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Sept- 27; 1938.
H. HOLZWARTH ‘
2,131,047
METHOD AND APPARATUS- FOR CONTROLLING THE IGNITION IN EXPLOSION CHAMBERS
Filed April 21, 1934
17 Sheets-Sheet l
59/
STEH M
TURBINE
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Sepf. 27, 1938..
H. HOLZWARTH,
2,131,047
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING THE IGNITION IN EXPLOSION CHAMBERS
Filed April 21, 1934
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H. HOLZWARTH
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METHOD AND APQARATUS FOR CONTROLLING THE IGNITION IN EXPLOSION CHAMBERS
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METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING THE IGNITION IN EXPLOSION CHAMBERS
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METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING THE IGNITION IN EXPLOSION CHAMBERS
Filed April 21, 1934‘
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METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING THE IGNITION IN EXPLOSION CHAMBERS
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METHOD AND APPARATUS; FOR CONTROLLING THE IGNITION IN EXPLOSION CHAMBERS
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METHOD AND APPARATUS ‘FOR CONTROLLING THE IGNITION IN EXPLOSION CHAMBERS
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INVENTOI?
f
2,131,047
- Patented Sept. 27, 1938
UNITED v STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,131,047
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CONTROL-'
LING THE IGNITION IN EXPLOSION
CHAMBERS
Hans Holzwarth, Dusseldorf, Germany, assignor
to Holzwarth Gas Turbine 00., San Francisco,
Calif., a corporation of Delaware
Application April 21, 1934, Serial No. 721,705
In Germany April 24, 1933
(Cl. 60-41)
The present invention relates to a method and charge ?lling the chamber is brought to ignition
apparatus for igniting combustible mixtures in by the pointlike ignitor spark. Moreover, be
28 Claims.
a pistonless constant volume intermittent explo
sion chamber, ‘such as'is employed particularly
5 for the operation of explosion turbines.
It is the general object of the invention to
provide an improved mode of ignition and like
wise a control of the ignition whereby not only
rapid but complete combustion of the fuel is
10 obtained.
_
' The ignition of the combustible mixtures intro
,duced into and con?ned within constant volume
explosion chambers was originally accomplished
with the aid of externally controlled igniters,
15 generally electric spark plugs, in the manner in
common use in the piston engine art, such spark
plugs being ?red at pre-determined and easily
controllable instants. Careful'investigations on
this type of ignition as applied to the constant
20 volume explosion chambers have, however, re
vealed that while spark plugs e?ect satisfactory
ignition in the case of piston explosion engines,
nevertheless this type of ignition was accom
panied by various disadvantages when employed
25 in pistonless, constant volume explosion cham
bers which did_not become evident in piston en
gines and hence were heretofore completely un
recognized, In the first place, undesired pre
ignitions were observed, that is, ignitions which
cause of the slow ignition process the combustion
of the mixture is not complete, tests having
shown that unburned components are left, par- 5
ticuiarly when dif?cultly ignitable fuel is em
ployed. As these unburned parts are not com
pletely burned even during the subsequent ex
pansion of the gases generated by the combustion
of the charge, they leave the explosion chamber 10
unused with the discharging gases.
In recognition of these disadvantageous phe
nomena and in the effort to eliminate the same
effectively, I have more recently proposed a second
mode of ignition in which the ignition of the 15
combustible mixture con?ned within the cham
ber is initiated not by externally controlled ig
nition but by self-ignition of the charge with the
aid of hot elements in the explosion ‘chamber,
such as heated chamber parts or a hot gaseous 20
medium, such as residual combustion gases
trapped in the chamber. This latter mode of
ignition is not, strictly speaking, self-ignition
and may be more accurately described as “ther
mo-ignition”, so as to distinguish this mode of 25
ignition from ignition by means of spark plugs
and similarly externally controllable igniters,
which will be referred to hereinbelow as “ex
ternal igniter" or "externally controlled igniter”,
30 occurred while the explosion chamber was still and from true' self-ignition, accomplished by 30
being charged, the normal course of operation of compression of a combustible mixture and with
the plant being thereby seriously disturbed. ' out the aid of heat introduced as such from ex
ternal sources. For carrying out this mode of
These pre-ignitions were due primarily to in
suf?cient scavenging of the chambers of - the re
35 sidual gases, there being no suitable mechanical
means ‘present (for example, a piston) for assist
ing in the scavenging, and particularly to in
complete expulsion _of the slow burning, Slowing
or-smoldering fuel particles of the preceding ex
“ plosion.
.
A further disadvantage of the ignition process
in explosion chambers provided only, with ex
ternally controlled igniters arose from the fact
that the explosions developed very slowly, due
45 mainly to the comparatively small igniting sur
face presented at the moment of ignition. This
Y disadvantage/becomes especially severe in the
preferred operation with spark plugs in which
at the instant of ignition provided by the jump
50 ing of the spark across the electrodes only a
point-like-ignition surface is presented to the
charge. to be ignited, such ignition surface being
extremely small in comparison to the volume of
’ gas to be ignited. A comparatively long interval
55 of time must therefore elapse before the whole
. ignition by means of hot elements within the
chamber, I have proposed to enclose or trap be- 35
tween the outlet member of the explosion cham
ber and the new charge introduced thereinto
a hot gaseous medium, for example, the residual
gases of the previous explosion. This gaseous
residue at the discharge end of the chamber is 40
brought to such a temperature that at the sur
face of contact between this body of gas and
‘the new charge the thermo-ignition temperature _
is reached which then directly initiates the com
bustion.
’
45
.
Investigations with the above-mentioned self
ignition or rather thermo-ignition processes have
confirmed its superiority over operation with ex
ternally controlled igniters. Ignition purely by 50
thermo-ignition effects above all a very rapid
explosion which is recognizable in an indicator.
diagram by a steep combustion line.
Further
more, the exhaust gases no longer show the pres
ence of unburned fuel, thus presenting the im- 55
2
2,131,047
portant advantage over ignition with external
igniters of complete utilization of the fuel.
Closer study of the explosion process as accom-v
which attends an ignition exclusively by exter
nally controlled ignition is replaced by the ex
tremely rapid pressure rise characteristic of
thermo-ignition. A further advantage is ob
tained, and this was quite unexpected, ‘that dur
ing the actual explosion, that is, during the steep
plished by .thenno-ignition, has, however, brought
to light the fact that even the thermo-ignition
process, in spite of its various advantages over
ignition-by an external igniter, is not quite free
of defects. Thus it has been established that
not all of the fuel in the combustible mixture
rise of the combustion line in the indicator dia
gram, practically complete combustion of the.
whole quantity of fuel in the explosion cham
ber occurs. The unavoidable after-combustion 10
is burned during the rapidly developing portion
of the explosion process, that is, during the steep
rise of the combustion line in the indicator pres
of the fuel which heretofore followed the sudden
pressure rise in pure thermo-ignitions is thus
sure-time diagram It has been ‘found to be nec
eliminated.
essary to keep‘ the explosion chamber closed even ‘
15 after the termination of the above-mentioned
steep portion of the explosion curve in order to
‘insure the combustion of the residual portion of
fuel before the outlet valve is opened and the
expansion out of the chamber begins. Under
20 certain circumstances care must be taken that
combustion of the residual fuel portion occurs
during the expansion itself. In operation with
pure thermo-ignition the energy introduced in
the form of the fuel is indeed converted into heat
25 without loss; such energy is not, however, com
.
The invention will be further described and a
number of methods and constructions for carry 15
ing out the same will be explained hereinbelow
by way of example with the aid of the accom
panying drawings forming a part of this speci?
‘
cation. In said drawings,
-Fig. 1 shows schematically a longitudinal sec 20
tion through an explosion turbine plant embody
ing mechanism for carrying out the mode of
ignition in accordance with the invention, the
control being manual; Figs. 1a and 1b present
sections along the vlines Ia-Ia and Ib-Ib of
pletely converted intova rise of pressure of the Fig. 1 through the hydraulic valve controlling
generated explosion gases, as would be desired, mechanism; Fig. 2 .illustrates diagrammatically
but the heat operates to heat to a considerable the time-pressure relationship according to my
degree the walls of the explosion chamber and improved mixed ignition igniting process during
30 also the cooling medium in the cooling jacket of ' the ?rst part of the explosion phase, the abscissa
the chamber, such heat being carried o? as waste scale ‘being unusually large in relation to the
heat and being utilizable only at considerably ordinate scale to make the representation clearer;
reduced emciency.
'
Fig. 3 shows the characteristic course of the
It is the object of the present invention to pro
time-pressure line upon initiation of the explo
vide a mode of ignition for explosion chambers ,
which retains the advantages of the above-de
scribed ign'ition by thermo-ignition but avoids
the disadvantages thereof. The solution of this
problem according to the present invention is
40 characterized by the action of controlled exter
nal igniters upon ignitable mixturesintroduced
into the explosion chamber which have reached
the theimo-ignition point, that is, the tempera
ture and pressure at which self-ignition will take
45 place, or have just passed it.
the one shown in light lines and beginning earlier
corresponds to the operation with pure thermo
ignition, while- the one shown in heavier lines
and occurring later corresponds to operation with
mixed ignition according to the invention; Fig. 5
shows diagrammatically the course of va regula
tion operation, selected by way of example, for
the practical carrying out of my improved igni:
According to the
invention, both the external and thermo-ignition
tion process; Fig. 6 is a diagram showing the
characteristics of the factors in?uencing the na
are brought into action in a de?nite sequence
ture of the ignition upon change in the heating
of the mixture to be ignited; Fig. 7 shows sche
matically a typical explosion chamber provided
with inlet and outlet members and indicating 60
three locations in the walls of the chamber at
which temperature measurements were taken;
Fig. 8 shows one of such measuring locations in
section; Figs. 9 and 10 are diagrams illustrating
special regulations suitable for carrying out and 55
maintaining mixed ignition in accordance with
the invention; Figs. 11 to 32 show a series of
control devices of various kinds and constructions
operating automatically for carrying out and
stabilizing my improved mixed ignition operation
in dependence upon the processes and phenomena
occurring in the explosion chamber, in which
?gures Figs. 11 to 13 show mechanism for auto
upon the mixture con?ned in the explosion cham
ber. The preliminary ignition‘ of the mixture
50 initiated either by thermo-ignition alone (in such
case the operation of the external igniter occurs
later, although still within the course of the .ex
plosion. so initiated), or else the process is ma
nipulated in such manner that the external ig
nition is made to act‘ upon the mixture at the
instant that the thermo-ignition point of the
mixture is reached. In such case the original
ignition is initiated primarily by the external
igniter; but even during the so-initiated explosion
60 thermo-ignitions automatically occur throughout
the whole mixture in consequence of the imme
diate rise in pressure which raises the mixture
above its thermo-ignition point.~ It is thus a
65
sions by purely externally controlled ignition;
Fig. 4 shows two time-pressurevlines of ‘which
feature of my improved ignition process that
whether the initial ignition is effected by ther
mo or external ignition, the other of the two
.modes of ignition is brought into action during
. the course of the explosion following the initial ..
ignition.
70
By means of the common action of the thermo
andexternai ignitions upon the mixture inac
cordance with the invention, and by the mutual
assistance of both modes of ignition so obtained,
the result is ?rst of all secured that the lag or
75 slowness in the course of the explosion process
matically controlling the character of the igni
tion, Fig. 11 being a vertical longitudinal section
through the ignition controller along the line 65
XI-XI of Figs. 12 and 13 and Figs. 12_and 13
being horizontal sections through the ignition
controller along the lines XII and XII and
XIII-XII respectively-of Fig. 11; Fig. 14 shows 70
av different form of ignition controller and repre
sents a vertical longitudinal section through the
controller along the line XIV-XIV of Figs. 17
and 18; Fig. '15 is a fragment of a similar section
showing the middle piston valve position; Fig. 16 15
3
2,181,047
shows a section similar to Fig. 15 but illustrates
the upper piston valve position; Figs. 17 and 18,
are horizontal cross sections along the lines
XVII-XV'II and XVIII-XVIII, respectively, of
Fig. 14;‘ Fig. 19 is a vertical section along the
line XIX—XIX of Fig. 20 showing a plant wherein
the regulation of the ignition is effected by‘ vary
ing the size of the minimum discharge ?owcross
section or area available to the displaced residual
the latter passing by way of a pressure equalizer V
K to the: continuous current turbine T2 from
which the gases are discharged through the ex
haust pipe L. The continuous current turbine
T2 is impinged also by the residual gases ?owing
through pipe M and discharging from the explo
sion chamber through the valve J during the
scavenging period. The rotors of the turbine T1
and T2 are coupled in common with an electric
1 0 gases; Fig. 20 represents a vertical section along
the line XX--XX of Fig. 19; Fig. 21 is a partial
section along the line XXI-m of Fig. 20;
Fig. 22 is a‘ vertical section through an arrange
ment in which the ignition controller and the
generator N which receives the available output 10
of such turbines.
1 5 devices upon which it operates are built as a
unit, the section being taken along the line
XX[I—XXII of Fig. 24; Fig. 23 is a similar view
along the line XXIII-XXIII of Fig. 24; Fig. 24
is a horizontal longitudinal section along line
/
All of the inlet and outlet members of the ex
plosion chamber A are connected in known man
ner with the hydraulic pressure control mecha
nism O which is provided with a separate control 15
section for each controlled element. The control
mechanism illustrated consists as usual of a ro
tating member P which is provided _upon its_cir
cumferencc with control blocks‘ P1 and P2 for
each individual control section (see Figs. 1a and
20 XXIV—-XXIV of Fig. 23; Fig. 25 is a vertical ' .lb) and is driven at uniform speed by the electric
section along the line XXV-XXV of Fig". 22;
Fig. 26 shows an explosion turbine plant in‘ ver
tical longitudinal section and illustrates a differ
ent mode of regulation; Figs. 27 and 28 are hori
25 zontal sections along the line XXVIL-XXVII
' and XXVIII and XXVIH, respectively, of Fig. 26;
motor R. The latter drives also the fuel feeding
mechanism C2 and the pump S which continually
feeds a liquid under pressure (for example, oil)
into the receiver space 01 of the control mecha 25
nism 0 through conduit S1. The space 01 of the
control mechanism is brought into communica
Fig. 29 shows diagrammatically an explosion
turbine plant in which the control of the ignition tion at de?nite instants, depending upon the
is effected by regulating the temperature of the - speed of the member P, with the individual cyl
inders U of the controlled members through the
30 supercharging air; Fig. 30 is a similar view of
respective conduits V1 to V4 which are controlled
a plant constructed in accordance with the in
vention wherein the ignition is controlled by by the control blocks P1 and P2 of the associated
_ regulating the moisture content of the scavenging
air; Figs. 31 and 32 show arrangements wherein
35 the ignition is controlled by regulating the tem
perature and the quantity, respectively, of the
cooling agent for the explosion chamber; Figs. 33
and 34 illustrate a plant embodying the mecha
nism' shown in-Figs. 22 to 25, Fig. 34 being a,
XXXIV of
40 section taken along the line XXXIV. vFig. 33.
control sections of the control mechanism.
the control section in question (in- the embodi
ment illustrated, the uppermost section) is pro
vided with two vertically spaced circumferential
grooves, one communicating with the space 01
and the other with an exhaust space, such grooves
-
' Referring to the drawings. A indicates an elon
being brought alternately 'into communication
with the cpipe V1, there being associated with the
gated explosion chamber of known construction
provided with conical inlet and outlet sections.
upper groove an adjustable intermediate bushing
W. By rotation of this bushing the control points
of the opening and closing instants of the con
trolled’ valve can be displaced relatively to each
The scavenging air valve is shown at B and is
45 arranged with its axis coincident with that of
the explosion chamber, the fuel injection valve
being shown at C and the super-charging air
valve at D.
The compressor E delivers the scav
To ‘
enable the opening and closing instants of a, valve
of the explosion chamber to be altered or shifted 85
with respect to each other within one and the
same control section of the control mechanism,
other.
-
'
enging air through the conduit E1; the charging
‘ ' The charging of the explosion chamber A oc~>
second compressor stage E2 to the required charg
ing pressure. The fuel nozzle C is connected by
vention, this mixture is ignited by the spark
plugs G1 and G2 and by thermo-ignition, the
two modes of ignition being brought into action
50 air is delivered by the charging compressor E2 curs in known manner. After the scavenging vof
coupled with the compressor E, both compressors the chamber, the latter is ~ ?rst charged with
being driven by the engine F which may be in the charging air from the compressor E2 through the
' valve D, while fuel is introduced through the in
‘form of a steam turbine. The supercharging air jection valve C. At the end of the charging
is pre-compressed in the compressor E to an in
55 termediate pressure corresponding to the scav
period the chamber is occupied with an ignitable
enging pressure and is further compressed in the mixture of fuel and air. According to the in
conduit C1 with the fuel feeding mechanism G2.
60 G1 and G2 are externally controlled'igniting de
vices, such as spark plugs, which are built into
the wall of the cylindrical middle section of the
explosion chamber. The latter is surrounded‘in
the usualvmanner by a cooling jacket.‘ At the
65. outlet end of the explosion chamber are arranged
two controlled outlet members, one of them being
the outlet or nozzle valve H through which the
hot combustion gases generated in the explosion -
chamber are discharged, and the other the auxil~
iary exhaust valve J through which at least a
part of the residual gases escape during the scav
enging of the chamber. The high pressure gases
passing through the nozzle valve H strike the
explosion turbine T1, the gases discharging from
simultaneously, or else the external, i. e., the
spark plug ignition can be made to act a very
short time after the self-ignition is designed to
occur. The thermo-ignition.temperature of the
mixture is created by the action of heat upon its
component parts. To this end a certain amount
of residual gases is ?rst of all retained or trapped
at the outlet end of the chamber by a premature
closing of the outlet of the chamber, the sensible
heat of such gases being then transmitted to the 70
mixture of fuel and air for accomplishing the
thermo-ignition thereof. This result is secured
by virtue of the fact that the scavenging air en
tering through the valve B spreads out uniformly
over the whole explosion shamber cross~section 75
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