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Патент USA US2131027

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Sept. 27, 1938.‘
J. W._FRE_NCH ET AL
2,131,027
METHOD‘ AND APPARATUS FOR WORKING SHEET METAL ARTICLES
Filed Jan. 22, 1937
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METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR WORKING SHEET METAL ARTICLES
Filed Jan. 22,4193'7
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METHOD AND‘APPARATUS FOR WORKING S-HEET METAL ARTICLES
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Filed Jan. 22, 1937
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METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR WORKING SHEET METAL ARTICLES,‘
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Patented Sept. 27, 1938
2,131,027
UNITED’ STATES ‘PATENT OFFICE
2.131.027
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR WORKING
SHEET METAL ARTICLES
John W. French, Warren, and John 0. E. Carl
son_, Youngstown, Ohio, assignors, by mesne
assignments, to Mullins Manufacturing Cor
poration, Salem, Ohio, a corporation of New
York
Application January 22, 1937, Serial No. ‘121,860
24 Claims. (Cl. 113-52)
The invention relates to the working of sheet for forming ‘a bullet-nose or bottle-neck shape in
metal articles such as sheet metal receptacles; such receptacles, but the same have not been
and more particularly the invention has special satisfactory because of excessive costs due to
application to methods and apparatus for form
numerous operations required and to large
CT ing a bullet-nose or bottle-neck shape at the up
amounts of material scrapped.
per or open end of the side walls of a relatively
Thus, the manufacture of such receptacles has
deep receptacle or container having integral bot
been accomplished by a hot spinning method.
tom and side walls all formed or drawn'from a
single piece or blank of sheet or plate metal.
10
Such receptacles may be used for many pur
poses, for example, as tubs for power-driven wash
ing machines; ‘and bullet-nosed or bottle-necked
tubs for washing machines, or for wringerless
driers have recently come into considerable de
mand. Moreover, such receptacles are usually
made of a ductile material such as rolled strip or
sheet steel and are usually covered with a vitre
ous enamel coating.
_
Difficult drawing operations are involved in the
20 manufacture of such receptacles, per se, because
the same are relatively deep and are drawn or
formed from a single piece or blank of metal;
and in the past, the upper or open ends of such
receptacles have been ?nished preferably by pro
25 viding a relatively shallow and wide inwardly ex
tending circumferential rib spaced below the
top of the receptacle and by providing a turned
or rolled false wire bead immediately above such
vrib, as is shown for instance in the Stanitz and
30 Boyer Patent ' No. 2,005,641.
Such beads or ribs are relatively easy to form
because of the shallow radial depth thereof, which
ordinarily does not exceed one-half inch to three
quarters of an inch in ‘a receptacle which may be
35 approximately ?fteen inches in height, more or
less, and approximately twenty-three inches in
diameter more or less.
.
However, an entirely different and very dif
ficult problem is presented in connection with
40 the manufacture of a bullet-nose ‘or bottle
neck formation at the upper end of a re
ceptacle some ?fteen inches deep and some
‘twenty-three inches in diameter deep drawn
from a single sheet metal blank, because such
45 bullet-nose orbottle-neck formation may decrease
the diameter of the open upper end of the recep
Initially, a receptacle is drawn some four to six
inches deeper than its ultimate size and is then
placed in a spinning machine in which the bot 10
tom is clamped for rotating the recepetacle and
a circumferential band of the receptacle at and
adjacent to the open upper end thereof is heated
by a ?ame heater while the receptacle is being
rotated. After the wall portion has become red 16
hot, it is worked by a hand controlled spinning
roll against a properly shaped mandrel to rough
form the bottle-neck contour. The receptacle
is then placed on a second spinning machine
where sizing rolls operate upon the rough 20
formed end to give the receptacle the proper size
and contour.
The excess material necessary in
order to carry out the hot spinning operation is ,
then cut oif at ‘the upper end of the receptacle
above the region where the bullet-nose or bottle 25
neck shape has been formed.
While receptacles 'may be produced in this
manner, the mere recitation of the steps required
in the hot spinning process for providing the
bottle-neck formation discloses the slowness, ex 30
pense and waste encountered in carrying out the
same.
Another method has been proposed for making
receptacles with bullet-nose or bottle-neck shapes
in the upper ends thereof. In this method, the 35
receptacle is drawn and is then subjected re
peatedly to cold spinning, annealing and pickling
operations which result in‘ successive small reduc
tions in the diameter of the open end of the re
ceptacle, and are repeated until the total sub 40
stantial reduction necessary to form the bullet
nose or bottle-neck shape has been obtained.
The very recitation of such a method, however,
discloses the slowness and expense encountered,
not only in carrying out numerous spinning, an 45
nealing and pickling operations, but in han
Thus,
dling the receptacles back and forth between the‘
a substantial ‘amount of material must be dis
placed‘ and rearranged in the upper end of the
50' circumferential walls of the receptacle, which
spinning machines, annealing furnaces, pickling
tacle as much as three or more inches.
‘metal walls athough composed of ductile mate
rial, have alreadybeen subjected to most severe
deep drawing operations in forming the recepta
cle of such depth from a single metal blank.
55
Different methods have been proposed and used
vats, etc.
,
'
.
It is therefore a principal object of the pres 50
ent invention to provide a new improved and in
expensive method of forming a bullet-nose or
bottle-neck shape at and adjacent to the end
of a cylindrical article formed of a single sheet
or blank of sheet or plate metal.
2,131,027
2
It is a further object of the present invention
to provide improvedapparatus for formig a bot
tle-neck or bullet-nose shape circumferentially
in the wall of a cylindrical object at and adja
cent to an end thereof.
A further object of the present invention is to
provide an inexpensive method and improved ap
paratus for forming a bullet-nose or bottle-neck
shape at the upper end of a closed bottom sheet
metal receptacle deep drawn from a single blank
of metal.
Likewise, it is an object of the present inven
tion to provide a method and apparatus for form
ing a bullet-nose or bottle-neck shape in the up
15 per open end of a closed bottom sheet metal
receptacle by a new, improved and simpli?ed cold
working operation which may be quickly, readily
and easily performed without waste of material,
and without repeated working, annealing- and
20
pickling operations.
A further object of the present invention is to
provide a new method of cold working metal,
which is neither a spinning operation, nor a
drawing operation, nor a bending operation, but
25 which involves some of the elements of each of
such operations.
_
A further object of the present invention is to
provide a method and apparatus for metal work
ing in which a cylindrical closed bottom recep
tacle of ?xed height and substantially uniform
diameter has its upper open end reduced in di-7
ameter to a considerable‘extent to form a bullet
nose or bottle-neck shape without altering the
height of the receptacle; by working the metal
35 between roller dies, which pinch, hold and work
the metal under pressure and yield and are dis
placed by one another as the re-shaping pro—
- gresses.
Moreover, it is an‘ object of the present inven
40 tion to provide a method and apparatus for
metal working in which the rotating extremi
ties of cylindrical material being‘ worked are
maintained in ?xed planes spaced a constant
tween a plurality of roller dies, with yielding
mounting means for one or more of said dies.
Moreover, it is an object of the present inven
tion to provide a method and apparatus for
metal working in which cylindrical material is CH
provided with an outturned annular ?ange at
least at one of its extremities, in which the ma
terial ‘is worked between roller dies adjacent to
said outturned ?ange, ‘and in which said out
turned ?ange is held substantially in a ?xed 10
plane as the metal at and adjacent thereto is
being stretched, reduced and worked.
Further objects of the improvements set forth
herein include the provision of an improved gen
eral and detail arrangement of certain parts of
the improved apparatus so as to attain an im
proved mode‘ of operation for carrying out the
improved method hereof to produce the improved
products disclosed herein.
And ?nally, it is an object of the present inven
tion to provide an improved method and improved
apparatus for making bullet-nose or bottle-neck
shapes in' closed bottom receptacles of di?erent
sized diameters and heights deep drawn integral
ly from single metal blanks which satisfy the
desiderata described above, which may be car—
ried out in an inexpensive manner with a mini
mum of operations, cost and waste, and with
which the improved bullet-nosed or bottle~necked
sheet metal receptacles disclosed herein maybe
made.
30
-
The foregoing and other objects are attained
by the steps, methods, procedures, processes, ap
paratus, parts, combinations, sub-combinations
and products which comprise the present inven-'
tion, the nature of which is set forth in the fol
lowing general statements, preferred embodi
ments of which are set forth in vthe following
description, and which are particularly and dis
tinctly pointed out and set forth in the appended 40
claims forming part hereof.
a
The nature of the improved method of the
present invention may be stated in general terms
~ axial distance at all times, in which pressure is as including among others, the steps of forming 45
a closed bottom receptacle from a single blank
45 applied between roller dies to thematerial in , of metal by a deep drawing operation, forming
termediate said ?xed planes to. reducevthe diame
ter of the material, and in which the material is
maintained under tension or stretched at and
adjacent to the region where pressure. is being
50 applied to the material by the roller dies in work
ing the material.
f
>
Moreover, an object of the invention is to pro
vide apparatus for working cylindrical material,
I including roller dies for working the material
55 as the material is. being rotated, and meansfcr
‘holding successive elements of. the material, which '
pass through the successive places being worked,
in a plane which also‘ passes through the cylin
drical axis of the material, so as th hold the
60 material in alignment and prevent the cylindri
cal‘material from wabbling or chattering while
being worked.
i
-
Similarly, it is an object of the present inven
tion to ‘provide improved apparatus for metal
65 working in which a cylindrical closed bottom re
ceptacle is worked between roller dies at and
adjacent to its upper or open end, with means
for holding the upper or open‘end of the ma
terial substantially in true cylindrical shape while
70 being worked, so as to prevent the same from
becoming oval-shaped or out of round.
,
Moreover, an object of the present invention is
to provide improved apparatus for metal work
inn‘ in which cylindrical material is worked be
an annular ?ange at the open upper end there
of, thereafter working the metal at and adja
cent to said ?ange to provide a bottle-neck or
bullet-nose formation thereat, preferably carry
ing out' the working operation promptly after -
the deep drawing operation while the metal is
still warm from the drawing operation, said '
working operation being accomplished preferably
by rotating the ‘receptacle about an axis by main
taining successive elements thereofv in contact
with a rotating roller die mandrel, maintaining
the receptacle in‘ alignment on said mandrel,
maintaining the open end of the receptacle sub
stantially in cylindrical shape while rotating, 60
maintaining the ?ange and bottom of said re
ceptacle substantially in ?xed planes a constant
distance apart perpendicular to the axes of the
receptacle and mandrel while rotating, applying
moving roller die pressure to the receptacle at
and adjacent to the rotating ?ange thereof, mov
ing the pressure applying roller toward the axes
of the receptacle and mandrel roller die to pinch,
hold, work and stretch the metal under pressure
between the roller dies, permitting one or more 70
of the roller die parts to yield as the working
operation progresses and preferably slowing down
the working operation as the diameter of the
open end of the receptacle decreases in forming
the bottle-neck or bullet-none lhm.
"
2,131,027
The nature of the improved apparatus of the
present invention may be stated in general terms
as including a plurality of roller dies, means
mounting one or more of said dies for axial or
radial movement with respect to one or more
of the other dies, yielding means resisting such
axial or radial movement, means for positively
moving one or more of ‘said dies radially toward
and away from one or more of the other dies,
10 means for positively rotating at least one of said
roller dies to by contact rotate the material to be
worked, means for holding the material being
\ worked in alignment between the roller dies, said
last mentioned means preferably including yield
l5 ing means the pressure of which increases as the
work progresses, means for holding cylindrical
material being worked substantially in cylindrical
shape, means for adjusting certain of said means
to accommodate various sized articles to be worked,
20 and certain of said means including means for
maintaining the extremities of the material being
worked in ?xed planes a constant distance apart
as portions of the material intermediate the ex
tremities are being worked between the roller
25 dies.
'
The nature of the improved product will more
fully and at large appear in the following de
scription.
.
By way of example, preferred embodiments of
30 the improved apparatus for'carrying out the im
proved method are illustrated in the accompany
ing drawings forming part hereof, in which
Figure 1 is a fragmentary side elevation of a
‘standard type of beading machine equipped with
35 the improved apparatus for working sheet metal
articles, certain parts of the improved apparatus
being broken away and in section;
Fig. 2 is a front elevation, certain parts being
shown in section, of the apparatus shown in
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary view similar to portions
of Fig. 1, showing a modi?ed-form of roller dies;
' Fig. 4 is a side elevation with a part broken away
and in section, showing a deep drawn receptacle
.15 blank prior to being ‘worked by the apparatus
of Fig. 1;
Fig. 5 is a. view similar to Fig. 4, showing the
receptacle after being worked by the apparatus
3
type of beading machine there is an upper head
having one driven spindle mounted for sliding
movement toward and away from a lower head
having another driven spindle; and in another
type of beading machine there is an upper head L1
having a driven spindle pivotally mounted for
movement toward and away from a lower bead
having another driven spindle.
The latter type of beading machine is more
or less diagrammatically illustrated in the draw 10
ings; and in all types of beading machines the
upper movable head may. be moved toward and
away from the base by any suitable control
means, either by hand, or by power cylinders, or
by a mechanical drive, any one of which control
means mayv be regulated to control therate of '
movement of the upper head toward or away from
the lower head or housing.
The upper head of the beading machine is
shown in IS and the lower head or base housing 20
at IT. The member |‘| carries a side arm l8 in
which the upper head I6 is pivotally mounted at
|9 through the medium of'the arm 20. The up
per headis movable in the arcuate direction of the
arrow shown in Fig. 2 by any usual beading ma 25
chine control means, not shown.
A lower rotatable spindle 2| is mounted in the
base I‘! and an upper rotatable spindle 22' is
mounted in the upper head I 6, and the usual
means (not shown) is provided for driving the 30
spindles 2| and 22 at the desired speed.
Thus far, the beading machine apparatus de
scribed is of usual construction and forms no part
of the present invention except in so far as it
may be necessaryto adapt the same for the im 35
proved working apparatus and to form operative
combinations therewith.
A thrust collar 23 and a sleeve 24 are mounted
on the upper spindle 22; and special roller die
parts 25, 26, and 21, also ?xed on the spindle 22, 40
are maintained in abutment against the sleeve 24
by the disk 28 and bolt 29. Rotation of the upper
spindle 22 rotates the roller die parts 25, 26-and
2‘! which are shown as being composed of three
pieces, but may be integral if desired. The part 45
25 is provided with a curved portion 30, an an
nular portion 3|, a groove 32 and a second slightly
larger annular portion 33 for a purpose to be
of Fig. 1 to provide a bullet-nose or bottle-neck later described.
50 shape at the upper end thereof;
A thrust collar 34, a sleeve 35 and another 50
Fig. 6 is a view similar to Fig. 4, showing a deep '
collar 36 are mounted on the lower spindle 2|.
drawn receptacle blank to be worked by the ap
A telescoping roller die is also mounted on the
paratus of Fig. 3;
V
spindle 2| and cooperates with a spinning ring
Fig. 7 is a view similar to Fig. 5, showing a com
or roller die 31 and the upper roller die parts 25—
55 pleted receptacle having a bullet-nose or bottle
neck shape at the upper end thereof after havhig 26——21 to work the material being formed. The 55
telescoping roller .die includes a bushing 38, a
' been worked by the apparatus of Fig. 3;
5
Figs. 8, 9 and 10 show successive stages of the roller die part 39, a roller die part 40 and a tele
working operation carried out by the apparatus ' scoping roller die part 4|. The parts 38, 39 and 40
are clamped tightly against the roll collar 36 by
the disk 42 and bolt 43. Roller die part 39 is keyed 60
Cc of Fig. 1 to form the receptacle shown in Fig. 5
from the receptacle blank shown in Fig. 4;
Figs. 11, 12 and 13 show successive stages of the
working operation carried out by the apparatus
of Fig. 3 to form the receptacle shown in Fig. 7
65 from the receptacle blank shown in Fig. 6; and
Fig. 14'is an enlarged view of certain of the
parts shown in Figs. 1 and 9, illustrating a detail
in .construction.
‘ Similar numerals refer to similar parts through
70 out the various ?gures of the drawings.
The improved metal working apparatus is gen
erally indicated at I 5 in Figs. 1 and 2, as accessory
equipment on a usual type of,v beading machine.
There are a number of types of heading machines,
75 each of which include two driven spindles. In one
at 44 to spindle 2| and is provided with a series
of holes 45 in which are located thrust springs 46
and spring aligning pins 41.
Roll 39 drives roll 4| through sliding keys 48
which are ?xed to roll 4| and slide in grooves 49
in roll 39. Roll 4| slides on bushing 38; and roll
4| is provided with a series of holes 50, matching
holes 45, in which springs 46 and pins 41 are also
located, so that springs 46 react between rolls 39
and 4| to constantly urge roll 4| toward collar 36. 70
Roll 4| is provided with a curved portion 5|
matching the curved portion 30 of roll 25, and roll
4| also has a tapered portion 52. Thus, roller die
25-26-21 and roller die 4| have complementary
forming surfaces.
‘2,131,027
4 .
- Spinning ring 31 has a tapered face 53 matching The roll 83 is pivotally mounted at 83’ on a
tapered portion 52 and is mounted for vertical ‘ bracket 85, which is adjustably mounted on the
bar 86 also slidably mounted on arm 82; and sup
port roll 84 is pivotally mounted at 81 on bracket
movement at right angles to the axes of spindles
2| and 22, in a cradle 54 having ring supporting
rolls 55. Cradle 54 is pivoted at 56 in a bracket 51
‘vertically adjustably mounted at 58 on base I1.
Springs v59 on rods 69 react between bracket 51
88, adjustably mounted on bracket 89, which in Cl
turn is adjustably mounted on member 58 carried
by a base I1.
Referring to Figs. 4 and 5, wherein a deep
drawn receptacle blank A is shown, including
cylindrical side walls I), and a bottom wall 0 joined 10
and ears 6| on cradle 54 to. constantly urge the
cradle 54 and. spinning ring 31 upward toward
10
roll 25.
‘
by the curved corner a, the side walls b terminate
in an outturned annular ?ange or shaped edge d
In Figs. 1 and 2, the parts are shown at the
completion of a working operation whereby the
receptacle blank A of Fig. 4 has been worked to
proVide a bullet-nose or bottle-neck shape in
which is quite short. In Fig. 5, the receptacle
blank A has'been worked on the apparatus of
Figs. 1 and 2 to provide a bullet-nose or bottle
15 the receptacle indicated at B in Figs. 1, 2 and 5.
neck shape at the upper open end thereof in »
In carrying out the working operation, recep
which the diameter of the upper open end c has
tacle B is held in alignment by suitable means,
so that successive elements thereof lie in the
been considerably reduced, while maintaining
plane of Fig. 1, which passes through the cy
20 lindrical axis of receptacle B and also through
the parallel axes of spindles 2| and 22. Such
means may preferably include guide rolls 62 and
inside guide rolls 63. The guide rolls 62 are
rotatably mounted at 64 in the lower bifurcated
the same relatively short annular flange d’ at the
top of a relatively deep neck f. However, the 20
working operation has not changed the total
height of the receptacle A in making the recep
tacle B, as shown by the dot-dash lines extending
between Figs. 4 and 5.
.
Figs. 6 and 7 show a similar receptacle blank A’
25 ends 65 of yoke 66, the upper slotted end 61 of . ' with a deeper annular ?ange or shaped edge dd
which is slidably mounted in the center block 68
pivotally mounted at 69 on pin 19, which is car
ried by a bracket 1| adjustably mounted an arm
12 of the upper head or housing I6 of the‘beading
30
machine.
-
'
_
‘
A cross bar 13 is mounted in the upper end of
the yoke 66 from which rods 14 extend upwardly;
and a similar rod 15 carried, by center" block 68
extends through bar 13 and carries another cross
35 bar 16 through which rods 14 project. A series
of springs 11 are mounted on rods 14 and 15 re
acting between bars 13 and 16 to constantly and
yieldingly urge yoke 66 downwardly. ,
.
Guide rolls 62 preferably have av curved shape,
40 as best shown in Fig.1, to conform to the bottom
radius q of the receptacle B with which the
guide rolls 62 engage after a receptacle blank A
' has been placed on the apparatus and the upper
housing moved downward._ When the upper hous
ing is so moved downward, the guide rolls 62 rest
on the closed bottom end of the receptacle blank
45
\ and as downward movement of the upper housing
I6 continues, the top bar 16 is pulled downward
by the center rod 15, thus compressing springs 11
50' and holding yoke 66 and guide rolls 62 under com
' pression against the receptacle so as to ?rmly hold
the receptacle in place ‘and in alignment on the
roller die parts carried by spindle 2|.
The small spring 18 below the center block 68,
55 and between the-same and yoke66’merely acts as
a cushion. vAlthough ?ve springs'11 are shown,‘
any number of springs may be used for providing
nose or bottle-neck shape at the upper end e'
thereof, having a relatively long ?ange dd’ and
an axially short and radially deep neck I’. A
slightly modi?ed form of roller die is required for
making the receptacle B’z, as illustrated in Fig. 3,
wherein spindle 22 has a roller die 99 mounted
thereon by disk 28 and bolt 29. Roll 99 is pro
vided with a curved portion 9|, a rounded annular
portion 92, a deep groove 93, a second annular
portion 94, which abuts against sleeve 24. Roll
99 may also be provided with a series of ribs 95
for forming annular grooves g in receptacle B’.
Spindle 2| has’ a modi?ed form of telescoping 40
roller die thereon and the spinning ring is elim
inated.
The telescoping roller die includes a
bushing 96, a roller die part 39, a roller die part~
49' having grooves 49a matching ribs 95, and a
telescoping roller die part 91. Another roller die 45
part 98 having a cylindrical surface‘ 99 and a
curved surface I99 is interposed between bushing
96 and collar 36.
Parts 99, 96, 39 and 49' are clamped tightly
against the collar 36 by the disk 42 and bolt 43. 50
Roller die part 39 is keyed at 44 to spindlei 2|
and is provided with a series of holes 45 in which
thrust springs 46 and aligning pins 41 are located.
Roll 39 drives roll 91 through sliding keys 48,
which are ?xed to roll 91 and slide in grooves 49
in roll 39. Roll 91 slides on bushing 96; and the
arm 82 projecting from the lower beading ma
recessed end I9I thereof telescopes over port-ions
99 and I99 of part 98. Roll 91 is also provided
with a'series of holes 59, matching holes 45, in
which springs 46 and pins 41 are located, so that 60
springs 46 react between rolls 39 and 91 to con
stantly urge roll 91 toward collar 36. Roll 91 is
provided with a curved portion I92 matching the
curved portion 9I of roll 99, and roll 91 also has
a tapered portion- I93.‘ Thus, roller die 99 and
roller die 91 have complementary forming sur
chine housing I1. The guide rolls 63 may have
faces.
the yielding, aligning and clamping pressure
through the guide rolls 62 on the receptacle B.
Inside guide rolls63 may be angled slightly as
60
indicated in Fig. 1, to accommodate a slant bot-_
tom in ‘the receptacle B, and are. rotatably
mounted‘ at 19 on brackets 89 vertically and hori
zontally adjustably mounted on the cross plate
8| ‘which is slidably adjustably mountedion the
rounded comers, as shown, to conform to the
inner surface'of the bottom radius a of the re
70
utilized to form the receptacle B’ with a bullet
ceptacle B.
‘
.
Receptacle support or guide rolls 83 and 94 are
also provided for engaging the inner open end
region of the side walls of the receptacle B in
order to steady the same and hold the open end
75 substantially round during the working operation.
'
The progress of the working operation is illus
trated in Figs. 8, 9 and 10. Initially, the recep
tacle A is placed over spindle 2 I‘. so that the bottom
engages inner guide rolls 63. Upper housing I6 is
then moved downward and guide rolls 62 engage,
align and clamp the receptacle against the roller
die parts on spindle 2| .
At the same time recep
2,131,027
tacle' ?ange d is engaged in roller die groove 32,
,as best shown in Fig. 8.
Meanwhile, spindles 2| and 22 are rotated and
as spindle 22 continues to move downward toward
spindle 2 I while rotating, the metal in receptacle A
at and adjacent to ?ange dis rolled, stretched, re
duced and worked against spinning ring or roll
31 to reduce the diameter of the open end of the
receptacle.
10 springs 59
spindle 2|,
tion of Fig.
As this working progresses, the cradle
supporting roll 31 yield radially of
so that ring 31 moves from the posi
8 ultimately to the position of Fig. 10.
Meanwhile, spinning ring 31 is being rotatedby
contact with'rotating roller die 4| and with the
15 material being worked; and during the working,
the material between spinning ring 31 and roller
die part 3| is constantly under pressure between
rotating roller dies.
'
Likewise, roller die 4_ I yields axially of the
20 spindle 2| as the working progresses and the
metal is worked, stretched and rolled between die
parts 30 and 5| under pressure from the position
approximately that shown in Fig. 9, to that shown
in Fig. 10.
The rolling, working and stretching of' the
metal causes a rearrangement in the structure
thereof by which the neck diameter is materially
reduced and the excess metal rearranged to sup
ply'that required for the stretched rounded por
tion extending between the reduced neck and the
5
given a slight convexity under pressure, which
will permit them to spring to a substantially true
cylindrical shape when the working operation has
been completed.
Referring to Figs. 8 to 13, inclusive, as the
working operation progresses from Fig. 8 or 11.to
Fig. 10 or 13, the speed of working is preferably
diminished by slowing down the rate of movement
of the roller dies toward one another.
As previously stated, the telescoping roller dies 10
on spindle 2i. yield axially of spindle 2| as the
working operation progresses, by the pressure of
roller die parts 30 and 3| against the rounded and
tapered portions 5| and 52 of yielding roller die 4|,
so that the metal is always being worked under 15
pressure between roller dies.
Referring toFig. 2, it is understood that the par
ticular mounting of the upper guide rolls 62 on
the yoke and swivel block 68 and under tension
permits the guide rolls to constantly adjust them 20
selves as the upper head I6 moves arcuately down
ward. Moreover, the adjustable mounting of the
various guide and support rolls permits the equip
ment to be adjusted to accommodate various sizes
of receptacles.
The receptacle blanks A and A’ shown, may be
some ?fteen inches deep and some twenty-three
inches in diameter, deep drawn from a single
sheet metal blank, and the bullet-nose or bottle
neck shape formed therein by the present method 30
receptacle side walls. In other words, the work
ing of the metal in and adjacent to the ?ange
to produce the receptacles B or B’ may reduce
the upper open end diameter thereof at the neck
while the metal is pinched and held under pres
as much as three inches or more; all of which re
sure between the dies, simultaneously rolls the sults in a newicold rolled product having such
35 metal, increases the cross sectional length there
of, and reduces the diameter of the article to
form the desired reduced neck shape, as illus
trated in Figs. 8 to 10 and Figs. 11 to 13.
It has been discovered that the cold working
40 operation described, should be carried out im
mediately after receptacle A has been deep drawn
from a single metal blank while the material is
still warm from the drawing operation. If the
cold working is not performed while the metal
45 is still warm from the drawing operation, the side
walls of the receptacle A may split or crack dur
characteristics produced in a single cold rolling
operation without wasting material.
It is to be understood that although a tapered
bottom is shown in the receptacle B in Fig. 1,
any other deep drawn formation may be provided
and the guide rolls may be adjusted to accommo 40
date the same. Moreover, although the present
invention has particular importance in connection
with‘the formation of bullet-nose or b‘ottle-neck
age hardening. If this di?iculty is not avoided
in the described manner, extra steps of pickling
50 and annealing the- receptacle blanks are required
between the drawing and working operations.
shapes at the upper open ends of closed bottom
sheet metal receptacles such as washing machine
tubs drawn from a single metal blank, it is clear
that the improved cold working operation may be
used in connection with performing a similar op
eration upon tubular sheet metal material.
'It is not intended to limit the scope of the pres
ent invention to the particular bullet-nose or
The spinning roll or ring 31 is ‘not absolutely
bottle-neck shapes shown herein because it is
ing the cold working operation due to so-callled
essential to the performance of the proper work clear that other shapes may be made in accord
ing operation, but may ‘be used in some cases ance with the improved method by utilizing roller
55 where the ?nished receptacle is desired to have dies having the desired shape. Nor is it intended
a relatively short ?ange d’. However, if a longer to limit the scope of the present invention to ‘a
' flange dd’ may be provided, as shown in Figs. 7
method of making receptacles used solely as tubs
and 11 to 13, the roller die groove 93 and ?ange for washing machines, because it is clear that
are of su?‘icient depth that the ?ange is held in other vessels or containers having substantially
60 groove 93 until the metal being worked in pinched
reduced necks or openings may be made in ac 60
between roller die 90 and yielding roller die 91. cordance with the improved method.
If a relatively short axial neck is desired, such as
Moreover, the term “sheet metal” used herein
shown in Figs. 11, 12' and 13, an extra roller die and in the appended claims, is intended to refer
98 is preferably utilized, and at the completion of to sheet or strip or plate metal of the desired
composition and ductility according to the source,
65 the operation, the inner portion of the neck ,1" is
preferably given a ?nal sizing and shaping composition and thickness of the material util
against the curved roller die surface I00.
ized.
Because of the severe working operations to
Accordingly, the improved method and appa
which the present invention subjects the metal,
ratus provides aninexpensive way of making bul
the receptacle side walls may spring slightly con
let-nose or bottle-neck formations in tubular or
~ cave outwardly after the receptacle is removed
cylindrical sheet metal articles, without wasting
from the roller dies; and for avoiding such an oc
currence, the roller dies may have a slight taper
provided thereon, indicated by the dot-dash lines
75 “M in Fig. 14, so that the receptacle side walls are
material by a cold working process, and accom
plish'es the objectives and avoids the di?iculties
previously set forth herein.
We claim:- - e
76
6
2,131,087
1. The method of forming a reduced neck at an
end of a cylindrical sheet metal article which in
cludes the steps of forming a ?ange at an end of
such article, holding the article in alignment be
tween rbller dies one of which is axially yieldable,
and roller working metal in and adjacent to said
?ange by rotating the dies and moving the axes
thereof relatively toward one another to cause
said axially yieldable die to yield while pinching
10 and holding the metal under pressure between the
dies where the working is being performed; which
roller working between yielding dies simultane
ously increases the cross sectional length of the
metal, and reduces the diameter of the article in
and adjacent to the ?ange to form the desired
reduced neck shape.
2. The method of forming a reduced neck at an
end of a cylindrical sheet metal article which in
cludes the steps of deep drawing a cylindrical arti
20 cle, forming a ?ange at an end of said article, cold
roller working the metal in and adjacent to said
?ange between roller dies one of which is axial
ly yieldable by rotating the dies and moving the
axes thereof relatively toward one another to
25
cause said axially yieldable die to yield while
pinching and holding the metal under pressure
between the dies where the working is being per
formed, and performing said working operation
while the article is still warm from the drawing
30 operation; which roller working between yielding
dies simultaneously increases the cross sectional
length of the metal, and reduces the diameter of
the article in and adjacent to the ?ange to form
the desired reduced neckshape. I
3. The method of forming a ?anged reduced
neck at an end of a cylindrical sheet metal article
which includes the steps of forming a ?ange at
an end of such article, holding the article be
tween roller dies one of which is axially yieldable,
40 and roller working the metal in and adjacent to
ing the dies to rotate the article while pinching
and holding the metal under pressure between
the dies where the working is being performed;
which working simultaneously rolls the metal, in
creases the cross sectional length thereof, and
reduces the ?ange diameter to form the desired
reduced neck shape.
6. The method of forming a reduced neck at an
end of a cylindrical sheet metal article which in
cludes the steps of deep drawing a cylindrical 10
article, forming an outturned ?ange at an end of
said article, cold roller working the metal in and
adjacent to said ?ange between roller dies one of
which is axially yieldable by rotating the dies and
moving the axes thereof relatively toward ‘one
another to cause said axially yieldable die to
yield while pinching and holding the metal under
pressure between the dies where the working is
being performed, performing the working opera
tion while the article is still warm from the draw
ing operation, and slowing down the rate of
movement of the axes of the rotating dies rela
tive to one another as the working operation pro
gresses; which roller working between yielding
dies simultaneously increases the cross sectional 25
length of the metal in and adjacent to the ?ange
and reduces the ?ange diameter,
'7. The method of forming a reduced neck in
the walls‘ of a cylindrical article at an end thereof,
which includes the steps of forming an outturned 30
?ange at an end of such article, holding the
article between roller dies one of which is axially
yieldable, and roller working the metal in and ad
jacent to said ?ange by rotating the dies and
moving the axes of the rotating dies relatively to 35
ward one another to cause saidraxially yieldable
die to yield while pinching and holding the metal
under pressure between the dies where the work
ing is being performed; which roller working be
tween yielding dies simultaneously reduces the
said ?ange by rotating the dies and moving the. diameter of the article in and adjacent to said
axes thereof relatively toward one another to ?ange, and increases the crosslsectional length of
cause said axially yieldable die to yield wh?e the metal adjacent to, said ?ange as the same is
pinching'and holding the metal under pressure being worked to form the desired reduced neck
shape.
the dies where the working is being per
"45 between
formed; which roller working between yielding ' 8. The method of forming a bottle-neck shape
dies simultaneously increases the cross sectional at the upper end of a closed bottom sheet metal
length of the metal in and adjacent to the ?ange receptacle deep drawn from a' single blank of
_ metal which includes the steps of forming an out
and reduces the ?ange diameter.
_
g _
v
4. The method of forming a'?anged reduced turned ?ange at the open‘ end of the receptacle,
50
neck at‘an end of a deep drawn cylindrical sheet ' holding the receptacle between roller dies one of
is axially yieldable,’ and roller working the
metal blank having a ?ange at the end. thereof ‘ which
without altering the over-all length of such blank metal in and adjacent to the ?ange by rotating
the dies and moving the axes thereof relatively
which includes the steps of holding the blank be
toward one another to cause said axially yield
tween
roller
dies,
holding
the
blank
?ange
and
55
the other extremity thereof, to maintain the same able die to yield while pinching and holding the
a constant distance apart, and working the metal metal under pressure between the dies where the
in and adjacent to said ?ange by rotating the dies working is being performed; which roller working
and moving the axes thereof relatively toward between yielding dies simultaneously increases
one another while pinching and holding the metal the cross sectional length‘ of the metal and re
duces the diameter of the receptacle in and adja
under pressure between the dies where the: work
cent to said ?ange.
ing is being performed; which working simul
9. The'method of forming a bottle-neck shape
taneously rolls the metal, increases the cross sec
at
the upper end of a closed bottom sheet metal re
tional length thereof, and reduces the ?ange di
ceptacle deep drawn from a single ‘blank of metal
ameter to form/‘the ?anged reduced neck shape.
5. The method of forming a reduced neck at which includes the steps of forming an outturned
an end of a cylindrical sheet metal article which ?ange at the open end of the receptacle, holding
includes the steps of forming an outturned ?ange
at an end of such article, holding the article be-'
70 ‘tween roller dies, holding the extremities of the
article in ?xed planes a constant distance apart
perpendicular to the axes of the dies, and working
the metal intermediate the extremities of the
article and in and adjacent to said ?ange by con
75 tacting the roller dies with the article and rotat
40
.
'
45
50
55
60
65
the receptacle in alignment on one of a plurality
of roller dies one of whichv is axially yieldable by
'yieldingly clamping the side w~lls of the recep
tacle adjacent to the closed bottom against said
?rstfmentioned roller die, and roller working the
metal in and adjacent to said ?ange by rotating
the dies and moving the-axes thereof relatively
toward one another to cause said axially yieldable 75
7
2,131,027
die to yield while pinching and holding the metal
under pressure between the dies where the work
ing is being performed; which roller working be
tween yielding dies simultaneously increases the
‘ cross sectional length of the metal and reduces
the diameter of the receptacle in and adjacent to
said ?ange.
10. The method of forming a bottle-neck shape
at theupper end of a ‘closed bottom sheet metal
10 receptacle deep drawn from a single blank of
metal which includes the steps of forming a
?ange at the open end of the receptacle, hold
ing the receptacle between roller dies one of
which is axially yieldable, supporting the open
15 end of the receptacle between rollers to hold the
same in ‘substantially cylindrical shape, and roller
working the metal in and adjacent to said flange
by rotating the dies and moving the axes thereof
relatively toward one another to cause said axi
ally yieldable die to yield while pinching and
holding the metal under pressure between the
dies where the working is being performed;
' which roller working between yielding dies si
multaneously increases the cross sectional length
of the metal and reduces the diameter, of the
receptacle in and adjacent to said ?ange.
11. The method of forming a bottle-neck shape
at the upper end of a closed bottom sheet metal
receptacle deep drawn from a single blank of
30 metal which includes the steps ‘of forming a
said ?ange.
.
14. The method of forming a ?anged reduced
neck joined integrally by a curved wall portion
with the side walls of a closed bottom sheet metal 10
receptacle deep drawn from a single blank of
metal_which includes the steps of forming a
?ange at the open end of the receptacle, holding
the receptacle'between roller dies one of which
is axially yieldable, maintaining the ?ange and 15
receptacle bottom a constant distance apart, and
roller working the metal in and adjacent to the
?ange by rotating the dies and moving the axes
thereof relatively toward one another to cause
said axially yieldable dies to yield while pinch
20
ing and holding the metal under pressure be
tween the dies where the working is being per
formed; which roller working simultaneously re
duces the ?ange diameter and forms the reduced
neck, and increases the cross sectional length of 25
the metal adjacent to the ?ange to form the
curved wall between the reduced neck and the
receptacle side walls.
15. The method of forming a reduced neck at
an end of a cylindrical sheet metal article which 30
includes the steps of forming a ?ange at an end
?ange at the open end of the receptacle, holding
the receptacle between roller dies one of which
is axially yieldable, maintaining the ?ange and
receptacle bottom a constant distance apart, and
roller working the metal in and adjacent to said
?ange by rotating the dies and moving the axes
of such article, holding the article between roller
dies, engaging and holding the ?ange in a ?xed
plane, and working the metal in and adjacent to
said ?ange by rotating the dies and moving the 35
thereof relatively toward one another to cause
working’ simultaneously rolls the metal, increases
said axially yieldable die to yield while. pinching
and holding the metal under pressure between
40 the dies where the working is being performed;
which roller working between yielding dies si
multaneously increases the cross sectional length
of the metal and reduces the diameter of the
receptacle in and adjacent. to said ?ange.
12.‘ The method of forming a bottle-neck shape
45
at the upper end of a closed ‘bottom sheet metal
receptacle deep drawn from a single blank of
metal which includes the steps of forming a
?ange at the open end of the receptacle, holding
the receptacle between roller dies one of which
is radially yieldable, maintaining the ?ange and
receptacle bottom a constant distance apart, and
roller working the metal in and adjacent to said
?ange by rotating the dies and moving the axis
55 of one relatively toward another to cause said
radially yieldable die to yield while pinching and
holding the metal under pressure between the
dies where the working is being performed; which
roller working between yielding dies simultane
60 ously increases the cross sectional length of the
6.5
while pinching and holding the metal under
pressure between the dies where the working is
being performed; which roller working between
yielding dies simultaneously increases the cross
sectional length of the metal and reduces the
diameter of the receptacle in and adjacent to
axes thereof relatively toward one another; which
the cross sectional length thereof, and reduces
the diameter of the ?ange and of the material
adjacent to the ?ange to form the desired re 40
duced neck shape.
16. Apparatus for cold working a sheet metal
article having a ?ange at one end thereof in
cluding a plurality of roller dies, means for ro
tating the dies, a groove in one of said dies for 45
holdinglsaid ?ange in a ?xed plane during work
ing, means for moving the axes of the roller dies
toward and away from one another, and yielding
means mounting one of the roller dies for axial -
movement from the pressure of another roller die. 50
17. Apparatus for cold working a sheet metal
article including three roller dies having parallel
axes, means for rotating the dies, means for ra
dially moving one of said dies radially toward
a second to grip an article therebetween and 55
thereafter for moving radially the two dies in
unison, yielding means mounting the third die‘
for axial movement, said ?rst and second dies
in their ‘radial movement working the article
adjacent the third die, and said third die mov
metal and reduces the diameter of the receptacle
in and adjacent to said ?ange.
13. The method of forming a bottle-‘neck shape
ing axially during said last mentioned working.
at the upper end of a closed bottom sheet metal
axes, means for rotating the dies, means for ra
receptacle deep drawn from a single blank of
metal which includes the steps of forming a
?ange at the open end of the receptacle, holding
the receptacle between roller dies one of which is
axially yieldable and another of which-is radi
70 ally yieldable, maintaining the'?ange and recep
tacle bottom a constant distance apart, and roller
working the metal ‘in and adjacent to said ?ange
by rotating the dies and moving the axis of one
relatively toward the axis of- another to cause
said axially and radially yieldable dies to yield
60
18. Apparatus for cold working a sheet metal
article including three roller dies having parallel
dially moving one of said dies radially toward 65
a second to grip an article therebetween, yield
ing means mounting said second roller die for
radial movement in unison with the ?rst die after
the article has been gripped therebetween, yield
ing means mounting the third die for axial move 70
ment; said ?rst and second dies in their radial
movement reducing the diameter of the article
by pressure working adjacent the third die, and
said third die moving axially during said last
mentioned working.
75
2,131,027
8
19. Apparatus for cold working a sheet metal
article having a shaped edge at one end thereof
including a plurality of roller dies having par
allel axes, means for rotating the dies, a groove '
in one of said dies for holding said shaped edge
in a ?xed plane during working, means for radi
ally moving one of said dies radially toward an
other, yielding means mounting another of the
roller dies for axial movement, said radially and
10 axially movable dies working the article in and
adjacent to- the shaped edge during radial move
ment of the radially movable die, and said axially
15
another roller die during working, a plurality of
guide rolls engaging cylindrical portions of said
article at places spaced from each other and from
the dies and the portion of the article being
worked for holding the article in alignment be
tween the dies during working, a plurality of
'support rolls engaging cylindrical portions of the
article at places spaced from each other and from
the dies and adjacent to the portion of the arti
cle being worked for holding and maintaining 10
the article in cylindrical shape during working,
and means adjustably mounting said rolls.
23. Apparatus for cold working a closed bot
movable die moving axially ‘during said working. '
20. Apparatus for cold working a sheet metal tom sheet metal article having a shaped e ge atv
article having a shaped edge at one end thereof one end thereof including a plurality of roller 15
dies forworking the article at and adjacent to
the article at and adjacent to said shaped edge, said shaped edge, means for rotating‘ the dies,
means for rotating the dies, said dies including ' means for moving the axes of .the roller dies
means for holding said shaped edge in a ?xed toward and away from one another, yielding
means mounting one of the roller dies for axial 20
20 plane perpendicular to the axes of said roller movement from the pressure of another roller _
. dies during working, means for‘ moving the axes
die during working, said dies including means for
of the roller dies toward and away from one an
holding said shaped edge in a ?xed plane perpen
7 other, and yielding means mounting one ofthe
. including a plurality of‘ roller dies for working
roller dies for axial movement from the pressure
25 of another roller die during working.
21. Apparatus for cold'working' a bottle neck
at the top of a closed bottom cylindrical sheet
metal article including a plurality of roller dies
for working the article at and adjacent to the
80 top thereof, means for rotating the dies, means
for holding the extremities of the article in ?xed
planes perpendicular to the axes of the roller
dies spaced a constant distance apart during
working, means for moving the axes of the roller
dies toward and away from one another, and
yielding means mounting one of the roller dies
for‘ axial movement from the pressure of another
roller die during *working.
,
22. Apparatus for cold wo-rkinga closedbot
tom cylindrical sheet metal article having a
40 shaped edge at the open end thereof including a
plurality of roller dies for working the article at
and adjacent to said shaped edge, means for
rotating the dies, means for moving the axes of
the roller dies toward and away from one an
45 other, yielding means mounting one of the roller
dies for axial movement from the pressure of
dicular to the axes of the roller dies, means for
holding the other extremity of the article in an; 25
other ?xed plane perpendicular to the axes of
the roller dies and spaced a constant distance
from the ?rst said plane during working, and
means engaging the article at placesspaced from
each other and from the dies for supporting,
holding and maintaining the article in alignment
between the dies and in cylindrical shape during
working.
/
-
24. The method of forming a reduced neck at
an end of a cylindrical sheet metal article which 35
includes the steps of shaping‘ an edge at an end
of such article, and Working the metal in and
adjacent to said shaped edge under pressure be
tween roller dies by rotating the dies and mov
ing the axes thereof relatively toward one any 40
other; which working simultaneously rolls the
metal, increases the cross sectional length there'
of, and reduces the diameter of the shaped edge
and of the material adjacent to said shaped edge. ’
JOHN W. FRENCH.
JOHN O. E. CARLSON.
45
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