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Патент USA US2130902

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sept. 2o, 1938. ’
H. A. ROSE
2,130,902
CONTROL SYSTEM
,
' Filed oct. 25, 1935
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WITNESSES:
gén!
_ß ,tm/@ä
INVENTOR
Herbert A. Rose,
SYM/am
ATTORNEY
sept. 2o, 1938.
H~ A_ ROSE
»
'2,130,902
CONTROL SYSTEM
Filed Oct. 23, 1935
>
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
WITNESSES:
INVENTOR
V ¿s
J, ,f/Zfßß
f77. 2.
Herbert f4. Rose.
MMM»
ATTORNEY
Sept. 20, 1938.
H. A. ROSE
2,130,902
CONTROL SYSTEM
'
Filed Oct. 23, 1935
3 Sheets-Sheet 5
Fig. 3.
/ìnode Valfage.
„ Maximum D.,C.
Zero D. C.
Va/Íaíe.
e-alive 7î‘ansformer
Vol?aíe.
z‘al Current.
WITNESSES:
q/ÄW
INVENTOR
u
`
~
`
l
`
Herbert ?LRose.
WMM/¿Www
'
ATTORNEY
2,130,902’
Patented Sept. 20, 1938
i
GFF I C E"
2,130,9021’1
CONTROL SYSTEM"`
Herbert' ïA. '1- Rose, Pittsburgh? Pai; ` yassigner '-'to'
Westinghouse :Electrlcï' & ManufaeturingUCom-if r
panyy - East. Pittsburgh, Pai; a „corporation «of
Pennsylvania >
_
` Appli-cation octoberza;1935;!semina-46,3322;
"
>
'
11 Claim-s»
(Claris-amic
¿My , inventionv relates` Ito" a 'vapor-electric','con-4 ing' transformer, *which neutralizes` substantially i
verter 'and particularly', to 'a 'control '.system'for‘ “ the` 'resistance*dropI` th‘rough"`the transformer '
Winding 'at-the' 'begi-xíriin’gpf` current 'flow' to the
- a 'converter having makeealive' type' excitation."
i„
In the applicationv of 'vapor-electric convertersî'
makeealive' 'electrodes'.
För"simpli'city"of 'illustration' I ‘have’ shown 'a 5 f
5""'it >is desirable to 'provide vmeans 'for controlling ,
the outputy voltage and current conditions ofthe ' transformer iproducin‘g' 'substantially "sine‘ ' wave
of'potential: however, it' is' obvious that asv
converter. In the make-alive type converter; 'the'v forms
output 'voltage'is _controlled'by 'determining the ' I desirerapidly‘îrising land decaying ‘current im
instant of application of make-alive potential Hto' pulses,"my transfoïmers'may 'be'designed to pro"
10" the ,make-alive electrodes' ' associated' '.withï'th'e d'uce'otliér than sine' waveforms such` as peaked 10"“
Wave" forms;
Other4 objects" and 'advantages'of rnyinvention' '
'In' 'the converter ' 'according to' my invention,v l
each> of the individual valves'of the 'converteräis " will be" apparent~ from‘ithe' following' ldetailed ' de"-'
i provided Withja suitable make-alive electrode, scriptiònftaken` in" ’conjunction'with the 'accom'-'
individualv Valves of the converter.
l5 that is,- anrelectroder of high ‘resistance or'semi'-v
panyingîdrawingsfin which: ‘
15-'~
Figure'l is'a 'schematic‘illustration'of a 'con'-L
tactwith the cathode of 'a valve'and adaptedg". version 'system 'embodying my invention; v
Fi'gîî i‘s'a diagramina'tie1 illustration of the cur
on >passage' 'of suitable` current' therethrough; to` '
conducting'material; placed in permanent'con‘; '
create aeath'ode spotin the. valve.' Afsuitable
20' 'Y actuating transformer I isprovided forv supplying .
mak -alive potential >to the >make-alive'electrodes "
rent' and voltage'values'in the converter and the
attènd'ant'eontrol equipment'ç’and"
20 '
Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic;illustration’of Va fur
th'er methodI of 'controlling the instant'of ignition
heîcurrentlflow _from'the actuating trans-' of
the' individual Avalves‘of` a converter;
the _infakeí‘alivev electrodes. is preferably."
i
>d'"Ioy'în‘ieans"of'suitalole'auxiliary'fvalves 1'
253 íconnected lin series ' with thev .terminals of 'the' ac-`
The illustrative"‘embodiment of my_invention
as"discl0sed"in“Fig;;"1 ‘comprises 'an alternating- 25- '
tuating "transformer andthe makefalive 'e1ec-" current'eircuit I of'anysuitablefphase arrange'
trodes.
vwhen uuhzing make-ahve type excitation,f_it'`
which maybe the supply circuit'or‘the load cir
isrdesirable to reduce, as f_ar as_possible,4 the ' cuit; ’as'co'nditions may' require.' ' Alternating and
30"»1heating effects of the make-'alive 'current' in "the
make-alive electrodes. Accordingly, I have pro'
vide'd means' for adjusting' the phase relation‘of
direct‘ecurrent circuitsîI and '2 'are `connected by,30'
means of‘a "suitableitransformer,- herein 4illus
trated’as a"double"three=phase"transformer 3,
both” the actuating transformer "and la 'control '. and‘th'e flo’w'iof 'current' 'between'thev circuits I
potential for the' auxiliary` vcontrolvalv’es‘, so` that and 2 i‘s regulated' by'ïa ~converter 4 having make
35`ïfcurrent isperrnittedto flow to the make-alive . alive' type control’ for'tlie valves 510i' the' con- 35 ‘
electrodes> only: forV the necessaryinterval to' . verter' 4f“
create' vthe desired .cathode spots.,A I have found " The 'control 'comprises `'a `make-alive electrode
that intheutilization of make-alive electrodes, it ` I0' of semieconducting. or high' 'resistance material`
is vdesirable to have'the make-alive current rise` to in contact With'the‘ cathode`6 "of each valve 5.
¿Oia 4"suitable _value in. a' short> interval of time; in' Eachpff. the make-alive .electrodes ,I0 'of a conorder toA lprecisely control the instant of' forma-' verter .4 ‘is..~sup.p1ied-„With current by a «suitable
tion vof the cathode spot. In the preferred emà actuating'- transformer , v4I 5l #which «is l connected `to
bodîírnent of my invention the control systemííis anysuitableso'urce of actuating-current, such as
_Uso arranged that >a substantial portion'of'i'the'r the:«alternatingicurrent»circuit~ I, `before' re»
45i‘actuat`i`ng _transformer voltage is suddenly' applied ‘
to `the'fmake-aliv'e electrode and the phase'rela’
ierredë'tm
'
«i04 '
45‘
A ¿suit-able'` 'phase-vv regulating device > I 6, »prefer-
tiong'of 'the voltage is preferably so'chosen'as' toA ' ably ofithe'fin‘ducti‘onvregulatorxtype;l having'a ;
minimize'the duration of'the current impulseto '“ stationary windingid 1? and a rotatableforadjust
the' electrode. , Ink general it is desirable'to ~ter‘-’
ablelwinding» I 851s ' connected fbetween'theï sourcei '50. A
50""îninat’e" -currenti‘lvofvv‘to the make-alive electrodes“ I oir-actuating potential and theactuatingtrans
prior Ato termination of> the conducting period in -'
former.: I57,-ìsof~th'at»,the phasefrelationf-of the -ac
the main- valve. ' Accordingly', I have provided my tuating~~transformer
I5 may-»be-adjuste'd» at will;
actuating transformer'with suitable means, 'such'~ ‘
Aas condensate, connected' 'in ,parallelI withîthe'" withïrespecttoy lthephas'e relation 'of the source
55* phase tvindings'of the'secondary'of theV actua/ir#K -Y of‘actuating potential Ifor the-phase relation -of 55
2
2,130,902
the potentials applied to the Valves 5 of the
converter 4.
While many suitable transformer connections
may be utilized for the actuating transformer I5,
I prefer to utilize a connection which provides at
least as many phases as there are operating
phases in the main transformer 3.
For purposes ofiillustration 'Ihave shown the
main transformerf»v connected for- do'ublle"y three
10 phase operation and I have shown the actuating
simultaneous adjustment may be secured by
providing a common connection 30 for the rotors
of the phase adjusting mechanisms of the actuat
ing transformer I5 and of the control transformer
25, or as indicated by the broken line connections
35, the control transformer 25 may be connected
in parallel with the actuating transformer I5 so
that the phase relation of both may be simultane
ously f adjusted by the induction regulator de
vic-e
I6.
v '
transformer I5 as six-phase diametrical as the'. 1”- :It is desirable to have the actuating current
most convenient and economical connection for forthe. make-alive electrodes l0 rise above the
securing the benefits of my invention.
"
‘
" ‘
10
critical current, that is, the current necessary
It is desirable to have the»malçeealiverelec-.g `to lcreate .thecathode spot, in a relatively short
15 trodes I0 carry current for relatively short time Y . time interval;
However, the flow of current 15
intervals, usually considerably shorter than thev throughthe impedance of the secondary wind
conducting intervals of the associated main Valve ings of the actuating transformer I5 tends to
5. Several features of myïinvention- areco-_v` reduce the terminal voltage of the transformer
ordinated to secure this desired-characteristic, I5, so that the current to the make-alive elec
20 first the cathodes 6 of the main valves 'í5ï`are1con- - ‘trodesf'lll builds up relatively slowly. In order
nected to the neutral point of the Iactuating transf,
tow counteract this reactance characteristic of the
actuating` Vtransformer I5, I have provided
nection I9 so- that the severalfphasefwindings of l capacitorsß'l connected in parallel with the phase '
theactuating transformer' I5 act substantially" windings of the actuating transformer I5 which
independently of , each other;V second, suitable substantially neutralizes the‘reactance effect of 25
auxiliary valves ZU'areprovided toprevent. in
the'windings and 'permits the actuating current
Verse current ‘flow >in the makefalive electrodes to rise rapidly.V ForY ease in tracing the connec
Iii> v'ar_rd`ñ1î1ally, the auxiliary vvalves’ZIlY are pro' tions the'fphaselterminals and their associated
former ‘ I5 by a ' relatively lowfimpedance ' con-Iy
30
vided with" control electrodesfsuch‘ as ` grids y2|` f equipment have-been lettered a to f.
_to further limit the conducting interval to, a
lThe control characteristics of my invention
the
predeterminedv
actuating transformer
portion of 'the
I5.positive
AI, have'impulse
therefore
of ' may`v best be understood with reference to the
diagrammatic current and voltage illustrations of
connected between each ofthe phase terminals of v FigLÍZ, 'the curve 40 of which shows the potentials
the actuating' transformer I5 and the make-alive appliedto the valves 5 of the converter 4. The
-electrode I El actuated thereby, a suitable auxiliaryy
valve current'for each valve of the converter is 35
valve 2B, preferably of lthe'h'ot-catho‘de grid-con
indicated' at 4|,and the commutation interval
trolled typefEachefthe lcathooles :22 of the aux . between the‘valves is indicated at 42. In order
iliary valves ' 2l) ' is'l provided' with an , individual
tofs’ecu're' _the commutation at the desired in
heating`transforrner,23,v Vall'o'f- which may, if ' de-r , stant,"it'__is necessary to produce a make-alive cur
40
sired, be combined .ina single'` transformerl 24, I rent43 risingab'ove the critical current 44 at the
as indicated in the 'iuustrauon
`
e
Y
' instant 'commutation is desired.
vThe control grids 22|l of the auxiliary valves 20
In order to se
cure~ this the phase ofthe potentials 45`of the
areproîvided vwith control potential from :aY lsuit . actuating" transformer I5 >is shifted to the de
ablevf’control. transformer~ 25 ‘which lisl preferably" sir_edg'po'i'ntQ`v v.Usually the make-alive current 43
45
`_supplied with potential from'thesa'me source >as
"the actuating.'V ', transformen , I5. i
The
isgrefol'uiredl to flowonly for a sufficient interval
to,A create thev desired cathodel spot. Consequently,
control c
45 Y,
shift
transformer
for vadjusting'.
'25 Ais Àprovided
_the phase'
with relation
_suitablerphase-l
_of the', the phase relation of the control transformer 25
is. adjustedso that after the current 4-3 starts
tono-w, only a relatively short conducting period
potential appliedl tofthegridslZI of the auxiliary
tubes 210 vwith res'pectÍto' the outputV potential of ` will- result before the reversal of the terminal
the actuating " transformer" I5. While
_ any suit-' potential'of the actuating transformer I5. The 50
able phase-shiftingúdevice may be used, I prefer . actual length of the conducting period is de
to use an inductionphaseéshifterl _having aV sta- " termined by the control transformer 25' which
tionary- winding and a rotatable secondary wind-> v has its phase relation shifted with respect to the
ingfffIf desired, the rotatablefwi'nd'ing and the, phasevoltages 45 ofthe actuating transformer
"transformer windings may be combined in'af I5, so thatthe control potential 4‘I'will rise above
single device25 as shown, or if desired, thetrans' the _critical'potentialllß of the control or auxil
former 25’and the phase-.shifting devices` may be » iaryßvalves 20Áat the~de`sired time instant.
separate, as indicated ' for' the actuating `trans-` '_
.Obviously„the timeY of commutation, and con
55,.
60,. former' circuits.
'
"
l
"
"
"
"
"
55
sequently, the terminal voltage of the converter
' The phase relation >of the"controltransforme'n 4,_'Ama'ybjbe lvaried at will by shifting the time of
25‘is’ preferably"adjustable‘with relation to thel application of’theî'make-alive vcurrent 4 to the
, phase'of the actuating tran'sïforr'ner- '15," in order makeèalive electrodes, which may be done by
to control the‘intervalsïof -currentv conduction]v shiftinggthe phase relation of Veither the actuating
Ífrom the ‘actuating transformer I5'tou the make- transformer I5 or thecontrol transformer 25.
"alive electrodes IIJ, it is desirable also tol'have '
I'preferfto yadjust the control transformer 25
the> phase relations ofv .the- .actuating ’transformer to determine the time duration of ñow of make
I5 andthe control transformer~25 adjustable by alive current ,43, and to adjust the terminal volt
a common> means ,30, so that after the durationk - ageof
î y dthe> converter 4 byY simultaneous adjust
of the` conducting interval has. been ,i established, c ment of the _phaseY relation of both the control
the phasev -relation of thez entire» control- system and actuating transformers I5 and~25.
maybe
of the potentials
shifted at supplied
will, Withtorespectr
the'rmain
tothe
valves
phase5_ f
lAi'.Y very
low ycurrents on the converter 4, ar
e
conditionof instability'may occur Vso that the
ofthe vconverter ._4, _inzcorder'tocontrol the output ¿ loadcurrentïof the converterrmay cease to flow
termbase-„gri.Current .0f the. @weer ,I4-n This;
i prior vothe beginning of now of current in the 75_ ,
2,180,902
succeeding valve, tha-tis, vbefore Ythe commutation
period normally would occur.v This would result
in .termination of rcurrent flow and-.inactivity vof
the converter. To _prevent suchan occurrence
transformer potentials.
'at-lightload, I'may adjust the'phase relation of
»the 'actuating transformer `I5 so that positive po
tential'can be appliedto the make-alive electrode
.1.0 throughoutthe conducting period ofthe con
verter valve 5 'and yat >the `same -time shift the
I10 phase .relation of thexcontrol transformer :25
`to control »the duration of current flow,.so `that
thecurrent 43 flows ‘throughfthe make-alive felec'
`trode AIl), throughout,.substantiallygthe entire
conducting period of the >‘make-.alive val-ve 5.
lAs pointed lout above thev output voltageof the
converter a4 ¿may be varied either by shiftingfthe
`phase relation of the »actuating transformer 'l5
and the‘controljtrans‘former, V25 or by shifting the
phase relation of the control transformer 25
alone.
as
..
r1~
:
Y
_
InFig. 3 I have shown a ,particular application
which is sometimes desirable for rapid variation
'of the terminal voltage of the converter il.` This
'figure shows fonly a single commuting point for
the anode ‘potential 40 and the actuating trans
former l5 is adjusted bythe phase shifter I6 so
that lthe make-alive -transformer voltage 45 can
lsupply make-alive rcurrent from'the zero delay
fp'oint to the maximum delay point, that'is, the
lvariation ‘from maximum direct current voltage
to zero direct current voltage, as shown on the
diagram, the actual duration of flow of 'make
alive'current or crystal current is then controlled
»by-phase shifter 25- and can beany value yfrom
that shown yby curve 43 to that shown by ‘curve
43'. When vzero directcurrent voltage is re
a polyphase alternating-current circuit, a direct
current circuit, a converter having a plurality. of
make-alive type valves for transferring energy
betweensaid circuits, a make-alive electrode for
each of said valves, a source of actuating poten
tial, an actuating transformer for supplying cur
rent from said source to said electrodes, control i@
valves connected in circuit with said make-alive
electrodes and said actuating transformer, con
trol electrodes in each of said control valves, a
control transformer for supplying potential to
said control electrodes, means for simultaneously
adjusting the phase relation of the actuating
transformer and the control transformer, and
means for independently adjusting the phase
angle of the control transformer for controlling
the starting time and the duration of current 29
flow to the make-alive electrode.
3. An electric conversion system comprising
an electric current supply circuit, an electric cur.
rent load circuit, a plurality of make-alive type
valves for transferring energy between said lcir- 25
cuits, a make-alive electrode in each of said
valves, a source of operating current for said
make-alive electrodes, means for shifting .the
phase-relation of the operating current supplied
to the ymake-alive electrodes, an auxiliary valve 30
in series with each of said make-alive electrodes
and control electrodes for determining the .con
ducting period of said auxiliary valves.
4..A converter system ’comprising a vplurality
of make-alive type valves, a make-alive 4elec
trode in each of said valves, an actuating trans
quired, the phase shifter 25isÍ adjusted to release
former for supplying current to said make-'alive
electrodes, a source of actuating current for said
transformer, an induction phase shifter con
nected between said source and said transformer,
`make-alive electrode. Then, ifv it isV desired to
:increase the direct current voltage, the phase
shifter =25isadjustedto release grids 2| of auxili
<ary-tubes ¿20 »at an» earlier time,¿the earliest‘effec
,tive timejbeingat maximum directcurrent poten
.tial or zero delay as‘indicated by the beginning
of curve-43’. The crystal current, of course, flows
-for amuchlonger period-„consuming energy as
indicated -by the horizontal hatching under
cur-veg45.k
,
,
»
.
'
~While for purposes vof »illustration I have de
scribed -a‘specific embodiment of my invention,
it will be apparent to those skilled in Íthe- art
thatrrm‘any changes -‘and modifications can be
made therein without departing from the true
spirit of my invention or the scope of the ap
pended claims.
I claim as my invention:
1. An electrical conversion system comprising
a polyphase alternating-current circuit, a direct
current circuit, a converter having a plurality of
65
.
2. An electrical conversion system comprising
Agrids 2l of auxiliary tubes «20 at the point rindi
cated bythey beginning of curve 43 »andcurrent
`will flow in the «crystal `*I0 as Vindicated by the
-diagonalhatchingunder the voltage curve 45, the
hatched areadenoting the energy supplied `to the
60
3
adjusting the phase relation of the actuating
make-alive type valves for transferring energy
between said circuits, a make-alive electrode for
each of said valves, a source of actuating poten
tial, an actuating transformer for supplying cur
rent from said source to said electrodes, control
70 Valves connected in series with said make-alive
electrodes and said actuating transformer, con
trol electrodes in each of said control valves, a
control transformer for supplying potential to
f sai-d control electrodes, means for adjusting the
75 phase of the control potential and means for
35
connections from said actuating transformer to
saidmake-alive electrodes, a gridcontrolled aux
iliary valve in each of said connections, a grid
supply transformer for supplying control poten
tial to the grids of said auxiliary valves, phase 45
shifting means associated with said grid »supply
transformer, and means for adjusting the phase
relation of the grid supply transformer .with re
spect to the phase relation of the actuating trans
former whereby the duration of current ñow from 50
said actuating transformer to said electrodes is
regulated.
. 5. A converter system comprising a plurality
of Amake-'alive type valves, a make-alive electrode
-in veach of said valves, an actuating transformer
for supplying current to said make-alive elec
trodes,v.a„source of actuating current for said
transformer, an induction phase shifter connect
ed between said source and said transformer, con
nections from said actuating transformer to said 60
make-alive electrodes, a grid controlled auxiliary
valve in each of said connections, a grid supply
transformer for supplying control potential to
the grids of said auxiliary valves, phase-shifting
means associated with said grid supply trans 65
former, means for adjusting the phase relation
of the grid supply transformer with respect to
the phase relation of the actuating transformer
whereby the duration of current flow from said
actuating transformer to said electrodes is regu 70
lated, and means for simultaneous adjustment of
the phase relation of both said actuating trans
former and said grid control transformer.
6. An electrical conversion system comprising a
three-phase alternating-current circuit, a direct
75
2,130,902
current> circuit, a make-alive converter fortrans
ferring energy between said circuits, a double
electrodes, and imeans associated with'said actu
ating transformer for neutralizing the initial re
three-phase transformer for connecting said cir- ' active drop upon commencement of current ilow
cuits to said converter, a make-aliveielectrode for
-each valve of said converter, an actuating `trans
former for supplying current to said make-alive
electrodes, the secondary of said actuating trans
former being connected for six phase operation, a
source of three-phase potential connected to said
actuatingtransformer, a rotary phase changer
connected between said source and said actuating
transformer, auxiliary valves connected between
actuating transformer and said make-alive elec
trodes, Aa low impedance connection between the
15 neutral point of said actuating transformer and
the .cathode of said converter, control electrodes
for said auxiliary valves, a control transformer
for-.controlling said auxiliary valves, means for
adjusting the phase relation of the control trans
20 former. relative to the phase relation of the actu
ating transformer for determining the interval
ofi'application of actuating current to the make
alive electrodes, vand means forl operating the
phase changer'forr determining the time of ap
25 plication of current tothe make-alive electrodes.
_» 7. An electric conversion system comprising
an electric supply circuit, an electric load circuit,
a make-alive valve system for transferring energy
between said systems, a transformer for connect
30 ing said circuits to said valves, a make-alive elec
trode'forfeach of the valves of said valve system,
a source of actuating potential for said make-alive
electrodes, an actuating transformer for supply
ing current from said source to said make-alive
35. electrodes, auxiliary controlled Valves for -con
¿o
trolling the flow ofr current from said actuating
transformer to said electrodes, means for shifting
the phase relation of the output voltage of said
actuating transformer, and means for controlling
said auxiliary valves to determine the time of
current application to said make-alive electrodes.
- 84, An electric conversion system comprising an
electric supply circuit, an electric load circuit, a
make-alive valve system for transferring energy
to said make-alive electrodes. `
'
'
9. An. electrical conversion system comprising
anvalt'ernating-current supply circuit, a direct
current load circuit, a plurality of make-alive
type valves for transferring energy betweensaid
circuits, a make-alive electrode in each of .said
valves, a source of‘alternating actuating current
for said make-alive electrodes, a phase changer
for controlling the phase relation of the current
derived from said source,'a control transformer
energized from said source, said transformer hav
ing terminals connected to said make-alive elec 15
trodes,'current control means connected in series
with each of said. make-alive electrodes, anda
control device for controlling said current control
means,
10. An 'electrical
,
conversion` system
f
for
,_ trans.
verter having a 'plurality of make-alivextype
valves, a transformer device for connecting'said
valves to said circuits, a make-alive electrode in '
each valve of said converter, a source of actuat
ing current for said electrodes, i an actuating
transformer interposed between said source and
said electrodes, a phase shifting device for said
actuating transformer, controlled auxiliary' valves n30
for determining the flow of current »from-said
actuating transformer to Ysaid electrodes, a con
trol transformerY for supplying control potential
to said auxiliary valves, and phase shifting means
associated with said control transformer.`
V35
11. An electrical conversion system for trans
ferring energy between a direct-current andan
alternating-current circuit comprising a r‘con’
verter having a plurality of make-alivev type
valves, a transformer device for connecting said
valves to _said circuits, a make-alive electrode in
each Valve of said converter, a source of actuat
ing current for said electrodes, an Aactuating
transformer interposed between said source and
45 between said systems, a transformer for connect
ing said circuits to said valves, a make-alive elec
trode for each of the valves of said valve system,
a source of` actuating potential for said make
actuating transformer, controlled auxiliary valves
for determining ‘the flow _of current from’said
alive electrodes, an actuating transformer for
trol transformer for supplying control potential
50 supplying current from said source to said make
alive electrodes, auxiliary controlled valves for
controlling the flow of current from said actuat
ing transformer to said electrodes, means for
shifting the phase relation of the output voltage
of said actuating transformer, meansr for con
trolling -said auxiliary valves to determine the
time of current application to said make-alive
y20
ferring‘energy between a ydirect-current and van
alternating-current circuit comprising a con
said electrodes, a phase shifting deviceV for> said 45
actuating transformer to said electrodes, a con
to said auxiliary valves, phase shifting means l:50
associated with said control transformer, and
means associated with said actuating transformer
for maintaining the-terminal voltage on com
mencement of Vcurrent now to said make-alive
electrodes.
`
v
.
'
»
HERBERT A. ROSE. ,
5.5
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