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Патент USA US2131199

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' Sept. 27; 1938.
'
~
' P. L. TENNEY
"
SYNCHRONIZING
TRANSMISSION
,
2,131,199
HECHANISI
Filed July 17, 1929
2 _Sheet's—Sheet 1
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:P. 1... TENN-EX
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‘SYNCHRONIZING"TRANSMIS§ION MECHANISM
FilédJuly 17, 1929 21 Sheets-Sheet ' 2‘
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Patented Sept_27,,__1_938‘
2,131,199
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1 tan-amiss...“
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mm to Gen-r
erai Motors Corporation, Detroit, men”; aor
‘ Application sqymrmJm-i s’. staple ' ‘
jig". ms
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" 1 ' Tl'ris ‘ invention ‘relates
‘ transmission mechanism};
‘is
signed for nsefon‘vehicle's.“
~ '"
de
‘
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‘ forkI I.
,g g ' '
, object ~ of“ ‘the , invention ‘ is to provide‘: ‘for
I
i‘spee‘d ratio changes noiselessly.~ ‘
'
mesh ‘with‘the usual reverse idler driven by gear
21 for reverse driving. Gear Ii is moved by a
change
~
rod I‘I.
by a rail I‘, slidable on" a fixed
I“
.
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,g
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‘ The second speed driven gear ll is provided
I
"ai‘furtherhobiect-t the ‘invention aims to ac‘- < ‘with a-rln'g ll having a cylindrical external face
- .4; compliah its major object with -' a~construction II and‘ an external conical friction face .2. This
' which is simple;
to'manufacture.
to'assembie and inexpensive ring'll‘also has'intern'al teeth It‘. This ring’ 5!
:"
'
‘
“Other ‘objects and
10
1i ,jstood? from the following; speci?cation
aecambanyme ‘115M335:
I‘ wanna drawingsi‘ :
the
'
'
with its__j~'externai surfaces and internal‘ teeth
ingshaft.
~Y
.
‘-
~
"7*
.
?lidabie on but'non-rotatable relative to‘ the
" I
Figure I 'is-‘a longitudinal vertical
throughrythe'ftrammission mechanism;
7, ~Fjgurezis
"
willi‘beun’der- “ corresponds with the ring II carried by the 'driv 10
ti'on
a-transverse section‘vonrline 2;! of
,driven'splined shaft :81 is av clutch element ‘I
I having‘ clutch teeth-t8 and ll, the former to at
times mesh with teeth-II and the latter to inter
‘lock with teeth N; ‘The clutch element OI has '
a'plurality of radial lugs .l‘l (three being shown). 7
ll rests on‘ and is se
,} cured to the extremities of the radial lugs by fas
‘Figured is a similar viewshowimthem in '~ tening meansi‘li threaded into the said lugs. The 20
_. Flgiir'e'iiiis‘
ajtop'plan view or a‘portion'<‘of
1 I the . A" channel-shaped
device’ showing one relative vposition of vparts.
‘ -~
channel ‘of jcollar I‘. receives the semi-circular
another‘ relativerpositions , '
’ ;_ I I .' Figure 151:} longitudinal 7 section‘
'elementib'fthé'“8118315810111”'
5
'
one
>3”
if FigureTYisY'a
Figure v?jisra‘sectionpn‘lline
detail-"inl'perspective.
O-lof Figured;
"
' "
‘ Reremns‘b'y reference ‘characters to'the draw
I‘ @ing'sfnume'rall represents'the'vhousing for ‘en
- jclos'ingf“ the YIEpower‘j'I’transmissiOn . mechanism.
numeral‘ ‘l’irepresents a driving'lshaft rotatably
‘supported’ ind-frontiw’all I 'of ith'e'easing byyantl
friction bearings il-i": f‘This shaft 1 hasgalvgear I]
fork ‘l8 rigid with a: second rail 14 which is slid
, ablej/ona second vrod ‘II.-- There may be used a
detent'li, ‘actuated by a spring '11 operating
vasainst an abutment ‘I8, the detent ‘ll engaging
recesses in the ?xed rod, one being shown at 18,
'the'purposebeing to locate the rail in its active
and neutral positions. Between the rails *is a
1. fixed rod ll ‘apertured to‘ receive a ball 83 serving
' asan' interlockinthe well known way. This ball 3
is vn'iov‘ed transversely by one or the other of the
. in l’con'stant‘mesh- with gear ilof countershaftii‘l, rails "when moved ' from neutral position and
‘ the latter rotatablyi‘mounted on shaft ll; support-g serves to lock theother rail from movement.
,
ed'in’the'ifrqnt-iwall land in the rear Wall 2 i The
[A friction clutch element carrier in the‘form of
‘
" countershaft lhas“ rigid therewith a Second: speed - a cylindricalbarrel il'has'secured thereto, as
35
.driving'gear 23; a'lowl'speed driving gear gll and - by rivets 'l'l extending through.‘ openings II at
' a gear '21-" to v‘constantly? drive ‘a reverse idler. A ‘ 'its‘ends. friction members 9l.- These friction
I, ring? a‘ having‘lan'*externalcylindrical race"
I ,‘Yand'arconical face" extending'from 'face» II is
#10
members have cylindrical surfaces 93 and, conical
friction surfaces 85." The linear and radial di
carried rigidly by ‘the extreme‘inner? end or shaft 1 mensions of the barrel. are such‘that'when as
g
g
_
' _' ‘I. The ring‘ 29 is. vinternally ‘provided with ‘clutch
» 1
' '
sembledin: position as shown in Figure 1.the
‘barrel is freely rotatable about the rings 29‘ and
"snvenfspnne' shaft am rotatably support II, the cylindrical surfaces affording free r'otation.
‘ ed ‘by bearingsjiiini‘the rear wall _2i‘and its front v'll'he three'radialf lugs on element II terminate
endjis'v reduced ‘as 'at'lll‘and rotatabl'y'i supported in ends ‘l tapered or inclined tangentially in both 45
in-the recessed end'ioi' 'sh'aftw'l.~~ , Suitable fastening
‘ directions as shown in Figure 7. These double
means“ and 48 on thesplined shaft 'I‘Ijretain in
tapered. ends are received in openings 91 of
the barrel as shown. ‘The openings are elongated
‘androf such width attheir ends as to accommo
1 position onsald shaftsa' ?anged sleeve 41. The
second speed driven: gear; 49,, v is ; rotatable ' on, the
sleeve: It is retained from axial movement byythe
date the longerdimension of the tapered ends of
lugs 61." ‘Between theiends of opening ~91 are
v I inlv constant. :mesh' with gear” . on the counter
oppositely’ disposednotches 89, the walls of "which
shaft. j ,A slidableiseartll?on the driven shaft is
‘ ‘movable into; mesh with gearyil?qon the, counter
are tapered or inclined in tangential planes to
attimes engagethe' tapered ends of lugs l‘! in
shaft for low speed drivins,~ andi-ismovable into the manner which willbe obvious. Said tapered
2
or inclined cooperating surfaces‘ of barrel 8! and
toothed clutch member ll constitute cooperating
detents for a purpose presently to be described.
The rails 14 and II are to be operated ‘by shift‘
it ‘will be seen that'the operator‘ operates with'a
greater mechanical advantage when shifting
through a smaller distance and when acting
againstv a greater force and with a lesser'me
lever Ill. The clutch element N‘ has, between ‘chanical advantage in that. instance ~which re
each two lugs 61, a pair of detents I03 radially quires a greater movement and-‘which is accom
projected by springs Ill into an annular groove panied by lesser resistance. Furthermore, it is
necessary to apply greater-‘force to press the fric
I01 of the'barrelll.
'
" -For low speed and reverse, the lever III is tion surfaces together inorder to vinsure syn‘
10 moved transversely through a notch III in the chronization in the short time available than ‘is’
?xed member II to‘ engage rail ‘I. When rail‘ necessary to intermesh the vgears. ‘It should be
55 is moved longitudinally, rail ‘N is locked by v ‘explained that the'purposeof the spring detents
is not primarily to effect synchronization. These _
moved to make shifts for low speed or reverse‘v springdetents offer only slight resistance to the'
the interlocking device ll and‘ rail ll may be
15
in the usual way.
.
L
I
For shifts into high speed and second speed po
movement'of the lever but enough resistance to;
, insure the engagement of the friction clutches be
sitions, the shift lever llll is ?rst moved trans-_- = fore the part 61 could by any Possibility move into
versely through the notch I" in the fixed mem
the end portion'of slotg?, when the friction
ber ill. The rail 14 has an upwardly directed arm . face is engaged, should there be any relative ro
tation between shaft ‘I and shaft I‘! a relative ro-‘
H I with]. bifurcated end I ll straddling'a round
ed portion H5 on lever Ill above its lower end tatlon' is at once set upYbetween parts 61 and
,I H which engages the rail “and below the‘ ful . ll so that the angular faces SI engage the angu
'crum H9 carried by the cover-ill. The rail 14 lar faces of'the notches of theslot. Once these
is shaped as shown by the dotted lines ill in Fig- ,. angular faces are engaged the continued pres
ure 2 to accommodate thetransverse movement sure on the part of the lever hastens synchroniza-'
of the lower end Il'l when the spherical portion tion and it is practically impossible for the oper
I it engages the projection I I3 and also to permit ator to move the lugs l1 into thelend portions of
the necessary longitudinal, movement of said the slot andengage the jaw clutch teeth until I
lower end ill with respect to the rail. when the substantial synchronization is 'eifected- By. this
very simple construction rapid synchronization is
rail 14 is moved longitudinally in a forward direc
tion it tends to effect the engagement of teeth effected and clashing of gears absolutely‘pre-v
63 and 35. when moved, the spring detents I03
‘vented.
Even without thespring detents I",
carry the barrel I! along in an axial direction,‘ if the external cylindrical bearing surfaces 3|
so that the friction surfaces 33 and I5 engage. - and 80 are nicelyc?tted within the internalv bear
The barrel thus tends to rotate at the speed of ing surfaces 93, .the circumferential drag on
part 28 which is rigid with shaft "I, while the the friction clutch barrel .5 due to di?erential
clutch element 8| carrying the lugs i1 is bound
torotate with shaft 81.
rotation between the shaft-" and clutch mem
Any relative rotation , ber 29 or 59, is sumcient to position the lugs {I
causes the movement of lugs "with the tapered
ends 90 into one or the other of notches all of
in the notches”.
-Iclalm:'
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1. In a transmission mechanism, axially aligned
the barrel. The rotating shaft 31, assuming it to
rotate at a speed above that of shaft ‘I. operates driving members each having a frictionalclutch"
through‘the instrumentality of lugs ‘1 in notches, element and a positive clutch element, acoaxial
~ “to turn‘ the barrel and ‘through the frictional
engagement of the friction clutches to bring the
shaft 1 into synchronization with shaft 31.‘ Fur, thermore, the forward- pressure being exerted on
lever llll operates between the lug l1 and the an
gular faces of notch 09 to increase the frictional
engagement and hasten the synchronization.
This manually applied pressure, cannot push the
lug 81 into the end portions of slot 81 because
of the relative rotation between-the lug 81 and
the barrel. Once synchronization, has become
55 complete, however, the ‘pressure causes the lug
driven member, a'splinedaxially slidable positive
clutch element on'sa'id drivenv member between
said driving members, a carrier surrounding said
slidable positive clutch element having a plurality
of frictional elements, one associated with each of
the aforesaid friction elements, said carrier having
slots with. transversely positioned symmetrically.
tapered notches, said axially slidable clutch ele
ment having symmetrically tapered lugs, consti- '
tuting means for driving said-carrier, positioned
in said slots‘ and engageable with said‘ notches.
,
2. In a change speed trionmechanism
to slide along the wall of notch 98 into the medial ’ for vehicles, a driven shaft, a coaxialldriving
line of slot 91 whereupon the lug l'l moves to‘ the member, said driving member having a friction ,
end of slot 91 and the teeth ll and I3 engage. face and a jaw clutch element, a'jaw clutch ele- The act of synchronization occurs very rapidly‘ ment slidably but non-rotatably' mounted on said '
and without noise. Precisely the same operation , driven shaft, a coaxial axially movable barrel
‘occurs when shifting into second speed.- In this having a friction face to engage the ?rstmen
tioned friction face, said- barrel having an axial
case the teeth 65 engage teeth ll after synchro
‘ nization is effected-through‘ the'friction clutch
and the'relative movement of parts 81 and II.‘
In making the shift into secondspeed and high-,
65
speed' it will be observed 'that va shorter‘ move
"ment of the shift rail 14 is required thanis re
quired in shifting gear 5| for low and reverse
speeds. ‘It will also be noted that a greater _re
70 sistance must be overcome owing to the presence
of the spring detents in! when making the shiftv
into second speed or into‘ high speed. To over
elongated slot with transverse notches, said slid
able jaw clutch having a tapered lug-to slide in
said slot and. to engage the'walls of said notches.
.
In a change speed transmission mechanism,
' cooperating positive .clutch elements, one of which
isslidable to engage'the other, a frictionclutch ‘ I
-member associated with one of said'positive
clutch elements, a second cooperating friction"
clutch. member, resilient :means through'the in
strumentality of which said cooperating friction
come this greater resistance with no greater effort " clutch members are engaged upon an initial
on the part of ‘the operator, the lever arm for
v76 shifting rail 14 is made shorter. By this ‘means,
‘ '
movement of said slidable clutch element, con
necting means between said slidable clutch ele-
2,131,199
3
-ment and said second friction clutch membensaid
surfaces, said double ended friction clutch
connecting means having‘ cooperating *detent: member having a constant bearing on said cylin
',' parts and. being-constructed to provide relative drical surfaces but havinglsu?icient axial move
.axialiniovement'and also limited relative
mentato engage or disengage either one of the
' movement 'togaline said detent parts in one'posi
friction clut'ch pairs, and a driving connection 5
'tionof relative axial‘ adiustment ,betweenf saidv~ ~ between the double ended toothedclutch element
' ‘ slidable clutch element ‘and ‘said second frictional"
said double ended friction clutch member
clutch-member; -;
1 "- “-‘
' “adapted-to permitvof alimitedrelative rotation
-, e " 4."I'he,invention de?ned ‘by, sclaim>3, saidjcong? ands-relative axial movement; cooperating detent
,
»: 1o nectinginieansjinciuding “parts having" engaging‘ parts on saidtlastsnamedtoothed clutchelement 10
I
I faces‘aiignlarlyiirelatedgtothea direction of an?
and"frictionclutch‘member'arranged in aline
v‘movementofg ‘said,slidable,clutcheelementwhcroi' 'mcnt when the friction membcr‘is at the end of
sbyvr‘clativeaidal'movement is prevented prior'vtot
'.
‘synchronization.
‘
'
‘I
'
.7
v I
c_
‘
its limited rotary movement.
I -
,I
,_ a
1
iii,‘ In altransmissionlmechanismmxia
spaced,v
an combined jaw andffriction clutcht'el'einen'
coaxial. members, each comprising a Jaw clutch 15
first.
a I second ‘friction. clutch eie‘mentZZaiso
_
ciated with the second jaw clutch'elemérit; mm
one to the other, a spline shaft on
which-oneofsaid members is free to‘ rotate and
to whichitumay be clutched,‘v a double ended jaw
elutchl'element slidable on‘ said spline shaft and,”
a second, Jaw. "clutch element slidablet'to, qengm; ‘element; and a conical friction clutch element
t able
I
‘means to'rresilientlyi1resistiqrelatiye;‘axialv
‘movement of the secondiaw
element‘ and
the second friction clutch' elements-(1mm
aims-m, interlock with either ‘of said axially
connecting said second daw clutch 1 elemeatt
spao'edjap'v ‘clutch elements, an axially movable
second ‘friction clutch elementop'erative'to
" ~dqiibi§iended friction clutch element, having con
‘a relative ‘axial movement-,?lere’between.‘ 19ml
striction ‘surfaces, ‘centered on and supported
also, in oneposition of relative.jaiijl_l_i.lhovement,w
by,’ , Ud'members, a lost motion driving connec- g5
i -, limited relative‘ rotary movlil'nenti'aiid?cooper'ating,
I tween said double ended slidable iaw clutch ~
jdetents' on said second-Jaw clutch element and i'clement and'said double ended friction clutch ele- ,said second friction clutch element adapted to be, I‘ *i'nent, including a radial lug on one‘and a slot in '
j, j
alincd by said relative rotary'movement.‘ the ether providedwith oppositely inclined de
'_.-'6; ‘The combination of two coaxial power trans- ‘ tents'arran'ged to be alinedwith the lugs to oppose so
'
rnittingv members each 1, comprising a toothed axial movement of the slidable law clutch element
.clutch element relatively movabl‘e'vaxially into andv ‘ in either‘clirectionv underconditions oi’ asynchro
. out of 'intermeshing engagement, with two posi- , nous rotation of either member with respect to
' tively driven friction clutch members, one being ' the spline shaft. ,
I 35 ?xed. axially with the, ?rst of said power trans'
' -
- 10. The combination de?ned in claim 9 com- a
= “ mitting members andthe other connected to'the' , prising inaddittion a shift collar slidable on said
second power-transmitting ‘member so as who double ended friction clutch element and radi
ally disposed means connecting said shift collar
capable of ail-limited rotation and an axial‘move
7
'_ ment with respect ‘theretosand also having 'a - to said slidable Jaw clutch element. _
"h cylindricalbearing engagement with said ?rst ‘
'
11. The combination of two coaxial power ‘'0
power transmittingmen'iber. < y
j i
‘
transmitting members, each equipped with a1
fl; Thecombinatio I ‘of-‘two coaxial power trans- I toothed positive coupling element, one of which is
;
-r
,
mitting members "each, comprising az'toothed movable into_~and out of engagement with the
clutch element relatively movable axially} into other; a friction synchronizing member in posi
,“ and ‘out. of intermeshing engagement, with‘v two “P-tive torque ‘transmitting connection with each ‘5
, -
‘
,
positivelvl'driven"friction'clutch membersjjlone , ' power transmitting member, respectively, ‘one of
'
being ?xed axially with :the, first of said power ,ssid, friction members "being disposed concentri
; ;transmittins,_members‘and the other connected daily with respect to the movable coupling ele
~ 'to the'sccond of saidpower transmitting members 2 vmerit and ‘having a lost motion connection with
a; - sons to be capable offa'limited rotation and
I, the member-"by which it is driven and capable of’ 50
»,!axial.mo'veme'nt with. respect. thereto,
“axial movement whereby 'it- may be frictionally
‘cylindrical bearing surfaces on saidlast named’ 1 engaged‘ with its companion; yieldable means
1 'Igfriction clutchmember and ‘said ?rst‘ named fric-‘p " connecting the movable positive coupling element _
j
‘I, tion clutch member :andsaid-?rst named power, , with the concentrically disposed axially movable
gurtransmitting member , andv conical friction sur- friction member and means for‘ moving the posi- 55
x
‘facesmerging-into' said cylindrical bearing sur- 'tive coupling element toward‘ engagement with
‘
; facesJ;
f ‘ 1 - '
=
,
-‘ its companion, therebymoving said movable fric
, . 'sgl'rl'iehcombinatiop of’two alined power trans- ‘' tion member into- light frictional engagement
“ 7
putting members each provided with-‘toothed,
with its companion; and cooperating detents on
v 0°.clutch‘ elements,‘ a third ‘coaxial power trahsmit- said lost emotion connected and axially movable 60
- tingqmember having a splined‘portion extending
vbetween said toothed clutch elements, a double
>
member and movable positive coupling element
adapted to be alined as a result of said light
j * ended“ toothed clutch ‘element - slidable on said
engagement of the friction surfaces of said fric
'- r splined portion and adapted to be intermeshed
tion members.
i‘
‘with theclutch tecthof either of the aforesaid ,
'
l2. Ajcombination as de?ned in claim 11 in 05
two alined power transmitting‘members, friction , which the yieldabie means connecting the mov
"
clutch members rigid with each of‘ said two alined
able coupling element with the concentrically dis
7‘ power transmitting members‘eachcomprising ex-'
posed lost motion connected and axially movable
'tern'al conical friction-surfaces merging into cyiin-
friction member: consists of radially movable
10
bearing surfaces, at double ended cooperate, spring pressed plungers. ,
ping friction clutch member having corresponding
internal conical friction surfaces and cylindrical
,
I
‘
PERRYL. TENNEY.
7o
ls
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CERTIFICATE
or
oomcnon.
Patent No. 2,131,199.
_
_
1
,
’
PERRY
L.
mum.
'
September‘ 27,‘ 1,958,
‘
'
r
It is hereby certified thnt error appear; in the printed \epe'cii‘ication
or the above nun‘neredpatent requiring correotion as follows: Page 5, first
~
. column, line 1, clnim 3 , after the word and com "member," insert whereby
‘the letter is‘ driven 19.7 the fonner; and that the said Letters Patent v ehonld
be reed'with! this correction therein that the‘ some may conform to‘ the rec-o
ord oi‘ the clue in the Pitent Office.
'
I ‘Signed and sealed this 29th day of November-,1. n. 1958.
‘
'
v(Seal)
‘
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Henry
Van
Arsdele
Acting Commissioner or Patente._
1
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