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Патент USA US2130871

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Sept. 20, 1938.
Filed Aug. 4, 1956
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
m. n.dut
We x?wlwww
maT W
Sept. 20, 19%
Filed Aug. 4, 1936
2 Sheets-$11001. 2
. 00/
. inventor‘:
Eugen e ‘N. Boehne ,
g?sufitovnev .
Patented am. 1938
man erupts-mo.
_Eug'cncW.Boehne, Yeadomvl'as asllgnortoGen
eyrgkmct? company,a°orpor_atlonotl~lew_
Application August 4', 1m,
No. 94,220
11 Claim’ (oi; Ira-zen
Myinvention relatestohighspeedreleasing de- ' similar to the vconventional method or tripping
‘vices, such as for example those applied to the
trippins mechanism 0! an electric circuit breaker
the breaker, that is in response to a fault condi
tion in the high tension power line 2, such as a
!or initiating high speed opening oi the breaker.
short circuit for example, the current transform
a The control 0! many other high speed operations,
such a'sthe quick automatic application 0! break-
er 5 causes energization of the relay], which in 5
'turn energizes the tripping or releasing means 3
ers'vto rotating equipment is also contemplated. I
for opening the breaker I.
I In high tension power systems operating at
The operation and arrangement of the relay
commercial frequencies, the duty of quickly iso- » system which comprises no part of the present
_ l0‘ lating- a fault, such as a short circuit for example, invention are specifically described and claimed lo
' falls upon the ‘circuit breakers controlling the
in my copending application for control devices
a?ected part of the system. It is, therefore,
and systems, Serial No. 94,219, ?led concurrently
essential that the'circuit breaker completely clear
herewith’ and assigned to the same assignee as ‘
the circuit within a few cycles at the most in
the ‘present invention.
15 order that the stabllityoi the system shall not i
The relay 4 comprises a permanent magnet 6 ll
be upset. The operation oi a high tension oil having soft iron pole pieces 1 and a coacting arm
circuit b
r for example to clear the circuit ature ! carried on a pivoted contact arm 9. The
may be .vided into several stages; namely, dis- operation of the armature 8~controls the contacts
engagement of the tripping or releasing mech- oi the relay switch indicated at S. The, magr
1"“ aniam in response to aiault'condition, initiation
of opening movement of ‘the breaker contact
netomotive force produced‘by the permanent 20
magnet 5 normally maintains the armature 8 in
structure in response to release thereof, and open-
the closed magnetic circuit position shown against
ing movement of the contacts coincident with
the arc-interrupting operation. The present 111as vention is primarily concerned" with the ?rst
the bias of spring iii. When this magnetomotive
force is overcome by the spring Hi, the relay
switch Sisclosed. For the purpose of controlling 25
stare 0? overationithe last two stages relating’
more specifically to the circuit breaker and its
Opera“!!! mechanism
A Principal owe“ of my invention’ therefore’ is
3° the 9mm” °I an impmved ugh speed trippmg
91' "lee-5mg device which is e?gctwe appreciably _
gtfggge- the tripping
time over that heretofore
release or the armature a, a solenoid or tripping
coil H is related to the magnetic circuit above
described so that energization of said coil from
the direct current control source I2 causes release 0
oi the armature 8 and closing of the relay switch
S. To‘ this end the current transformer 5 causes
response to predetermined current in the line
2 actuation of the solenoid i3 for closing the con
m'mven?on Wm be more fun?
forth m the trol circuit at It. The relay control circuit also
35 following descnpu‘m referring to the accompany‘ includes a current limiting series resistance ‘I5 35
‘"3 drawings’ and the matures °f novelty which and a capacitance it connected across the coil
Muted“ my invention Wm be pointed on‘? II when the contacts at it are closed. It will,
with particularity m the clam“ annexed to and. ‘therefore, be apparent from the above descrip o
oath: si‘ineci?o?glonll
'm e “5 9° t e m‘ “88'
a‘ pa‘
view oi a circuit breaker operating
system embodying the present invention, Fig. 2
isasimplii'ied circuit diagram of circuit constants
> involved in mg. 1; Fig. 3 is a view or the tripping
“ mmetlgener?ly shown mm;- 1; Fm 4158'”;
that predetermined energlzatiorl of the cur-‘
rent transformer 5 is effective to cause actuation
y and closing of the relay switch S.
or the rempping
> _ is
or releasing device
3, which
The it“
t “ed . th
I i 1 I 1 d
°°n 1'°.
“3!: "e
' a S‘; ‘1° ‘1 es a Perm"
-nent magne
, so ron poe pieces l8 and i9 45
‘Wave ?ew mwmung the structure 0; the vand an armature 20 of similar material. The
mm“ ‘how by m‘ 3, and F188_ 54;, mc1us1ve_ ~ armature 10 is earried at M by aklatch member
are mph, relating to the tripping magnet and » 22 pivoted at It and biased by a tension spring
circuit design factors. The circuit breaker oper-> 13 8-Way from the Ina-8118i- The latch 22 is Pro
so sting system illustrated by Fig-.1 comprises an
electric circuit breaker generally indicated at i
tor the high tension power circuit 2, the circuit
Vlded 8*? its Opposite 81191 With an abutment 24 50
arranged to engage andshoid 88 generally indie
cated, the operating rod i’ of ‘he circuit breaker
breaker being controlled by a tripping magneto, , in the closed circuit position. Normally, the
which is in turn controlled by a relay 4 and cut- magnetomotive force produced by, the permanent
as rent transiormer l. The operation in general is magnet i1 is eiiective to hold the armature 20 55
in the closed magnetic circuit position against
the bias of spring 23.
The tripping magnet 3, as in the case of relay 4
includes a tripping solenoid or coil '1'’ which is
energized from the control source
any suitable manner, such as by a mechanical
connection (not shown) operatively intercon
necting the breaker closing mechanism (also not
shown) and the latch 22.
immediately reset after the
that energizatlon 01' the trip coil
force at the armature
22 in a counterclockwise direction, thereby releas
ing the breaker operating rod l’ and permitting
opening of the breaker. This general type of
tripping device commonly known as the “?ux~
shifting” type, is shown for example by Tritle
Reissue Patent No. 15,441 01' August 29, 1922.
Energization of the trip coil T may be e?ected
20 when the breaker l is closed by closing the relay
can also be manually tripped if
Referring more particularly to the tripping de
vice 3, the permanent magnet portion I1 is prefr 10
erably composed
a precipitation hardened product, basically an
iron-nickel-alummum alloy, and speci?cally a
character described and claimed in
cuts 1,947,274 and 1,968,569. This magnetic
alloy has certain highly desirable qualities for
a permanent magnet material, such as for ex
switch S. The control circuit soestablished in
cludes the control source I2, relay switch 5,
auxiliary switch 25, which is controlled by the
breaker I and assumes similar circuit controlling
25 positions thereto, magnet trip coil T, auxiliary
switch 26 which is controlled by the latch 22 so
that it is closed in the holding position of the
latch and vice versa, and series resistance R
which is chosen, in
permanent magnet and concenerate it at that
portion of the magnetic circuit including the
soft iron armature 20. The flux produced by
the permanent magnet I‘! in the closed. magnetic
circuit including the armature 26 can be gener
_ ally designated by the ?ux arrows H’.
the tripping circuit, is con
nected across the trip coil T when the relay
switch S is closed, as diagrammatically illus_
trated by Fig’. 2.
Immediately upon release of the latch 22 in
The trip coil T, which includes a soft iron 30
laminated core 36 spaced by‘ non-magnetic mem
bers 31 from the pole pieces l8 and I 9, is posi~
tioned in shunt with respect to the aforesaid
magnetic circuit so that when the coil '1‘ is ener~
response to a tripping impulse, the latch con
trolled auxiliary switch 26 is opened, instantly
deenergizing the trip coil T. Also, the circuit
breaker in moving to open circuit position causes
opening of the auxiliary switch 25, which is also
in series with the relay switch 3. The latch con~
trolled auxiliary switch 26 operates considerably
fasterthan thebreaker controlled auxiliary switch
25, the latter serving more as a back-up switch
for insuring that the circuit of the trip coil is
open when the breaker is open.
The breaker also controls auxiliary switch
contacts at 29 included in the control circuit of
the resetting coil 30 of the relay 4.
included in the circuit or the resetting coil 30 are
so that the spring 23 is effective to pull the arma
ture away from the magnet.
In designing the magnetic path of the magnet 50
including the armature
33, energizing of the solenoid 3-2 and closing of
control circuit at 3|. Therefore, when the
cricuit at 29 is also closed the resetting coil 30
is energized from control source I 2, thereby at»
tracting the armature 8 to the holding position
Accordingly, in the holding
position the magnet must exert a pull in excess
of this, such as 500 pounds for example. Know
In‘ this position the relay switch 8 is
That is,
position the breaker rod I’ causes momentary
closing of the exciting coil‘clrcuit at 35 so that
the permanent magnet is recharged, so to speak,
' to its original magnetomotive force.
The resetting of the latch 22 when the circuit
breaker is to be reclosed can be accomplished in
time unt? the-optimum number of turns
graphically illustratedby Fig. 7.
saturation curve for the annature metal. Know
point for operationi on the _
ing the most eiiicient
saturation curve, the optimum area of the arma
ture for maximum force may readily be com
from 400 to 500 for example, the tripping cur
puted. Fig. 6 illustrates the relationship between 1 rent, although being a. small part or the ultimate
e?ective armature pull and the area of the trip coil current, nevertheless requires approxi
mately .003 second in order to bring the trip
The coil hav
Heretoiore tripping magnets of the character ping ?ui': up to its 'e?fectivé
in question utilized-an electromagnet energized
ing' eighty turns, however,
from a direct current source rather than a per
higher percentage or the ultimate trip coil cur
rent to produce tripping, is e?ective to cause trip
main, ii’ not the entire part, or the .rnagneticcir
ping oi the armature in less than .001 second.
manent magnet, hence soft ironc'omprised the
It will, therefore, be apparent that tripping speed
may be appreciably increased by properly relating 15
cult including the armature. - In accordance with
the present invention,v part of the magnetic cir
cuit. including the ineilective path or the trip
coil ?ux has comparativel high reluctance so
that the tripping‘?ux is concentrated at the arm
the factors above referred to.
ature where it is most eiiective.-' Since the divi
sion of tripping ?ux between its two paths .3.
and 39 (Fig. 3) depends on the reluctance of these
paths, it will be seen that a high reluctance path
through the permanent magnet and a compara
tively low reluctance path through the armature
20 are desirable. This is accomplished by using
the precipitation hardened magnetic alloy of the
character above described for the permanent
approximately eighty turns in
This is in decided contrast to prior practice
wherein it was assumed that greater tripping iiux
magnet since this alloy has a permeance of 2 as
compared with l for air and 1000 to 2000 (or iron.
This practically amounts to an open circuit for
that part of the trip coil ?ux 30.
Referring again to Fig.
would produce high speed tripping and wherein
all of the '
it was customary to include practically
the trip coil itself. 30
current limiting resistance in
A detailed analysis or the electrical conditions
involved in this high speed tripping is believed to
apparent that the ?ux indicated at ‘I! would be
weak as compared with the magnet
?ux at 38. This insures taster building up or the
bucking ?ux in the armature to a tripping value.
Also the soft iron laminated pole pieces I! and
is, which are particularly designed for low losses
form for the trip coil flux 38 a path permitting a
high rate or ?ux build-up.
_ '
The relationship between the tripping time and
the number of turns of the trip coil T is graphi
cally illustrated by Fig. 8 which clearly shows
that the tripping time for a given ultimate maxi 20
mum current increased if the number of turns
‘of the trip coil is decreased or increased with
this value being
respect to the optimum value, the, present in
The most marked increase in tripping speed
over prior devices oi this character is obtained,
coll T. Hereto
- however, by design or the trip
i'ore -a comparatively large number or ampere
turnssof the trip coil were considered not only
desirable but essential for effective tripping on
45 the assumption that a
most e?ective. For example, in a
commercial form of tripping device using a- direct
current electromagnet having a magneto-motive
torce'ot the degree in question, the trip coil is de
.50. signed for approximately 500 turns. I have‘
‘iound that by appreciably reducing the number
be unnecessary for a complete understanding of
the present invention, other than to pointout
that the inductance of the trip coil is reduced by
the reduction in the number of coils, and this
decreased inductance is connected in series with
an external non-inductive resistance for ?xing
the ultimate trip coil current.
It may be noted at this point that the latch
controlled auxiliary switch 26, which operates
practically instantly on tripping, limits the trip
coil current to approximately its tripping value,
that is about '70 per cent of the ultimate value
as indicated by Fig. 'l.
Although the above described tripping device
is several times faster than any other releasing"
or tripping device known to me, the tripping op
eration may be even further speeded up by con
necting'a capacitance C across the trip coil as
diagrammatically illustrated by Fig. 2. The ca
pacitance C is connected on the coil side of the
auxiliary switch 26 and on the'supply side of the
. of turns fa “predetermined amount and by in-' ‘i relay switch 8.
sorting‘ in the trip coil circuit externally of the
trip coil a compensating non-inductive resistance,
55 , the iiux required for tripping builds up in the
armature at a much higher rate. In other words,
the armature 20 is released by the spring 23 in
> much shorter time when the trip' coil is designed
in accordance
with my invention since the buck
60 ing ilux at 38 more quickly eaches a value coun
Accordingly, when the auxiliary
switch 26 is opened in accordance with a tripping
operation to interrupt the trip coll current, the
capacitance prevents a high inductive surge by
acting as a reservoir for the stored energy in the
coil T.
When the breaker is‘ .closed, the auxiliary 60
switch 26 is closed and the relay switch open so
that closing or the switch S not only completes
the trip coil and battery circuit but also com
f teracting the main magnet
Figs. '1 and 8 illustrate graphically ‘the improved pletes a shunt circuit including the capacitance
C and the trip coil. Since the capacitance re
operation when the trip coil is designed in ac
with my invention. The value H, or mains charged at the voltage of the source or
_, cordance
battery I! when the switch S is open, closing
number of ampere turns in terms of force re
quired to trip the armature is‘readily known 1. e. oi this switch causes a rapid discharge through
the diilerence between the magnet pull and the the trip coil, thereby increasing the rate of build
spring pull or approximately 200 pounds. With a ing up of the tripping current. That is, the
given source of direct current voltage and a fixed capacitance in shunt with the direct current
70 magnitude of ultimate trip coil current, I have source acts as a transient “booster” in speeding
found that by properly relating noninductive ex-. up energization of the trip coil.
The improved operation due to the capacitance
ternal resistance to a reduced number of turns
there results not only a new value of ultimate C can be understood irornthe following analysis.
current for tripping but also a great decrease in
‘When the new steady value'of the current is‘
I =1?”
where 1' is the internal resistance of the trip coil.‘
The voltage across the condenser will have
dropped from
Eto E(z')
and therefore the charge reduced from
crew to 94712“)
__ (2')CE
115 This difference in charge, or
gizing said tripping coil, the number of turns
should be comparatively large.
The eil’ect of the capacitance C in the present
instance is graphically illustrated by Fig. 9
wherein curve “a.” represents the circuit of Fig. 2
without capacitance and curve “b” represents
the circuit as shown. It will be noted that the
‘current reaches the tripping value on curve b in
of said tripping coil being related to the c0n~
stants of the circuit of the tripping coil to eifect
an optimum with respect to the rate of building
up of said tripping ?ux to the tripping value.
time than in the case of curve a.
It should also be noted that the optimum num
ber of turns of
the tripping coil is still further
40 out the capacitance.
It shall be understood, of course, that the above
described improvements in the trip coil circuit
can be applied generally to a tripping magnet,
regardless of whether the magnetomotive force is
by an electromagnet’or permanent mag_
the relay 4 is preferably similarly de
signed so that closing of the relay switch S takes
place practically instantly in response to a fault
It should be understood that my invention is
not limited to speci?c details of construction and
arrangement thereof herein illustrated, and that
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
Letters Patent in the United States is:
1. A high
pacitance by reason of said shunt relationship
also serving to absorb the stored energy 01' said
coil when said shunt. circuit is disconnected from
said source.
means. for controlling energization
75 .,
ping coil. I
resistance of appreciable value in the connec
trolled by said tripping armature movable be
tween two positions, an armature releasing coil
having a magnetic path related to the magnetic
circuit including said armature, a charging coil
tion between said source of electromotive force
and said capacitance, and a control switch
for said permanent magnet portion, and a switch
controlling the circuit of said charging coil ar
adapted to connect said capacitance in shunt
with said trip coil for discharging said capaci
tance throughI said coil substantially coincident
with energization of said coil by said electro
ranged to be momentarily closed in accordance motive force, said switch also establishing a cir
cuit whereby said capacitance subsequently ab
with the tripping operation of said armature.
'7. A high speed tripping magnet having a ‘sorbs the inductive energy of said coil.
magnetic circuit including a relatively movable 1 10. A high speed releasing magnet oi the flux
shiiting type comprising a source of magneto
armature normally held in closed magnetic cir
the magnetomotive force of said > motive force for establishing a holding flux, a
cuit position by
magnet, means biasing said armature towards tripping coil for establishing a releasing flux, a
open magnetic circuit position, an armature re
leasing coil having a magnetic path related to
the magnetic circuit of said magnet, and an
source of electromotive force for energizing said
tripping coil, a capacitance normally connected
in shunt with said source of electromotive force,
auxiliary switch controlled by said armature Ior a normally closed control switch and a non
inductive resistance of appreciable value being
instantly deenergizing said releasing coil in ac
included in said shunt connection, and a second
cordance with the release of said armature.
8. A high speed magnet having a magnetic normally open control switch for connecting said
circuit including a relatively movable armature source ofeiectromotive force in series with said
tripping coil and also said capacitance in shunt
normally held in closed magnetic circuit posi
tion by the magnetomotive force of said magnet, therewith for causing discharge of said capaci
tance through said tripping coil substantially
means biasing said armature towards open mag
netic circuit position, an armature releasing coil coincident with energization of said coil by said
having a magnetic path related to the magnetic source of electromotive force.
11. A high speed releasing magnet of the flux
circuit of said magnet, and a control circuit for
said coil including a source oi.’ direct current, a
shiiting type comprising a source of magneto
non~inductive resistance, a normally open con
trol switch, and a capacitance connected in shunt
with said source oi direct current and non
inductive resistance, said capacitance being so
related to the ohmic resistance oi‘ said tripping
motive force for establishing a holding flux, a
tripping coil for establishing a releasing flux. a
coil and said non-inductive resistance that clos
ing of said control switch causes an initial dis
charge from said condenser to said trip coil so
as to increase the rate of build-up of the tripping
?ux of said coil to the tripping value.
9. A high speed releasing magnet of the flux
shifting type comprising a source of magneto
motive ‘force for establishing a holding ?ux, a
tripping coil for establishing a releasing ?ux, a
source of electromotive force for energizing said
tripping coll, a capacitance arranged to be con
nected in shunt with both said source ‘of electro
motive torce and tripping coil, a non-inductive
source of electromotive force for energizing said
tripping coil, and a capacitance arranged to be
connected in the tripping coil circuit in shunt 35
with both said source of electromotive force and
tripping coil, the circuit constant ratio
being comparatively large where R is the non
inductance resistance oi’ that part of the circuit
including the capacitance and source of electro
motive iorce, and r is the non-inductive resist
ance of the tripping coil.
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