Патент USA US2130872код для вставки
Sept. 20, 1938. 2,130,872 E. w. BOEHNE MAGNETIC CONTROL DEVICE Original Filed Aug. 4, 1936 2 Sheets-Sheet l Imventor. EugéeneW.Boehne, His Attorney. Sept. 2@, 39318., E. w. BOEHNE 2,139,372 MAGNETIC'CONTROL DEVICE Original Filed Aug. 4, 1936 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Fig.4. Inventor": EugeneWEmehne, by H17% is Atto r‘rw ey. 2,130,372 Patented s... 2c, 1938 PATENT OFFICE UNITED STATES 2,130,872 MAGNETIC CONTROL DEVICE Eugene W. Boehne, Yeadon, Pa, assignor to Gen eral Electric Company, a corporation of New York Original application August 4, 1936, ‘Serial No. 94,219. Divided and this application January - 5,1938, Serial No. 183,496 5Claims. My invention relates to improvements in mag netic control devices and more particularly to control devices for large capacity, high voltage circuit breakers whereby to provide improved and 5 high speed control for opening the circuit break - , (Cl. 175-335) ers. This application is a division ‘of my applica tion, Serial No. 94,219, ?led August‘4, 1936 for Control devices and systems. invention; Fig. 2 is a side elevation partly in cross-section‘of the control device shown in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a top plan view of the embodiment of my invention shown in Figs. 1 and 2; and Fig. 4 - illustrates diagrammatically an application of my 5 invention in a circuit breaker control system. In theillustrated embodiment of my inven tion, I have shown a magnetic device compris ing an armature it] which has the optimum area _ Large capacity, high voltagecircuit breakers - for maximum attractive force and which, upon 10 for transmission lines such as the 287.5 kv. lines being moved to the attracted position, is main extending from Boulder Dammust open quickly, ' tained therein against the bias of suitable means ‘ particularly under faulty line conditions. High such as springs I l by a magnetic structure form ing a main ?ux path and comprising a magnetic speed circuit breakersfor this kind of service re 15 quire such large forces for opening and closing element I2, polar extensions i3, and pole pieces l5 M. This magnetic structure is so designed as - that a separate operating mechanism for each to produce, at the armature, a ?ux which pro pole of the circuit breaker is practically necese sary, particularly from the standpoint of shocks duces the maximum attractive force for the opti and jars in operation. Naturally the cost of mum armature area. while I may use an elec tromagnetic structure with a suitable energizing 2o 20 building high operating speed into circuit break ers is considerable. This high speed operation winding on the element I2, I have chosen, in the 10 of the circuit breaker would of course be sacri ?ced by the slow operation of a single trip coil operating on a common trip lever. For hiih 25 speed operation, a flux opposition type of tr’p ping coll mechanism such as is disclosed in my application, Serial No. 94,220 ?led August 4, 1936, for High speed permanent magnet trip for circuit breaker may be used for each pole “of the 30 circuit breaker. Such single pole tripping mech anisms require a tripping current of the order of 40 amperes D. C. Thus for a three-phase circuit the .trip current would be about 120 amperes. illustrated embodiment of my invention, to show this element as a permanent magnet, since the use of such avoids the losses in energy and dim culties due to heating attendant upon a device 25 continuously energized by electric current. The device is, therefore, particularly adapted to lo cations where battery potential is at a premium In order to combine maximum coercive force with minimum space requirements, the magnetic 30 element l2 may be an aluminum-nickel-cobalt” iron alloy, such as disclosed, for example, in United States Letters Patent No. 1,968,569, issued Existing fault responsive protective relays and. July 31, 1934, on an application ?led by W. E. . 35 particularly high speed relays are not built to ' Ruder. For control purposes, the armature i8 is suit handle such large currents. Even if they could be so built on an economical basis, it would probably be at a sacri?ce in their speed and pro ably mounted, as, for example, on a pivoted yoke l5 which carries a contact Hi. This contact co opere .es with a suitably mounted‘ and adjustably high speed, large current capacity, magnetic con positioned contact l'l._ In the particular arrange- 40 ment illustrated by way of example, the contacts trol device which can be readily controlled by any high speed fault responsive relay or other wise to e?ect the tripping of a high speed circuit ture I0 from the attracted position under the bias of the compression springs ll, although it will be obvious that this movement of the arma- 45 ' tective features. 40 35 7 In accordance with my invention, I provide a 45 breaker in a time commensurate with the circuit breaker opening time. This and other objects of my invention will appear in more detail here inafter. ' - My invention will be better understood from 50 the following description when considered in con nection with the accompanying two sheets of drawings, and its scope will be pointed out in the appended claims. In the accompanying drawings, Fig. 1 is a 55 front elevationoi a control device embodying my I6 and ii engage upon movement of the arma ture could just as well effect a contact separa tion, if desired. In order to obtain high speed of operation, the contact gap may be relatively small, for example, of the order of one thirty second of an inch and the spring bias large. 50 This latter feature naturally requires a relatively large magnetic force to hold the armature in the attracted position, as well as a greater force to move it to the attracted position. In order to actuate the armature for contact 55 2 . controlling movements thereof, I provide means for opposing the ?ux of the magnetic structure in the armature su?iciently to e?'ect the release thereof and for increasing the ?ux in the arma ture when in the unattracted position sumciently to return the armature to the attracted position. , As shown, the flux changing means includes an auxiliary or shunt ?ux path, such as a magnetic member [8, which is arranged to be energized by one or more windings 19 and 20. If the inner or releasing winding l9 be energized by a uni directional current in such a direction that the ends of the shunt magnetic member I 8 are po larized oppositely to the permanent magnet .I2, 15 then the ?ux of the magnet l2 in the armature in will be so opposed as to effect the release and movement, of’ the armature to the unattracted position under the bias of the springs II. If now the inner winding l9 or another winding, 20 such, for example, as the outer winding 20, be by the magnet l2 to move the armature to the at ' tracted position against the bias ‘of the springs II. or course, in the attracted position the ad 30 ditional flux is not required because of the air gap reduction. Consequently, the reset winding 20’ need not remain energized. In order to ex pedite ?ux changes in the armature l0 and the pole pieces I 4. which the armature engages so as 35 to obtain the quickest response, these parts are, as shown more clearly in Fig.‘ 1, preferably lam inated, the magnetic path is made as short as possible, and the armature contact area is the optimum. vTo further expedite the speed of op supporting plate 26 secured to the lower pole piece l3. Resistances 21 may be mounted on the lower 5 bracket 23. As shown, the adjustably positioned ?xed contact I‘! is mounted on but insulated from the upper pole piece l3. A transverse member 30',.which is secured to the armature yoke i5 and bears against the outer ends of the springs ll, serves as a support forthe movable contact I6, which is suitably insulated. The‘ movable con tact l6 is'connected through a ?exible lead 28 to a stationary terminal 29, also mounted on but insulated from the upper pole piece I 3. The 15 springs I I arecarried on an adjustably positioned plate member 30 which is supported by the upper bracket 22. Referring now to Fig. 4, which diagrammatically energized by a unidirectional current in such a. direction that the ends of the shunt magnetic .member i8 are polarized similarly to the perma ' nent magnet [2, then enough ?ux will be added to that already passed through the armature I 0 lower brackets 22 and 23, respectively, serve. as a means for mounting the device on a base“. The armature pivot 25 may be mounted on a ' illustrates an em ‘ ent of my invention as ap plied to a circuit breaker control scheme, each of 20 the conductors 32 of a polyphase circuit is pro vided with a. single pole circuit breaker 33 which may have its own independent closing mechanism. So far as my invention is concerned, the type of circuit breaker is immaterial, but in general, it will be a high speed circuit breaker provided with some means, such as the latch 34, for holding it closed against an opening bias and a trip coil 35 for releasing the latch under predetermined circuit conditions or otherwise. However, for purposes of illustration, I have shown in sche matic form a tripping magnet such as is vdisclosed in my aforesaid application‘, Serial No'. 94,220. This tripping magnet comprises an armature 50 35 pivotally secured to the latch 34, a permanent magnet 5|, laminated pole pieces 52 against which eration, the releasing winding i 9 is designed with 7 the armature seats in the attracted position, and 40 an optimum number of turns, such that the ?ux a shunt ?ux establishing path such as a core, not required to trip the armature can be established ' shown, on which the trip coil 35 is mounted. A supplementary trip coil ‘35', similar to the trip in the fastest possible time for the voltage avail able. Because of the relatively few turns required coil 35, may also be provided on the shunt ?ux to satisfy this condition, ‘the resistance of the path. It will be apparent that the features of 45 releasing winding I8 is correspondingly low and magnet construction are exactly the same as those the current in the winding circuit must be limited of my magnetically controlled device heretofore 4.5 by suitable means such as an external resistance described. -Since the condition of optimum turns in the trip coils 35 and 35' render these windings 21 connected in series with the winding. It will be apparent from the con?guration of the of relatively low resistance, suitable current lim iting means such as resistances 53 and 53', re 50 magnetic structure that when the coil [9 is en ergized, it produces a ?ux flow, roughly in the spectively,‘ may be included in series with these form of a ?gure 8. Part of this .?ux is in the same direction as the ?ux in the permanent mag net I2 and is therefore additive. and part opposes the flux in the armature I 0, thereby causing the armature to be released under the action of the coils. Each circuit breaker may be provided with auxiliary'switching means, such as contacts 33. 36', 31 and 31', which are closed when the circuit .. breaker is "closedand open when the circuit breaker is open, and contacts 38 and 38' which biasing springs II. The paths and magnitudes ' are open when the circuit breaker is closed, and of all ?uxes can be calculated separately, and the net ?ux in any path follows the simple laws of 60 superposition or algebraic addition. In the device under consideration, the' major part of .the ?ux of the winding 19 ?ows in the short low-reluctance laminated circuit. of the armature l0, instead of in the longer massive high-reluctance circuit of 65 the permanent magnet I 2. The use of a mag— netic alloy, such ‘as heretofore mentioned, is therefore'desirable, since its reluctance is a great many times that of the steel core of an equivalent electromagnet. This allows a higher percentage 70 of the trip coil ?ux to ?ow in the armature cir cuit hence producing faster ?ux neutralization and faster tripping. As illustrated, the foregoing magnetic structure is assembled in a compact form and held together 75 by a suitable means, such as a bolt 2|. Upper and vice versa. For reasons which will appear herein after, it is necessary that, none of the contacts as closes until after the contacts as and :1 of the same circuit breaker are open. - ' For energizing all of the trip coils 35 simultane 60 ously so as to trip all circuitibreakers at the same time, the trip coils 35 may be connected in paral lel to one side of the control bus; positive in the drawings, through'the respective circuit breaker auxiliary contacts 36 and to the other side, nega tive in the drawings, of the control bus through the contacts i8 and I‘! of a control device'like that shown in Figs. 1, 2, and‘3. For controlling this device in response to predetermined circuit ’ conditions or otherwise, the releasing winding I! may be connected in a-circuit from one side of the control bus through all the circuit breaker aux iliary switch, contacts 31 in series, the contacts _ 49 of a protective relay II or the contacts 42 of a 75 2,130,873 3", V ' manually or otherwise operated switch 43, and " effect the energization of the auxiliary relay 48 1 _ the resistance 21, to the other or negative side and thereby‘ the closing of its contacts 41. As of the control bus. Obviously, the protective relay ' soon as.these contacts are closed, the circuit of - 41 may be of any suitable type for the purpose atv hand, and any number of protective relays may be employed with their contacts in parallel or the reset winding 20 is completed, whereby to increase the amount of ?ux in the armature ll otherwise depending-upon the particular scheme of protection. However, for simplicity, there is. shown only one protective relay of the simple su?iciently to move the armature to the attracted position andopen the contacts.“ and I1. As 10 over-current type energized from a current trans— ’ former 44 in one of the phase conductors 32. The soon as these contacts are open, the circuit of the auxiliary relay 45 is opened, and this relay opens its contacts 41', whereby to tie-energize the circuit of the reset winding 20. The armature resistance‘? is included inorder to reduce the J0, having been moved to the ,attracted position, cuit of the releasing winding 19, whereby to has tablished by the permanent magnet. l2 and every thing is in position ready for reclosing the circuit 15 breaker to e?ect a subsequent tripping operation current in and also the time constant of the cir- » remains in this position by virtue of the ?ux es 15 ten the build-up of‘ flux by this winding,v and thereby increase the speed of action of the device. In order further to accelerate the build-up of a large ?ux in the releasing winding I9 so as to speed the action of the device, there may be in cluded across the control source ‘a capacitance 45, which is normally charged and so connected as to discharge into the winding i9 upon the as desired. 7 . r The supplementary trip coil 35' may be pro vided when it is desired to open every circuit breaker in case one circuit breaker opens acci 20 dentally for any reason whatsoever, such, for closing of the contacts 40 of the protective relay example, as mechanical failure, latch failure, and the like. Thus, the circuits of the supplementary or the contacts 42 of the trip switch 43. In this _ trip coils 35' may be so arranged as to eiiect the way, the condenser 45 acts as a supplemental , energization of these trip coils whenever one cir 25 energy reservoir for the trip coil IS in addition cuitbreaker opens. For this purpose, when one to the current which flows in the winding from circuit breaker opens, itmay complete through one side of the bus to the other- For the same its' auxiliary switch contacts 38' and the auxiliary purpose, there may be connected in like manner switch contacts 31' of the other circuit breake , 30 30 across the trip coils 35 and the contacts l6 and I1 ' the circuit of an auxiliary control relay 55. As shown, this relay 55, through its circuit closing oi the control device a .capacitance 54 which, as contacts 55, completes the circuits of all the trip shown, is connected between the end of the re coils 35' in parallel through the current limiting sistance 53 nearer the trip coils 35 and the pos itive control bus. 35 - resistance 53', whereby to trip all closed circuit - The arrangement is‘ such that, upon the open ing of all the circuit‘breakers, the control device is reset; that is, its armature I0 is restored to the attracted position with the contacts l6 and i‘! open. For this purpose, there is provided an ' breakers. While I have shown and described my inven tion in considerable detail, I do not desire to be limited to the exact arrangement shown, but seek to cover in the appended claims all’ those auxiliary relay 46, whose contacts 41 control the circuit of the reset winding 20. The circuit of the auxiliary relay winding is through the circuit modi?cations that fall within the true spirit and - breaker auxiliary contacts 38 in series so that Letters Patent oi the United States is: this- relay can not be energized until all the circuit 1. A magnetic device comprising an armature, ' a magnetic structure for maintaining said arma ture in the attracted- position after it is moved to said position, means biasing said armature for movement vfrom said position, a shunt ?ux path 45 breakers are fully tripped and opened. This relay 45 is shown in Figs. 1 and 2 as of the hinged ar mature type and may be mounted on the base 24 ‘in any suitable manner. A current limiting resistance 48 may be included in series with the winding of this relay depending ‘upon the voltage 50 rating of its windings and the voltage of the con trol source. ‘ - Assuming the parts positioned as shown in Fig. 4 and that a fault on the circuit 32 effects the U! (II operation of the protective relay 4| or that the switch 43 is operated to close its contacts, then the circuit of the tripping winding i9 will be > completed through either the contacts 46 or 4?. This winding quickly builds up its opposing ?ux 60 by virture of the small time constant of the cir cuit oi the winding and the discharge of the charged capacitance 45 whereby to release the armature 10 so as to close the contacts l6 and I1. As soon as these close, all of the trip coils 35 65 are immediately connected in parallel across the control buses through the respective circuit breaker auxiliary contacts 39 and the condenser 54 discharged into the trip coils whereby to trip the circuit breakers very quickly. As soon as 70 the circuit breakers have all opened, t.’ e aux iliary switch contacts 36 will be opened to inter~ rupt the trip coil circuits and the auxiliary switch contacts 38 will be closed to complete the circuit of the auxiliary relay 46 through the closed con; 75 tacts l6 and ll of my control device, whereby to scope of my invention. What I claim as new and desire to secure by 4 for said armature, means for establishing a ?ux in said path in a direction to decrease the ?ux in said armature whereby to effect a release of the armature,>and means for establishing a ?ux in said path in a' direction to increase the ?ux in said armature whereby to return the, armature to_ the attracted position. 55 2. A magnetic device comprising an armature, a permanent magnet for maintaining said arma ture in the attracted position after it is moved to said position, means biasing said armature for movement from said posit-ion, a shunt ?ux path 60 establishing an additional magnetic circuit for said varmature, electromagnetic means for estab lishing a ?ux in said circuit in a direction to oppose and decrease the armature ?ux from said permanent magnet whereby to effect the release 65 of the armature and electromagnetic means for establishing a ?ux in said circuit in a direction to add to the armature ?ux whereby to return the armature to the attracted position. 3. A magnetic device comprising an armature, 70 a magnetic structure including a main ?ux path for maintaining said armature in the attracted position, means tending to move said armature from said position, an auxiliary ?ux path for said armature, means for establishing a ?uxin said 75 4 2, 180,872 auxiliary ?ux path whereby to effect a release of said armature, and means for establishing a ?nk in one-oi said paths in a direction to in crease the ?ux in said armature su?iciently to return the armature to the attracted position. 4. A magnetic device comprising an armature, "a magnetic structure including two ?ux paths common to said armature for controlling the positioning thereof, means for establishing a ?ux 5. A magnetic device comprising an armature, a magnetic structure including two ?ux paths common to said armature for controlling the positioning thereof, means for establishing a ?ux in one of said. paths to hold the armature in the attracted position, means tending to move the armature from the attracted position," means for establishing a ‘?ux in another of said paths in a direction to decrease the ?ux in said armature 10 in one of said paths to hold the armature in the ' whereby to effect a release of the armature, and 10 attracted position, means tending to move the means for establishing a ?ux in said other path armature from the attracted position, means for for increasing the ?ux in said armature'sui?- ' establishing a ?ux in another of said paths in a ciently to return the armature to the attracted direction to decrease the flux in said armature position. _ ' 15 whereby to effect a release of the armature, and EUGENE W. BOEHNE. ‘ 15 means for establishing a'?ux in one of-said paths whereby to return the armature to the attracted position.