a reduction'of pressure
' gest themselves and fall within the scope of the .in said auxiliary cylinder. appended claims.
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ROBERT HOFSTEITER.
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