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Патент USA US2131108

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SePt- 27, 1938-
N. E. LINDENBLAVD
2,131,108
SHORT WAVE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
Filed April 28, 1936
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INVENTOR.
QNILS. E. LINDENBLAD
BY
ATTORNEY.
SePt- 27, 1938-
N. E; LINDENBLAD
2,131,103
SHORT WAVE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
Filed April 28,1936
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ATTORNEY.
Sept. 27, 1938.
N. E. LINDENBLAD
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Filed April 28, 1936
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INVENTOR.
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NILS E. LINDENBLAD
BY
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Sept.‘ 27, 1938:.
2,131,108
N. E. LINDENBLAD
SHORT WAVE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
Filed April 28, 1936
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N. E. LINDENB‘LAD
2,131,108
SHORT WAVE COMMUNICATION "S1ISTEM
Filed April 28, 1936
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INVENTOR.
NILS E. LINDENBLAD
BY
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ATTORNEY.
Sept. 27, 1938.
2,131,108
N. E. LINDENBLAD
SHORT WAVE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
Filed April 28, 1936
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INVENTOR.
BY
gNILS E. LINDENBLAD
ATTORNEY.
Sept. 27, 1938.
N. E. LINDENBLAD
2,131,108
SHORT WAVE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
Filed April 28, 1936
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INVENTOR.
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BY
NILS E. LINDENBLAD
gm
ATTORNEY.
Patented Sept. 27, 1938
2,131,108
‘ UNITED‘ STATES.
PATENT OFFICE
' 2,131,108
SHORT WAVE COMlIUNICAT-ION SYSTEM
Nils E. Lindenblad, Port Jefferson, N. Y., assign
'
or. to Radio Corporation of America, a. corpo
' ration of Delaware
Application April 28, 193_6, Serial No. 76,745
“Claims. (Cl. 250-33)
This invention relates to improvements in an
tenna systems and to the associated equipment
for use therein.
porting feeders, which merely acts as an in
ductance shunted across the aerial elements.
Among the advantages obtained by the present
Some of the objects of the invention are; to
5 obtain substantially uniform radiation in the
plane of the radiating elements; to enable the
transmission of waves substantially uniformly in
the horizontal plane; to provide an antenna
which has a substantially uniform response char
l0_ acteristic over a wide band of frequencies,- such
as might be used for television: to provide a rigid
and practical antenna'structure for use on the
tops of high buildings wherein the feeders them
selves form supports for the radiating elements;
to match the surge impedances of the radiating
elements to the impedances of the supporting
feeders; to obtain an impedance match between
a plurality of branch feeders and a main feeder
without introducing excessive circulatingenergy
20 in the system; to. provide an impedance match
invention is the provision of a novel type of im
pedance matching circuit which is compact, me- 5 ,
chanically rigid, and electrically self-shielding.
Other objects, features and advantages will ap
pear from a reading of the following description,
which is accompanied by drawings wherein like
reference numerals indicate like parts through- 10
out the ?gures.
'
'
2
;
Figs. 1, 1a and 2 illustrate simplified antenna
systems in accordance with the invention, for ob
taining substantially uniform radiation in the
15
plane of the aerial elements;
Fig. lb is an approximate radiation ?eld pat
tern in the plane of the aerial elements for a sys-'
tem such as is illustrated in Figs. 1 and la;
Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 6a and 7 illustrate various an
tenna embodiments of'the invention employing 20
ing device in'the form of a concentric transmis
aerial elements which form sides of one or more‘
sion line; to enable the connection and impedance
equilateral triangles;
matching of a single concentric conductor sys
tem to a plurality of concentric conductor sys
25 tems.
The invention includes among its features:
(1) An antenna system having a plurality of
aerial or radiating conductors angularly disposed
at substantially 60° with respect to each other,
30 located in the same plane, and so arranged and
energized as to produce substantially uniform ra
diation in the plane of the elements.
(2) An antenna unit having three aerial or ra
diating elements which form sides of an equilat
eral triangle, each of whose sides is equal to one
half the length of the communication wave, for
effecting uniform radiation in the'plane of the
unit.
.
(3) An antenna system formed of a plurality
of units in different parallel planes, each unit of
which comprises an equilateral triangular affair
having a plurality of half wavelength conductors
which are angularly disposed at substantially 60°
with respect to one another, the conductors in one
45 unit being fed at points intermediate the ends
while the conductors in a parallel plane are fed
110
from the ends.
'
(4) A feeder in the form of a concentric line
having inner and outer conductors whose relative
50 diametrical dimensions vary to produce desired
changes in impedance of the feeder.
(5) _An arrangement for feeding an antenna
system directly from the same elements which
support the aerial or radiating conductors.
(6) A metallic bracing structure for the sup
.
Figs. 4a, 4b, 7a and 7b are given for the pur
pose of exposition and show the current distri
bution pattern in the aerial elements of adja- 25
cent triangular units;
I
Fig. ‘7c is a view showing the system of Fig. 'l '
unfolded in a single plane in order to more com
pletely illustrate the structure of Fig. 7 and the
manner in which the various elements thereof are 30
energized;
'
‘
Figs. 8, 9 and 9a show different metallic brace _
arrangements across the feeders for providing ,
greater mechanical rigidity of the antenna struc
ture;
-
35
Fig. 10 illustrates a preferred embodiment of
antenna, impedance matching system, and feeder
system in accordance with the invention;
Fig. 11 is a detail of the system of Fig. 10
showing one pair of supporting feeders and asso- 40
ciated apparatus in order to more clearly illus
trate the principles of the invention;
Fig. 110. discloses an alternative arrangement‘
to that of Fig. 11 for feeding the doublets of the
diiferent triangular units;
'
45
Fig. 12 illustrates a circuit arrangement of
?lter and impedance circuit which may be em
ployed in‘feeding energy from a plurality of
transmitters to. an antenna system of the type
shown in Fig. 10.
50
Fig. 1 shows a simpli?ed antenna system for
practicing the present invention comprising a
pair of V-shaped aerial wires 1, 2 angularly dis
posed at substantially 60° with respect to each
other and located in a single plane, such as the 55
2,181,108
horizontal plane. Aerial wires I and 2, herein
after referred to as doublets, each have a length
substantially equal to half the length of the
communication wave and are energized at one
which ‘it will be seen that radiation is substan
tially uniform in the plane.
The radiation pattern of a single V in accord
ance with the invention is considerably improved
by adding a third half wavelength doublet be
of their adjacent ends by a transmitter 3 which
feeds energy through antenna tuning and im ‘ tween the morewidely spaced ends of the V
pedance matching device 4 to line 5. The broken to provide an antenna system in the form of an
lines of Fig. 1 indicate the voltage distribution equilateral triangle, each angle of which is 60°.
along the doublets, from which it should be ob
One such arrangement is shown in Fig. 3, where
10 served that adJacent ends of the doublets have in each doublet or radiating element 5", 6 or 1 10
opposite instantaneous polarities. If desired, the forms with each adjacent doublet a V, thus each
doublets I, 2 may be energized at points inter
doublet is a side of two .V's. In the system of
‘mediate their ends, instead of at one of their Fig. 3, the spacings between the centers of all
ends, and one way of "accomplishing this is shown doublets are such as again to provide minimum
in Fig. 1a, wherein each doublet is fed from a variation of the radiation pattern in the plane of 15
'separate transmission line 5' which connects with the wires. The optimum value of spacing for
the antennatuning and. impedance matching maximum uniform radiation in the plane of the
circuit 4. In all other respects the systems of triangle can be determined by trial, since the
Figs. 1 and 1a are similar.
mathematical computations involved are exceed
20
An essential condition in the practice of ‘the ingly complicated. By experiment, spacings have 20
invention is that the centers of the angularly been found where the variation is substantially
disposed doublets should not physically coincide not more than 5% in amplitude. Such order of
in the plane of the wires, or, putting it another uniformity of radiation has been obtained with
' way, the branches should not make the sym
metrical con?guration of an X, although the
more closely adjacent ends of the doublets may
cross one another to some extent. In the last
__ case, where the doublets do cross each other to
some extent, the doublets should not be con
30 ductively coupled together and consequently
cannot be in the same plane at the exact point
of crossing. Fig. 2 shows one such arrangement
wherein two half wavelength doublets 3' and 4'
cross each other for only a fraction of their
35 length. The principles underlying this condi
tion are based on the fact that the radiations
‘from the doublets of the V are in phase in cer
~ tain directions, such as in the plane of the bi
spacings between centers of the wires of an equi
lateral triangle, such as herein described, of ap 25
proximately a quarter of the length of the com
munication wave, or half the length of each side
of the triangle, although it is to be distinctly
understood that the invention is not limited to
this particular spacing.
30
Doublets 5", 6 and 1 are coupled together by
half wavelength radiationless loops A, B and C
and energized from high frequency transmitter
3 connected to one of these loops, here shown as
C through transmission line TL. This line con 85
nects with loop C at points where the impedance
of the line is matched to the impedance of the
loop and antenna. The lengths of the loops A, B
sector which is perpendicular to the plane of the and C are so chosen as to give desired opposite
40 V wires, in which directions the centers of the ‘ instantaneous polarities on adjacent ends of ad 40
doublets are on the same wave front and have jacent doublets as indicated. If desired, the sys
no space difference, whereas in other directions
such as along a line passing through the centers
of the branches of the V, the radiations from the
45 doublets of the V are in opposing phase but dis
} placed in space to prevent cancellation of the
tem of Fig. 3 can be fed in other ways; for ex
ample, each doublet 5", 6, ‘I can be energized
at points intermediate their ends in the manner
shown in Fig. 1a, in which case loops A, B and C 45
will be dispensed with.
Fig. 3 is merely one unit which gives uniform
radiation in the plane of the triangle, and to
obtain greater directivity in a plane perpendicu
lar to the plane of the triangle, several such units
may be stacked one above the other. Fig. 4
shows, by way of example, one embodiment by
radiations from the two doublets of the V. In
the last particular instance the ideal arrange
ment would be to have a space displacement be
50 tween the centers of the branches of the V equal
to half the length of the communication wave
or an odd multiple thereof.‘ Such spacing, how
ever, is detrimental to uniform radiation in the . means of which this stacking can be achieved.
plane of the V because there are two factors to
In Fig. 4 there are shown four horizontal equi
55 be considered; namely, maximum radiation e?i
lateral triangular units D, E, F and G stacked 55
ciency and minimum variation in the radiation one above the other and spaced one-half wave
pattern in the plane of the wires. These two length apart. These equilateral triangular units
factors depend to an extent upon the linear spac
each comprise half wavelength doublets which
ing between the doublets of the V while main
60 taining the angle between the doublets approxi
mately constant. If the linear spacing between
centers of the doublets of the v is greater than,
let us say, one-half wavelength-then for certain
of these spacings beyond one-half wavelength
65 there is obtained maximum radiation in direc
tions other than the plane of the wires. Con
are energized through vertical supporting feeder
lines 8, 9 and ill, in turn, connected to line TL
and transmitting apparatus 3. The triangular
units are so arranged that correspondingly lo
cated wires in the different units connect with
the lines 8, 9 and ill to produce similar voltage
curves therein.
These voltage curves are indi
65
cated by broken lines on all the doublets of the
centers of‘ the branches wherein there is a com
units, as well as the instantaneous ~polarities at
promise between maximum radiation emciency the ends of the doublets. The optimum value of
of the system and minimum variation in the a the spacing between doublets of an individual 70
triangular unit, 1. e., the spacing which gives a
radiation pattern in the plane of the wires.
' sequently there are certain spacings between the
Fig. 1b illustrates the radiation ?eld pattern
obtained in the horizontal plane of the doublets
of the system of Figs. 1 and id for a particular
75 spacing of approximately one-quarter wave, from .
minimum of variation in radiation at good radi
ation e?iciency, where several triangular units
are made to form an antenna array will now
vary from the simple case of Fig. 3, and should 75
3.
3,191,408”;
'
again be determined by trial, because‘ of the mu-f . connection on. the ‘at. A", a" and c" to the
» .vertical feeders ‘ll, i2 and it will approachthe
tual
Thereaction
verticalbetween
brokenthe
linetriangular
of sine wave
units.form“,
.
radiating doublets of the associated triangular
indicates the standing wave on each vertical. units I less closely than the points, of connection
feeder of a pair. Since adjacent feeders of'the‘; I~ on the correspondingly located loops A'”, B'”.
same, pairs‘ each have standing waves of opposite _ and-C"! of the lower or preceding unit H.
it
instantaneous polarity at correspondingly'located
Fig-6 shows a; modification of the antenna of .
points along the feeders, there will be radiation theinventior'i, somewhat similar to the arrange
cancellation. The feeders of each pairarejsepa-l'
_ r
'_ ment of
.4, except for the positioning and
10 rated at voltage nodal points by suitable spacers electrical connections of the feeder pairs. In 10'
Figu?there are shown three equilateral trian- ,
S. The transmission line TL from the transmit
ter 3 is matched at the bottom of one corner of
gular' units 1K, L‘ and M which ai'espaced one
vone pair of ‘feeders, here shown as 8, although it. half wavelength apart, and. midway ‘between
will be'obvious that each pair of- feeder ‘maybe ‘ adjacent triangular units on the vertical feeders
15 energized at the bottoms thereof as in gated in , ' i4, i5; and [6, there are metallic transverse spac
connection with pair 8.
‘
I
= '
jers Sf conductively connecting together each pair
-
15
_
The equilateral triangular units D,'-"E, F' and t of feeders; '- The points where these spacers ooh
G, are spaced one-half wavelength ‘apart, for I tact thefeedersare voltage nodal points for the
which reason, to obtain like polarities in similar‘- "' standing waves produced on the'feeders. 1 Cross
20 19 located doublets of the units, the individual" connections I'I are provided on .both sides 'of 20"
doublets of adjacent triangular units must be ‘the spacers S‘for' connecting each feeder'of each
' connected to opposite sides of the vertical feede x .pair' on one side ofithe spacer to the other feeder
ers. This mode of connection of the triangularv 1 of the same pairzon the other side of the spacer _, '
units to the feeders appears more understand- ' :to provide the-equivalent of a transposition of v
25 triangles
able fromasFigs.
they4a,appear
4b which
fromshow
avplan
'the'individual
view.‘ .Ai the feederjwires at the voltage nodal point be-‘
25
' tween triangular ,units.
'
'
The spacers merely pro- .
ternate triangles would appear inithe same way. videlmech'anical"advantages ‘for the system: ‘-‘It
The feeder pairs 8, 9‘ and iii are respectively " wilifbe observed that similarly located doublets of _ .
terminated at their'lowerends by loopsA', B’ and 'all triangular-‘units K,~L and‘MQare connected
C’ each of which has an overall length of’ a half 1
to the same feeder; wires. This. arrangement
wave, each leg of the loops being aquarter wave-'* employing.metallicispacers is, in practice,‘ not
length. Consequently,’ if the loops are made-to suitable for useqwhere it is desired to match, the
be extensions of the feeder pairs 8, 9 and i0, as characteristic impedance- of. the‘feeders to the}
“I. ‘
-
shown in the drawings, and their midpoints rest, terminal impedance of the radiating'doublets‘,
}
g
on a support, the tuning of the‘ antenna system‘ - due . mainly. to'th'e introduction of inductance‘in‘ 35>
will not be a?ected by such supports since the
' midpoints of the loops A’. B’ and C" are voltage‘
nodal
points.
-
‘
h»
.
I
-
If desired, the equilateral triangular units 1),‘
E, F and G may be placed a full wavelength
apart, in which case all triangular units will be
connected in the same manner to the feeder
wires, instead of having adjacent‘ units con
nected to opposite sides .of the line, as indicated
45 in Figs. 4, 4a and4b;
I
-
shunt. across- the feeders. Of course,’ such" ,in-.>
ductance can be tuned out" by further' con'ipli-v ‘ "
eating‘. heantenna system with? compensating
' capacitors},
l
-_
Fig. 6a is av modi?cation of'Fig." 6, which elim-l,
inates
between
theradiating
need forunits,
transposition.
sincein/this
ofthe‘case
feeders
the" . ~'
triangular units are spaced one'wavelength apart: - '
along‘ the feeder pairs. ‘In this ?gure, just‘ as
in Figs. 4, 5 and 6, the transmissionline TLfrom~
"
:45
,
'
In practice, the system of. Fig. 4 has disadvan-z . the transmitter 3 is matched atthe bottom-‘of one ,
tages because of the difficulty of matching the of the ‘pairs of feederssto which it connects.
characteristic impedance of the vertical feeders
At mentioned’ above, for communicationfwith?
‘ . to the terminal impedance of the radiating dou
50 blets‘of the triangular units.
Such ‘matching
would require unreasonable physical dimensions
_ of both the radiating doublets and the feeders.
The feeders of the system, of course, need not
_ be matched to the triangular units to provide a
signals having a wide band of, frequencieaijs'uch .
as high definition television, it is of‘ \utxnost?irné :
portance that the antenna systemuhaveaininie >- .
power
radiated
factor.
energ'yfrom
., The systems
the system,=i.
of Figs; 7,10,.11
e., 'ahigh.
and "-. ‘ .
systemfor radiating one particular fre
55 practical
quency or a narrow band of frequencies such as
in telephony. Where, however, a wide band, such
as in television, is required to‘be uniformly radig
ated, it is essential that all feeders be matched
to be especially suitable and superior .‘for. ‘this
purpose
To achieve
to any
thisofdesirable‘
the'systems
result,
before“described.v
the individuailk~
80 to the radiating doublets to insure a minimumv
ratio of circulated energy in the system versus
radiated energy from the system. The desired
matching may be obtained by employing a plu
on the radiators where the impedance of; the ra
diators match the: characteristic. impedance ;of'-I .
rality of stacked triangle units of the type shown
65 in Fig. 3. Such an arrangement is illustrated in _
Fig. 5, which shows, as an example, only two tri
angular units H and I, and wherein the corre
spondingly located loops of the triangular units
A", A'”, B", B'” and C", C’” are connected to
70 the vertical feeders ll, i2 and i3 at points on
the loops where the impedance value equals. the
‘I "
mumratio "of circulating energy-in thejsystem ‘to ' '
12, to be described hereinafter, have-been found;
doublets of. the triangularunits of. Figs. 7,10, '11 . '
and 12 are connected to the feeders at such points ‘
_
75 mitter 3, it will be observed that the points of
‘
the feeders. '
Fig.7 shows one, satisfactory. antenna embodi-Tv
ment for achieving wide1-frequency"band,come,’
munication. Here there are provided'six trans- ‘f, " ~‘
mission lines comprisingthree pairs‘of vertical‘ >
feeders i8,,l9;*;20,;2l and 22, 23, each of'whichUY
connectswithl a'gtwo-wire transmission. line
.
extending tovhigh frequency apparatus through.
antenna tuning and impedance matching‘ device
characteristic impedance of the feeder. _As the
load of each stacked unit is added to the pre
ceding unit as we move away from the trans
i
'ment
are
form
4 (note
ofaof opposite
six
feedersis'known
Fig.wire
7c).cage,
phaseJ'Such
‘These‘three'pairs.of'feeders
in which
to givea'cage
adjacent
very'iittl'e
arrange-f.
feeders
radi: , '._§
c 1
a,1s1,1'oe
ation even when the spacing is an appreciable ,impedance matching of the feeders throughout
fraction of a wavelength, for example an eighth their lengths since this would call for large
of a wavelength. The fact that these feeders can changes in diameter of the feeders. A slight mis
be separated without producing radiation is uti
match of the feeders, especially if the voltage
lized in making the cage serve as a support for nodal points of the thus created standing wave
the triangular radiating units N, O and P. Each portion of the total energy on the feeder (since
unit comprises three half-wavelength doublets some standing waves are created with a mis
forming sides of an open equilateral triangle. match) are located mid-way between adjacent
'Unit P contains doublets 24, 25 and 26; unit 0 triangular units, is not, however, detrimental to
10 contains doublets 21, 28 and 29; and unit N con
the system, since in this condition the polarities
tains doublets 30, 3| and 32.. The feeders l8, I9, at the terminals of each half wave section be 10
20 etc. are in the form of rigid pipes on which tween adjacent triangular units is reversed and of
the individual doublets of the ‘equilateral trian
equal amplitude regardless of whether there is
gular units may be mounted directly or, as shown a standing or traveling wave in the section.
in the drawings for mechanical and electrical
If now we consider a case where the maximum
reasons, supported through metallic brackets 25’.
All brackets 25' are of the same length and the point of a standing voltage wave on the feeders
instead of a minimum falls midway between ad
impedance of these including the vertical feed
jacent
triangular radiating units, we may have
ers are matched to the impedance of the doublets
a very different mode of tuning, if at the same
20 at spaced points on the doublets intermediate
the ends thereof in well known manner. In time the impedance offered by the individual
doublets across the feeders is inductive. The
other words, each doublet is arranged to intro
case
then is similar to the situation described
duce a load which matches the vertical feeders
at the points of connection so that a minimum in my United States Patent No. 1,821,386, granted
September 1, 1931, wherein there is obtained an
KO 111 or no standing wave is set up on the vertical
feeders. Since the phase lag introduced by the in?nite phase velocity along the feeders so that 25
additional length of brackets 25’ is the same in all points along each feeder is at the same phase.
all triangular units‘N, O and P, they do not affect In this particular case the adjacent triangular
the phase relations between the triangular units. units do not need to have the order of connection
of the individual radiating doublets changed as
30 The units are here shown spaced one-half wave
length apart, correspondingly located doublets shown in Figs. 7 to 70, and instead all triangular
of which are located one wavelength apart. units may have their correspondingly located
Since adjacent equilateral triangular units are doublets similarly located along the feeder line.
one-half wavelength apart, the same feeder will Because of this phase phenomenon, there is no
need to employ any particular spacing between
as have opposite polarities at the points of connec adjacent
units. It is evident that a system built
tion so spaced, for which reason it is necessary to
reverse the order of polarity connection of the to operate according to the principles above set
individual doublets of the adjacent triangular forth in connection with Fig. 7 will have this
units so that the currents in adjacent triangles second degree of freedom (or tuning) just de
40 may have the same direction.
This current di
rection is illustrated in Figs. 7a and 7b as being
counterclockwise, although it will be appreciated
that the direction of the currents in all the equi
lateral triangular units N, O and P may be re
versed. Figs. 7a and 7b are plan views of the
scribed at a lower frequency. The entire feeders
and those portions of the individual radiating
doublets in the triangular units falling outside 40
the tapping points on the doublets are then ef
fective capacities which are tuned by the portion
of the radiating'doublets between the tapping
triangular units P and 0, respectively, and indi- , which are effective inductances. This last mode ,
'cate how the individual doublets of each unit
on each level are fed from different feeder wires.
It will be observed, among other things, that
50 the doublets of adjacent triangular units, such
as P and O, are differently positioned, while those
of alternately located units, such as P and N,
are similarly positioned. Referring to Fig. 7a
as an example, it will be seen that feeders i8 and
55 23 feed doublet 24 of unit P, whereas in the ad
jacent lower unit 0, (note Fig. 7b) these two
feeders help feed two different doublets. The
manner of feeding all doublets of the triangular
units N, O and P will be more clearly understood
60 from an inspection of Fig. 70, which is an unfold
ed view of the antenna structure as it would look
if the feeders and doublets were all placed in a
’ single plane.
When feeding the system of Fig. 7, as shown
_ in ‘7c, it may be desirable to change the dimen
sions_of the feeders I8, i9, 20 etc. abruptly at
successive levels at which they connect with the
different triangular units. because of the abrupt
change in load impedance on the feeders as the
70 feeders extend past a level of a triangular unit
and approach the top of the antenna. In Fig. 7
- the diameters of the feeders decrease toward the
top of the antenna system, as shown, with a
75
consequent increase in impedance, of the feeders.
In practice, it is difficult to obtain a complete
of oscillation, however, is not preferred since it
calls for a greater ratio of circulating energy in
the system to radiated energy from the system
which tends to give the system a lower power
factor and consequently sharper tuning, a feature
not desirable in connection with communication 50
on wide frequency band high de?nition televi
sion signals.
Fig. 8 is a modi?cation of Fig. 7 and for pur
poses of simplicity merely shows the uppermost
triangular unit, since the remainder of the sys
tem is indentical with that of Fig. 7. In this new
figure there are provided, for the sake of me
chanical rigidity, U-shaped metallic braces 26
which fit into or are attached in suitable manner
to the upper ends of the vertical feeders. Braces
26 act merely as inductances shunted across the
iii)
portion between the tapping points on the
doublets. Thus the total inductance of each dou
blet is decreased, from which it follows that the
natural period of the doublet increases. It should
be observed at this time that since adjacent
feeders are of opposite phase throughout the cage
of feeders, it does not matter electrically whether
the braces are connected across the pairs of feed-_
ers energizing the doublets or across adjacent
feeders of different pairs; in either case the
braces will form an effective inductance between
feeders of opposite phase. By a pair'of feeders,
it will be understood, is meant the two feeders 75
5
2,181,108
From a mechanical accommodate the sidebands without appreciable
which feed a single doublet.
standpoint, however, it is more advantageous to,
change in amplitude in the radiating elements, the
connect the braces across feeders of different cumulative effect mentioned will disturb, to some
pairs than across feeders of the same pairs.
extent, the radiation pattern and, therefore, at
We can obtain still greater mechanical rigidity I the distant point of reception cause an apparent
greater change in received amplitude than that
by using the brace arrangement of Fig. 9 which
employs braces both across pairs of feeders and . which is actually caused by the tuning charac
teristic of the triangular units.
.
between pairs of feeders. This new bracing sys
The system of Fig. 10, now to be discussed in
connection with Fig. 11, shows one preferred 10
‘ team, it will be noted, takes the form of a six '
10 point star. Fig. 9 illustrates a plan view of such
an arrangement which, in the preferred antenna ‘
system, as illustrated in connection with Fig. 10,
embodiment in \accordance with the invention
and overcomes, to a large extent, the foregoing
is used for each triangular unit of doublets. The
braces of Fig. 9 comprise straight metallic straps
15 or bars 2‘! which are fastened to each other at
their points of intersection in suitable manner,
such as by welding, soldering, riveting, bolting,
threading, etc. ‘Where size permits, the whole
brace may be a single casting, or sectionalized
20 into small castings; in the latter case the castings
will be fastened together.
. -
Electrically the only portions of the six star
brace of Fig. 9 which carry current and act as
inductances are those which form, the contour or
.
disadvantage by minimizing the cumulative error
just referred to. This is achieved, in brief, by
connecting only the center triangular unit R. 15
directly to the source of energy by means of
feeder lines and coupling the other triangular
units W and Q, respectively above and below the
center unit, to this center unit R. For this pur
pose there are employed sections of concentric 20
transmission lines 30V to 35 respectively, whose
inner conductors are directly connected to the
doublets of the center triangular unit and whose
outer conductors serve as coupling feeders for the
doublets of the lower triangular unit Q, there 25
25 outline of the ‘star. This is more clearly illus
trated in Fig. 9a which shows in unbroken lines being provided an extension 35 of the outer con
the electrically active portions of the star, while _ ductor for serving as a coupling feeder for the
the broken lines indicate the electrically in
uppermost triangular unit W. TheseJself-con
active portions. The points of intersection of the tained concentric transmission line feeders pro
vide, among otherthings, a clean mechanical 30'
30 portions of the brace arrangement are inter
mediate the points of opposite polarity on the design of structure.
Fig. 10 shows three equilateral triangular units
vertical feeders and consequently are of zero
'Q, R and W in parallel planes at different levels,
potential, as indicated. The members of the brac
ing system represented by the broken lines are
35 thus connected betweeen points of zero potential
and therefore carry no current except secondary
currents by induction. Such a bracing arrange
ment as shown in Figs. 9 and 9a, in combination
with the vertical feeder columns, forms an ex
40 cellent mechanical structure resembling a self,
supporting tower. If desired, one or more feeder
lines can be run through the zero regions of
the braces along the length of the structure and
supported thereat‘ for other systems, such as
antennas, weather observation instruments, or
other arrangements which it may be desired to
mount at the top of the antenna system of the
invention.
It should be noted that; the systems of the
?gures hereinabove discussed, which show a plu
rality of triangular units stacked in parallel
planes, in accordance with the invention, such
as Figs. 5, 6, 6a. and 7, have been energized from
the base of the antenna structure. From what
has been said before in connection with. these
spaced‘ one-half wavelength apart, and fed by
three pairs of vertical feeders. In order to more 35
clearly explain the manner in which the doublets
of Fig. 10 are fed by and matched to the vertical
feeder lines, Fig. 11 shows, in simpli?ed manner, a
single pair 3| , 732 of the feeders if Fig. 10 with the
associated doublets of the different triangular 40
units connected to this’ pair. Since the other
pairs of feeders, namely 33 to 35, are connected
in similar manner to the other doublets of the
‘triangular units, what is set forth hereinafter .
likewise applies to these other feeders and their 45
associated doublets.
The middle doublets 31, 31' which are the ones
primarily receiving energy from the inner con
ductors 38 of the transmission lines 3|, 32*are
at their ends 56 connected to feeders 58 running 50
more or less parallel withthe doublets 31, 31'.
These’ feeders 58 connect the ends 56 of the
doublets to the ends 59 of the inner conductors 38
of the concentric lines 3|, 32. These ends 59,
as described later, have an impedance which is 55
?gures, it will be apparent that due to the half . rather high, for which reason it is advantageous
wavelength or multiple of a half wavelength spac
ing between the triangular units, the units will
be excited with voltages of equal magnitude,
60 whether the characteristic impedances of the ver
tical feeders connecting these units are matched
or unmatched. This is because at half wave in—
tervals along the feeders there must appear the
same magnitudes of current and voltage save for
an ordinarily unappreciable ohmic loss. A dis
advantage of these arrangements when the
stacked triangular units are fed at the base is the
cumulative error of both phase and amplitude
. along the length of the feeders which occurs in
the presence of sidebands due to the deviation of
the sideband wavelengths from the particular
wavelength for which the triangular units are
I correctly spaced.
Thus while the tuning charac
to make the last quarter wavelength of the inner
conductor 38 of the concentric line have a higher
ratio between diameters of inner and outer con
ductors than the rest of the system. As is known, 60
it is the diametrical ratio and not the actual ,
size of the conductors which determines the char
acteristic or surge impedance of the line. ‘This
quarter wave link of 38 then, by having a load
higher than its surge impedance at its upper end 65
59, will offer an impedance lower than its surge
impedance at the lower end 60. This lower im
pedance at the lower end 60 then matches the rest
of the transmission line system below it. This
line system below 60 can then have reasonable 70
mechanical dimensions.
_
The reason why there is a high impedance ob
tained at the feed points 59 will now be given.'__
In considering a single doublet 31, we know that‘
teristic of each triangular unit of the system of
Figs. 5, 6, 6a and 7 may be sufficiently broad to - its series resistance at its center, is '72_ohms. If
6
2,131,108
we now consider two doublets directly connected
in parallel, close together and connected to each‘
- other at the ends, we know that they are sur
,
~
it is not essential that feeders ll be connected
only to the ends 55 of the middle doublets, since
they may be tapped to the middle doublets at
rounded by a common radiation field. In' paral
lel, the doublets form an entity having a 72 ohms
resistance at the center, as before. The current
pedance matching requirements of the system. -
causing the field is. however, divided between the
two conductors of the parallel entity. If, how
certain conditions, may even call for the intro
duction of lumped vreactances in some form in .
ever, the doublets are effectively in parallel and
10 the transmission lines connected only to one
doublet at its center, the current division is half
and half, the series resistance at the middle of one
'of them must then be four times that of a single
doublet alone, for the same power. If the di
15 vision of the current between the two doublets
effectively in parallel is not equal, the series re
sistance at the middle of one is equal to 72 ohms
multiplied‘ by the square of the ratio of the total
current in the system and that in the branch
under consideration. Now, as a matter of fact
intermediate points depending upon the' im
Such impedance matching requirements, under
feeders 58.
e
-
For obtaining‘a 180° phase reversal between 10
the adjacent concentric transmission lines ii and
32,’ there is provided a U-shaped concentric line
section 39 so connected to an energy supply line
40 that there is a path difference between lines fl
and 32 equal to half a wave as measured from the
point of connection 4|. In other words, the path 15
to one transmission line 42 is half a wave longer‘
from junction point 4| than to the other trans
mission line II, and both paths are in parallel
relation with respect to energy line 40. Other
4 the inner conductors 88 of the two transmission
U-shaped concentric line sections 42 and 43 simi
lines ii, 32 are connected to the feeders 58 not larly couple the other concentric transmission
at the middle of the system but at points farther lines 30, 35 and”, 34 together, and are, in turn,v
out (although symmetrical). Due to the falling connected to energy supply feeders 44 and 45.
25 oil! of the current towards the ends of a doublet, it
can-be seen that, on an energy basis, the series
resistance of the system is still further increased.
This mode of coupling is adequately described
in copending application Serial No. 634,000, filed
September 20, 1932, by Albert Gothe et al.- to
The actual length of the feeders 58 between the - which reference is made for a more detailed de
ends of the doublets and the ends of the inner
conductors 38 of the transmission lines is less
than a quarter wave. In the concentric trans~
mission lines, however, the center conductor cur
rent must have an equal and opposite counterpart
in the outer conductor, which is called the shell
current.
This shell current in the outer con
ductor continues through the aperture in the
outer conductor made for the end of the. center
conductor and continues across the mid portion
of the system (star connection and center portion
40 of main doublet) to enter in through the aper
ture of the other transmission line to again become
the shell current. The star members and the
portion of the main doublet intermediate two ad
jacent transmission lines feeding the same doublet
45 serve to complete the path for the split doublet
scription. It will thus be seen that the six ver
tical concentric transmission lines 30 to 35, in
clusive, of alternate phase, have been reduced to 80
three energy supply feeders 40, 44 and 45 of the
same phase. To obtain the desired impedance
matching between the U-shaped line sections 39,
42 and 43 and their respective energy supply
feeders 40, 44 and 45, the impedance of each feeder 35
40, 44 and 45 is respectively made to be equal to
one-half the impedance of the U-shaped line
section which it will be observed comprises two I -
transmission lines in parallel. ‘For example, if
the impedance of each transmission line of the
U-shaped section 38 is 48 ohms, then the im
pedance of energy feeder 40 should be 24 ohms for
a connection which is free from re?ection. The
surge impedance of the U branches therefore .
branch formed by the feeder. The current from must be twice that of the T branch feeding into
the feeder branch, however, causes a certain volt
the U. Since the surge impedance of a line is
age drop across the star members and the middle, equal to
doublets’ which is not obtained in thetop and
‘IL/C,
bottom systems. This is equivalent to making
the inductance of the mid portion of the mid sys
tem higher.‘ The length of the doublets in the
mid system therefore has to be somewhat less
than in the top and bottom systems. The total
'Lmust be doubled and 0 divided by two. This
gives a factor of 4 under the square root, and thus
the surge impedance is double. It is clear that
this factor cannot belong to either L or 0 alone,
voltage drop obtained across the mid section ' since L increases as much as 0 decreases. - L and
(stars and mid portions of the doublets) is, of
course, what energizes the top and bottom sys
tems.
.
In actual practice, due to the shunting effect
of the bracing .star connections, the doublets of
all the units W, R and Q are very slightly longer
physically than one-half wave, the doublets of the
middle unit. B being slightly shorter physically
than the doublets of units W and Q. In one em-'
C are in their turn determined by functions in 55
which the variable, the ratio betweenshell and
center conductor diameters, is under a logarithm.
That then means that if L is to be doubled or C
out in half, the ratio of diameters must be
squared. If L was to be made three times and
C to be divided by three the ratio would have to
be cubed. It can be seen from this that line di
mensions must be carefully chosen in order that
impossible mechanical dimensions be avoided.
about 4% longer than the physical length of one
It is now proposed to connect all three feeders. 65
half wave, whereas the middle doublets were only 40,44 and 45 of 24 ohms each to a single feeder.
about 2% longer than one-half wave, although At ?rst blush, one might consider simply par-,
it will be understood that the electrical length of alleling the three feeders. However, if this is
70 all the doublets of Q, R and W is a perfect half done, then for a connection free from re?ection
wave. This difference between the middle with a single feeder for energizing the three, 70
doublets and the upper and lower doublets is due there would be required a single feeder whose im
to the connections of the ‘feeders 58 to the ends J pedance is equal to that of the three feeders 40,
of the middle doublets.
_
44 and 45 in parallel, that is, a single feeder
75 From the foregoing it will be appreciated that whose surge impedance is only 8 ohms. Such a
75
65 bodiment, the upper and lower ~doublets were
.
7
2,181,108
low surge impergmce is, however, entirely im
- practical in\this case inasmuch as a desirable
ratio of four to one between inner and outer
_ conductors of a concentric line gives a‘ surge im—
pedance of about 80 ohms, and in order to ob
tain an impedance of only eight ohms to match
the three parallel lines 40, 44 and 45 there would
be required a ratio between inner and outer con
ductors of the single feeder of the tenth root of
10 four, an obviously impractical mechanical ar
rangement because the inner and outer con
ductors would then have an extremely small dif
ference in diameter.
The foregoing di?lculties are overcome in ac
15 cordance with the invention by arranging a cir
cuit whereby the three T feeders 40, 44 and 45
are connected in series and joined to-the single
feeder 46. By means of this feature of the pres
ent invention, the impedance required for the
20 single feeder 46 is three times that of one of
the feeders '48, 44 or 45, in other words 72 ohms.
This ohmage is a practical amount which the
main line or single feeder 46 can be designed to
' provide. As can be seen, two of three T branches
25 40 and 44 are surrounded by a shell 41 which
makes the outer conductor of the _T branch an
intermediate shell 48 for the length of a quarter
wave. On account of its length, this intermedi
ate shell 48 has a very high impedance on its
30 outside.
Now, then, the current in the center
conductor 49 of the branch 45, which has no out
er shell,'becomes the shell current for the mid
dle branch 44 and the current of the center con
ductor 50 of the middle branch 44 becomes the
shell current for the branch 40. The current in
49 cannot go on the outside of the intermediate
sleeve 48 of the middle branch 44 due to the
high impedance of a quarter wave conductor;
but ‘must go on the inside and become the shell
40 current for the middle T branch 44 as already
stated. The shell current of the branch 45, i. e.,
the current in the outer conductors, follows the
cover 5| and becomes the shell current for the
main line 46. The center conductor current
45 of the right hand branch becomes the center con
ductor current of the main line. The three T
branches arethus connected in series and in phase
with the main line 46. Due to the necessary in
troduction of cross connectors 52 in this system,
it is rather important to make the three T
branches 40, 44 and 45 successively longer by an
equal amount. Since the voltage of the main line
46 is divided by three, a third for each T branch,
or since there are three T branches in series, the
surge impedance of each branch must be-a third
Fig. 10 and the transmitters proper. This ?lter
system, shown in box form and designated 58, is
described in great detail in the copending appli
cation of Philip S. Carter, Serial No. 88,073, ?ied
June 30, 1936, to which reference is herein made.
Obviously the purpose of this filter system is to ‘
prevent the energy from one transmitter from en
terins the circuits of the other transmitters while
Permitting both transmitters to freely feed energy
into the antenna system.
-
10
Since main feeder 46 is a single concentric line
and since the transmitters in the above mentioned
case of Fig. 12 are preferably of the push-pull
type it now becomes necessary to adapt the
single concentric transmission line system to a
push-pull transmission line system for connect
ing to the balanced circuit of the transmitter.
_In this instance, the U-shaped phase transform
mg arrangement described above in connection
with elements 39, 42 and 43 of Fig. 10 was not
found suitable for providing the proper load
impedance required by the push-pull transmitter.
This will be evident from the fact that the main
‘line 46 has an impedance of 72 ohms and the
total impedance across both legs of a U-phase 25
transforming arrangement would have to be 288
ohms, i. e.,‘ each leg of the U would have an
impedance of 144 ohms. Such an impedance of
288 ohms is for most transmitters too high to
draw full power. This difficulty is overcome in‘
accordance with another aspect of the invention
which provides a push-pull impedance equal to
the impedance of the single concentric conductor
line which again effects phase transformation.
This circuit comprises a quarter wave concentric 35
line 6| whose inner and outer conductors are each
connected at one end 62 to the center conductors
63 and 64 of a pair of push-pull concentric line
branches. An outer metallic sleeve 66 surrounds
the line 6| for its entire quarter wavelength, and
is joined to the outer conductors of the push-pull
branches, as shown. To understand the opera
tion of the circuit. let us visualize the circuit from
the transmitter and from which there are fed
currents'of opposite direction in the two push
pull branches, as indicated by the arrow marks.
Since in a single concentric conductor line the
center conductor current and the shell current
on the inner surface of the outer conductor are
opposite to each other in direction, but of the 50
same magnitude, it follows that the inner con
ductor of one branch of the push-pull circuit
should continue asthe inner conductor of the
single concentric line 6| while the‘ inner con
ductor of the other ‘push-pull branch should con?
c.
an
of the surge impedance of the main line 46. The ~ ‘tinue as the shell current of the line 6|. To pre
ratio of the shell and center conductor diameters
of the T branches 40, 44 and 45 must therefore
be the cubic root of the ratio in the main line
46 as already stated.
Fig. 11a shows an alternative method to that
of Figs. 10 and 11 of connecting a pair of con
centric transmission lines, such as 3|, 32, to the‘
doublets of three triangular units, and di?'ers
from Fig. 11 only in showing that the concentric
lines 3|, 32 may both feed the same doublet in
the middle level, instead of different doublets.
while feeding different doublets in the upper and
lower levels.
70
-
I
Where it is desired to employ two transmitters
on the same antenna system at slightly differ
ent frequencies, (M and M) as for instance the
video and audio transmitters for transmitting
television programs, a ?lter'system shown in Fig.
12 may be inserted betweenthe main line 46 of
vent short circuiting of the push-pull branch con
nected to the outer conductor of line 6|, it is
necessary for the shell of line 6| at point 62 to
present a high impedanceon its outer surface, in 60
which case all current arriving over conductor 64
will travel over the inner surface of the shell of
line 6|. This is achieved by making sleeve 66 a
quarter wavelength and connecting its upper end
to the outer conductor- of line 6|. Since lines 63 65
and 64 are effectively in series, each must have
a surge impedance equal to half the‘surge imped
ance of the line 6|; consequently, there will be a
surge impedance across 63 and 64 of a value equal
to the surge impedance of single concentricline6l. 70
In order not to alter the physical configuration of ‘
the system between filter circuit 53 and the push
pull branches, one may taper'both theinner and
outer conductors of the'single. transmission line
leading from the ?lter to the line 6|. In order 75
8
2,181,108
not to change the surge impedance along the ing a length equal to one-half the length of the
tapered section, the diametrical ratio of the con
communication wave, and means for exciting said
ductors in this section should be constant. To elements such that adjacent ends of the ele
preserve neatness of appearance, the metallic, ments have opposite instantaneous polarities.
sleeve 66 is extended beyond quarter wave line
'7. An antenna system comprising three spaced
6| to form a continuation of the transmission aerial elements in the same plane forming an
line leading from ?lter 53.
'
,
It will be understood, of course, from what has
gone before, that the invention is not limited to
10 the precise arrangements illustrated and de
scribed, since various modiilcations may be made
without departing from the spirit and scope of
the invention.
,
What is claimed is:
a length equal to one-half the length of the com
munication wave, connections equal to an odd
multiple including unity of half the operating
wavelength connecting together adjacent ends
of said elements, and agsource of high frequency
energy connected to spaced points on one of said
a.
_
equilateral triangle, each of said elements having
,
connections for energizing said elements whereby
>
1. An'antenna system comprising two conduc
tors in the same plane and disposedsubstantially
at an angle of 60° with respect to each other, each
of said conductors being one-half the length of
the communication wave, and means for exciting
20 said conductors to have opposite instantaneous
polarities at correspondingly located points.
2. An antenna system comprising two conduc
adjacent ends have opposite instantaneous
polarities.
'
8. An antenna system comprising three spaced '
aerial elements in the same plane- forming an
open-ended equilateral triangle, each of said ele
ments having a length equal to one-half the
length of the communication wave, another simi
lar equilateral triangle similarly located in a
parallel plane, three pairs of feeders connecting
the adjacent ends of the elements in one plane
tors in the same plane and. disposed substantially
at an angle of 60° with respect'to each other,
each of said conductors being one-half the length ‘ to the correspondingly located ends of the ele- '
of the communication wave, and a source of high ments in the other plane, and means for energiz
frequency energy for energizing said conductors
to have opposite instantaneous polarities at cor
respondingly located points, whereby substantial
30 ly uniform radiation is obtained in the plane of
said conductors.
ous polarities.
\
9. An antenna comprising three spaced aerial 30
. elements in the same plane forming an equilateral
'
3. An antenna system comprising two conduc
tors in the same plane and disposed substantially
35
ing said feeders whereby adjacent ends of said
elements in both planes have opposite instantane
triangle, each of 'said elements having a length
equal to one-half the length of the communica
at an angle of 60° with respect to each other, each
tion wave, a loop having an overall length of
of said conductors being one-half the length of
one-half wavelength connecting together the end 35
the communication wave, and a source of high of one element with the adjacent end of another ,
frequency energy for energizing said conductors ' element, similar loops coupling together the other
adjacent ends of said elements, a similar equi
to have opposite instantaneous polarities at cor
respondingly located points, whereby substantially
40 uniform radiation is obtained in the plane of said
conductors, said conductors being fed by said.
lateral triangle of elements in a parallel plane
and similarly placed, a pair of feeders connecting 4 0
each loop of one triangle with the correspondingly -
4. An antenna system comprising two conduc
tors in the same plane and disposed substantially
at an angle of 60° with respect to each other, each
of said conductors being one-half the length of
located‘loop of the other triangle, and high fre
quency apparatus coupled directly to only one of
said loops of one of said triangles for energizing
all aerial elements of both" triangles whereby
adjacent ends of said aerial elements .in each
the communication wave, and a source of high
plane‘ have opposite instantaneous polarities,
frequency energy for energizing said conductors
to have opposite instantaneous polarities at cor
similarly located ends of said elements in different
source at their more closely adjacent ends.
planeshaving polarities of the same sign.
,
10. An antenna system comprising three spaced to
uniform radiation is obtained in the plane of said - aerial elements in the same plane forming an
conductors‘, said conductors being fed by said . open-ended equilateral triangle, each of said ele- '
source through feeders at points on said conduc - ments having a length equal to one-half the
tors which are symmetrically located with respect length of the communication wave, another simi
65 to the centers thereof and so spaced that the‘ im# lar equilateral triangle similarly located in a 55
parallel plane, three pairs of feeders connecting
pedance of said conductors matches the imped
respondingly located points, whereby substantially
ance of said feeders.
'
5. An antenna system comprising two conduc
tors in the same plane and disposed substantially
at an angle of 60° with respect to each other, each
of said conductors being one-half the length of
the communication wave, and a source of high
frequency energy for energizing said conductors
to have opposite instantaneous polarities at cor
respondingly located points, whereby substantial;
the adjacent ends oi’ the elements in one plane
to ‘the correspondingly located ends of the ele
ments in the other plane, said feeders compris-'
ing tubular conductors for supporting said aerial 00
elements, said pairs of tubular conductors extend‘
ing beyond said aerial elements in said last plane
for a distance equal to one-quarter wavelength
and being short circuited thereat, and high fre
quency apparatus coupled through connections to
ly uniform radiation is obtained in the plane of one of said pairs of feeders at points in said exten
sion whose impedance therebetween matches3 the
said conductors, said conductors being fed by ._ impedance
of said connections;
said source at their more closely adjacent ends,
11. An antenna system in accordance with
70 said conductors crossing each other for a portion ' claim 10, characterized in- this that said triangles 70
of their lengths less than one-quarter of the are spaced apart a distance equal to one wave
length of the communication. wave.
'
length, and the ends of correspondingly located
,6. An antenna system comprising three spaced aerial elements in. both triangles are connected
aerial elements in the same plane forming an to the same feeders.
,
V
1a. ‘equilateral
triangle, each of said elements have
2. An antenna system in accordance‘with
9
2,181,108
plane in which said first doublet lies conduc
claim 10, characterized in this’ that said triangles
tively coupled one to one of said outer conductors
are spaced apart a distance equal to one-half
wavelength, and the ends of correspondingly lo
. and the other to the other of said outer conduc
cated aerial elements in both triangles are con
nected to the same feeders, said feeders between
triangles in different planes being transposed.
13. In combination, a plurality of pairs of
feeder lines in the form of supporting elements
arranged symmetrically with respect to a center
10 point, a load connected to each of said pairs and
supported thereby, high frequency apparatus
coupled to said pairs whereby adjacent feeders
have opposite instantaneous polarities thereon,
tors, said parallel planes being spaced one-half
wavelength apart, said outer conductors extend
ing beyond said ends of said inner conductors
for at least half the length of the communication
wave, and fourth and ?fth half wavelength dou
blets lying in another parallel plane oppositely
disposed to the plane of said second and third 10
doublets with respect to the plane of said first
doublet, said fourth doublet being conductively
coupled to the extension of one of said outer con
and metallic braces connecting the feeders of - ductors and said ?fth doublet being coupled to
the extension of said other outer conductor, and 15
16 each pair with the adjacent feeders of the adja
cent pairs, said braces being in effect inductances means for energizing said inner conductors out _
which electrically are shunted across said loads.
14. In combination, a plurality of pairs of
feeders arranged to form a cage, an antenna
20 element coupled to each of said pairs and sup
ported thereby, high frequency apparatus coupled
to said pairs in such manner that adjacent feeders
have opposite instantaneous polarities, and a
metallic brace between adjacent feeders.
25
15. In combination, three pairs of feeders ar
ranged to form a cage, an antenna element cou
pled to the feeders of each pair, and a metallic
brace in the form of a six point star mechani
cally connecting said pairs of feeders together,
30 the points of said star being the location of said
of phase with respect to each other.
~
21. A system in accordance with claim 20, char
acterized in this that said ?rst doublet is ener
gized from its ends, while said other doublets 20
are connected to said outer conductors at points
intermediate their ends.
'
'
__ 22. An antenna system comprising a pair of
concentric feeder lines each line having an in
ner and an outer conductor, a ?rst doublet hav
ing a length equal to half the length of the com‘
munication wave conductively coupled to the ends
of said inner conductors, second and third dou-'
blets of similar lengths in a plane parallel to the
plane in which said ?rst doublet lies conductively so
feeders, the portions of said brace between feed
coupled one to one of said outer conductors and
ers acting effectively as inductances across said
the other to the other of said outer conductors,
said parallel planes being spaced one-half wave
length apart, said outer conductors extending
beyond said ends of said inner conductors ‘for
at least half the length of the communication
wave, and fourth and ?fth half wavelength dou
feeders.
16. An antenna system comprising a concen
35 tric feeder line having inner and outer conduc
tors, an aerial element conductively coupled to
said inner conductor, another aerial element in
a plane parallel to the plane of said first element
conductively coupled to said outer conductor, said
planes being spaced a predetermined distance
apart, means for supplying energy to said inner
conductor for directly exciting said ?rst aerial
element.
1'7. A system in accordance with claim 16,
45 characterized in this that the planes in which
said aerial elements lie are spaced one-half wave
length apart.
18. An antenna system comprising a pair of
concentric feeder lines, each having an inner and
50 an outer conductor, a ?rst doublet having a
length equal to half the length of the communi
cation wave conductively coupled to said inner
conductors, a second doublet of similar length
in a plane parallel to the plane of said ?rst dou
55 blet conductively coupled to the outer conductor
of one of said feeder lines, a third doublet in the
plane of said second doublet and conductively
coupled to the outer conductor of said other feed
er line, and means for energizing said inner con
60 ductors of said pair of feeder lines out of phase
blets lying in another parallel plane oppositely
disposed to the plane of said second and third -
doublets with respect to the plane of said ?rst 40
doublet, said fourth doublet being conductively
coupled to the extension of one of said outer con
ductors and said ?fth doublet being coupled to
the extension of said outer conductor, and means
for energizing said inner conductors out of phase 45
with respect to each other, said fourth doublet
being coupled to the same outer conductor as said
second doublet, and said ?fth doublet being cou- ‘
pled to the same outer conductor as said third
doublet, said fourth and second doublets being 50
parallel, and said ?fth and third doublets being
parallel.
5;‘23. An antenna system in accordance with
claim 16, characterized in this that said aerial
elements are each a half wavelength long and 55
said planes are spaced a half wavelength apart,
said second and third doublets being coupled to
said outer conductors intermediate the ends of
said, doublets.
24. In combination, a plurality of pairs of ver-V 60
with respect to each other, whereby said ?rst
doublet is directly excited from said means.
19. A system in accordance with claim 18,
characterized in this that said planes are spaced
tical parallel feeder lines in the form of a ‘cage,
aerial elements coupled to said lines, and means
apart an odd multiple of a half wavelength, and
said ?rst doublet is connected to the ends of
said inner conductors.
20. An antenna system comprising a pair of
concentric feeder lines each line having an inner
and an outer conductor, a ?rst doublet having
a length equal to half the length of the com
munication wave conductively coupled to the ends
of said inner conductors, second and third dou
means comprising a U-shaped conductor a half
wavelength long connecting together the bottom -
75 blets of similar lengths in a plane parallel to the
for energizing each of said pairs such'that corre¢
spondingly located points on the feeders of each
pair have opposite instantaneous polarities, said
65
ends of each pair of feeder lines, and a single
feeder line connecting one bottom end of one
feeder of each pair to high frequency apparatus. 70
25. A system in accordance with claim '24,
characterized in this that the impedance of the
single feeder line associated with the U-shaped
conductor is equal to half the surge impedance >
of each vertical feeder line of its pair.
.
I
10
26. An antenna system comprising two diverg
ing conductors in the same plane and disposed at
an angle of 60° with respect to each other, said
conductors being Physically separated from each
' other and in the form of a V, whereby one end of
one conductor is more closely located to one end
of the other conductor than the other ends of
said conductors are to each other, each of said
conductors being substantially one-half the length
10 of the communication wave, and means for excit
ing said conductors such that their adjacent ends
have opposite instantaneous polarities.
27. An antenna system comprising two con
ductors in the same plane and disposed substan
16 tially at an angle of 60° with respect to each other,
each of said conductors being one-half the length
of the communication wave, the centers of said
conductors being spaced apart by a distance ap
proximately equal to one-quarter of the length
of the communication wave, and means for excit
ing said conductors to have opposite instanta
neous polarities at correspondingly located points.
28. An antenna system comprising three spaced
aerial elements in' the same plane forming an
equilateral triangle, each of said elements having a
length equal toone-half the length of the commu
nication wave, a loop having an overall length of
one-half wavelength connecting together the end
of one element with the adjacent end of another
an aerial element conductively coupled to said
inner conductor, another aerial element in a plane
parallel to the plane of said ?rst element con
ductively coupled to said outer conductor, said
planes being spaced a predetermined distance
apart, means for supplying energy to said inner
conductor for directly exciting said ?rst aerial
element, whereby said other aerial element is ex
cited from said outer conductor.
32. An antenna system comprising a pair of 10
concentric feeder lines each line having an inner
and an outer conductor, a ?rst doublet having a
length equal to half the length of the communi
cation wave conductively coupled at its ends to
the ends of said inner conductors, second and 15
third doublets each of similar length in a plane
parallel to the plane in which said ?rst doublet
lies conductively coupled one to one of said outer
conductors and the other to the other‘of said outer
conductors, said parallel planes being spaced one
half wavelength apart, said outer conductors ex
tending beyond said ends of said inner conductors
for at least half the length of the communication
wave, and fourth and ?fth half wavelength dou
blets lying in another parallel plane oppositely
disposed to the plane of said second and third
doublets with respect to the plane of said ?rst dou
blet, said fourth doublet being conductively cou
pled to the extension of one of said outer conduc
80 element, similar loops coupling together the other tors and said ?fth doublet being coupled to the
_ adjacent ends of said elements, a similar equilat
extension of said, other outer conductor, and
eral triangle of elements in a parallel plane and . means for energizing said inner conductors out of
similarly positioned, a pair of feeders connecting
each loop of one triangle with the correspondingly
located loop of the other triangle, said equilateral
triangles of radiating elements being spaced apart
substantially by the length of the communication
phase withrespect to each other.
33.v An antenna system in accordance with
claim 16, characterized in this that said aerial ele
ments are each a half wavelength long and said
planes are spaced a half wavelength apart, said
wave, and high frequency apparatus coupled di- - second, third, fourth and ?fth doublets being cou
rectly to only one of said loops of one of said , pled to said outer conductors intermediate the
40 triangles for energizing all aerial elements of .both
triangles whereby adjacent ends of said aerial
elements have opposite instantaneous polarities,
similarly located ends of said elements in diifer
ent planes having polarities of the same sign.
29. An antenna system comprising three spaced
45
aerial elements in the same plane forming an
open-ended equilateral triangle, each of said ele
ments having a length equal to one-half the
length of the communication wave, another simi
lar equilateral triangle similarly located in a
parallel plane and spaced from said ?rst plane by
a distance equal to half the length of the com
mun‘cation wave,- means for energizing the ae
rial elements in one plane in such manner that the
55 adjacent ends of said elements in said one plane
ends of said doublets.
34. An antenna system‘ comprising three spaced
aerial elements in the same horizontal plane
forming a central equilateral triangle, a pair of
vertical feeders for each of said aerial elements,
said aerial elements being connected to said
feeders from the ends of the elements, upper and
lower equilateral triangles of aerial elements
located on opposite sides of said central triangle
of aerial elements, all of said triangles of aerial
elements being in horizontal planes, said planes
being separated from one another by a distance
substantially equal to half the length of the
communication wave, each of the aerial elements
in said triangles being electrically equal to one
the length of the communication wave, said ‘
have opposite instantaneous polarities, a pair of half.
aerial elements in the upper and lower triangles
feeders connecting‘ the adjacent ends of the ele
being energized by said vertical feeders at spaced
ments in said one plane'to the similarly positioned
points
the ends of the elements,
adjacent ends of the elements in the other plane wherebyintermediate
adjacent ends of aerial elements in the
such that said elements in the last plane also have same triangle have opposite instantaneous po
their adjacent ends at opposite instantaneous po
larities.
larities.
'
.h
30. An antenna system comprising three spaced
aerial elements in the same plane forming an
65
equilateral triangle, each of said elements have
ing a length equal to one-half the length of the
communication wave, the centers of adjacent
aerial elements being spaced ‘apart by a distance
approximately equal to one-quarter of the length
70 of the communication wave, and means for ex~
citing said elements such that adjacent ends of
the elements have opposite instantaneous polari
ties.
31. An antenna system comprising a concen
75 tric feeder line having inner and outer conductors,
35. An antennasystem comprising three spaced
aerial elements in the same horizontal plane
forming a central equilateral triangle, a pair of
vertical feeders for each of said aerial elements,
said aerial elements being connected to said feed
ers from the ends of the elements, upper and
lower equilateral triangles of aerial elements
located on opposite sides of said central "tri
angle of aerial elements, all of said triangles of 70
aerial elements being in horizontal planes, said
planes being separated from one another by a
distance substantially equal to half the length of
the communication wave, each of the aerial ele
ments in said triangles being electrically equal to 16
2,131,108 ,
one-half the length of the communication wave,
said aerial elements in the upper and lower tri
angles being energized by said vertical feeders at
spaced points intermediate the ends of the ele
ments, whereby adjacent ends of aerial elements
in the same triangle have opposite instantaneous
polarities, said aerial elements in the upper
triangle each having a parallel aerial element
in the lower triangle, located in a corresponding
10 position and fed by the same feeders, said aerial
elements in said central triangle each being posi
tionedat an angle with respect to the aerial ele
ments in the upper and lower triangles which are
connected to the same feeders.
-
36. An antenna system comprising a plurality
of equilateral triangles of aerial elements located
in parallel planes at different levels, and means
for exciting the aerial elements of each triangle
such that adjacent ends of the elements have‘
20 opposite instantaneous polarities and the cur
rents in the aerial elements'of adjacent triangles
15
are in the same direction.
11
length of the communication wave, three pairs
of vertical feeders for said aerial elements, said
elements being mounted on said feeders and elec
trically coupled thereto at spaced points inter
mediate the ends of the elements, such that the
adjacent ends of the aerial elements of each tri
angle are excited to have opposite instantaneous
polarities and the currents in the aerial elements
.of adjacent triangles are in the same direction,
said feeders each having atleast two diameters 10
of thickness for changing the impedance of the
feeders to more closely match the impedance of
the aerial elements. '
41. An antenna system comprising aplurality
of equilateral triangles of aerial elements located 15
in parallel planes at different levels, and means
for exciting the aerial elements of each triangle
such that adjacent ends of the elements have
opposite instantaneous polarities and the cur
rents in the aerial elements of adjacent triangles 20
are in the same direction, said means including
feeders each having at least two diameters of
3'7. An‘ antenna system in accordance with , thickness for changing the impedance of the
claim 35, characterized in this that said feeders feeders to more closely match the impedance of
25 comprise concentric lines upon which the aerial the aerial elements.'
25
elements of said triangles are mounted, said lower
42. An antenna system comprising a plurality
triangle of aerial elements being positioned one
of equilateral triangles of aerial elements located
quarter of a wavelength above a surface of rela
in parallel planes at different levels, three pairs
tively ?xed radio frequency potential.
of vertical feeders for said aerial elements, said
30
38. An antenna system comprising three equi
feeders being in the form of a cage, said elements 30
lateral triangular units of aerial elements located being mounted on said feeders and electrically
in parallel planes at different levels, substan
coupled thereto at spaced points intermediate
tially one-half wavelength apart, each of said the ends of the, elements, metallic braces con
aerial elements being equal electrically to half the necting the feeders together, said braces being in
35 length of the communication wave, and means effect inductances which electrically are shunted 35
for exciting the aerial elements of each triangle across said aerial elements, said aerial elements
such that adjacent ends of the elements have being each physically longer than, but electri
opposite instantaneous polarities and the cur
cally equal to one-half the length of the com
rents in the aerial elements of adjacent triangles
40 are in the same direction.
39. An antenna system comprising three equi
lateral triangular units of aerial elements located
in parallel planes at different levels substantially
one-half wavelength apart, each of said aerial
45 elements being equal electrically to half the
length of the communication wave, three pairs of
vertical feeders for said aerial elements, said
elements being mounted on said feeders and elec
trically coupled thereto at spaced points inter
munication wave.
.
43. In combination, a transmission line feeder, 40
a plurality of aerial elements coupled to said
feeder at points spacedlalong the length of said
feeder, the dimensions of said feeder decreasing
between successive aerial elements for increas
ing the impedance of said feeder.
44. In an antenna system, a concentric trans
mission line having an inner and an outer con
ductor, a ?rst aerial element coupled to said
46
outer conductor,-a second’ aerial element'coupled
to said inner conductor, said aerial elements 50
adjacent ends of the aerial elements of each tri
being in parallel planes spaced substantially one
angle are excited to have opposite instantaneous ' half wavelength apart, said inner conductor hav
polarities and the currents in the aerial elements ing an abrupt change in dimensions between said
50 mediate the ends of the elements, such that the
of adjacent triangles are in the same direction.
55
aerial elements at a point substantially one
40. An antenna system comprising three equi
quarter of a wavelength from the point of connec 55
lateral triangular units of aerial elements located, ' tion to said second aerial element, whereby the
in parallel planes at di?erent levels, substantially ratio of diameters between inner and outer con
one-half wavelength apart, each of said aerial ~ductors is increased.
elements being equal electrically to half the
NILS E. LINDENBLAD.
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