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Патент USA US2131237

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‘Sept. 27, ‘1938.
Filed ‘Oct. 11, 1935
a Sheets-Sheet 1
Sept. 27, 1938.
Filed Oct. 11, 1935'
s Sheets-Sheet 2
Sept. 27, 1938.
Filed Oct. 11, 1935
ray ' lgwylmwzf/ém
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
Patented Sept. L27‘, 1938 '
__ 2,131,237 -
George Spatta, Buchanan, Michr, assignor to
Clark Equipment Oompanin'Buchanan, Mich.,_
a corporation'oi 'Michigan
Application October 11, 1935, Serial No._ 44,477‘
_8 Claims.
(Ci. 29-1531) I
This invention relates to axle housings and the
be swaged‘ and formed to thedesired size and
method of forming the same, and is more par
ticularly directed to rear axle housings for trucks,
busses, passenger cars and the like._
It has been customary in this particular art to
‘form each axle housing with a central differen
shape prior tovassembly of the arms, onto the
diiierential casing.
Another feature of the present invention is to
provide an increased area cf'weld between each 5
of the arms and the central casing to insure
tial housing and extending arms of tubular con
maximum strength at this portion of vthe hous
structiontthrough which the axles extend to the -
wheels. One manner in which such housings
One advantage secured by the present‘ con
the central portion of a seamless tube or welded
struction is the extension of the belied ends of
the arms ~> into substantial tangency with the
blank and subsequently swaging the oppositely
external annular surface of vthe central hoop
1i) have'been formed is by slotting and expanding
extending arm portions 1 to form radially ex
whereby no undue shearing stresses are produced "
tending ?anges or-to form reduced arms having
between the di?‘erential housing and the welded
15 thickened bearing seats at the outer extremities
of these arms. The broad concept of forming a
housing in this manner is shown and described
in my Patent No. 1,926,353 of September 12, 1933.
Another manner in which, such housings have
edges of the arms.
‘Other objects and advantages'of the present
invention will appear more’ fully from the fol
lowing detailed description which, taken-in con
nection with the accompanying drawings, will
20 been formed, especially housings ‘for use .with ‘ disclose to those skilled in the art the particular 20
passenger cars and the like, is by the stamping construction and method employed. in the pres
of two plate members into U-shaped channel ent invention.
In the drawings :‘
pieces having centrally arched portions, these U
Figure 1 is a side .elevational view of a ?at
.shaped members being welded along longitu
25 dinal seams to ‘form an enclosed tubular type. plate member employed for forming the vcentral 25
housing. This method of forming rear axle hous
differential casing;
ings is shown in the patent to Eisele, No. 1,991,199
Figure 2 shows the plate of Figure‘ 1 rolled into
hoop form with the abutting'ends thereof welded;
of February 12, 1935.
The present invention contemplates ~.a radical
Figure 3 is a sectional view taken on line 3-3
3o departure from these previous teachings and is
of Figure 2; '
t _ directed to an axle housing formed by -a method
Figure 4 shows the step of providing internal
?anges'at the opposite edges of the hoop shown
that will produce economy in time and labor
and will facilitate the assembling of the .com
ponent parts of the housing and‘ working ‘of the
Figure 2; ‘
Figure 5'is a sectional‘ view taken substantially '
o5 individual parts. At the same time housings. "on line 5-5 of Figure 4;
Figure 6 shows the central housing provided
, constructed in accordance with the present in
vention have the distinct advantage of an ex
ceptionally strong differential casing.
30 "
with oppositely disposed openings through which
' the axles of the drive mechanism are to extend;
Figure ‘7 is an end elevation of the housing‘
Broadly stated the present invention comprises ‘
40 rolling a flat plate or strip‘into a central hoop, shown in Figure 6;
?anging the pripheral edges of the hoop vto
‘Figure 8 is a plan view of a flat plate member.
form a differential casing,_ preferably of the which maybe employed for forming the extend- f
banjo type, and then welding preformed tubular ing arms of the axle housing;
‘ Figure 9 is a sectional view of the plate‘ of
arms to opposite sides oi the hoop._
One object of the present invention is to form
an axle housing in which the differential casing
- is formed independently or the tubular arms and
these arms are welded ‘to the external surface of
the ‘central casing. '
.Another object of the present invention is to
provide a housing in which only relatively small
openings are provided between the di?erential
casing and the interior of the'tubular arms.
Still another feature of the present invention
as is to provide a. housing in which'the arms may
Figure 10 shows “the plate rolled into tubular
form and welded along its longitudinal seam;
Figure 11 is a sectional view taken on line
H-ll of Figure 10;
Figure 12 shows the tube of Figure 10 with one 50
‘end thereof belled outwardly;
Figure 13 is an end view of. the tubeshown in
Figure 12;
Figure 14 shows an optional method in which
both arms may be formed from the same tube; 55
Figure 15 is a section taken on line |5—I5 of
Figure 14;
Figure 16 shows the use of a seamless tube
with its end belied outwardly;
Figure 17 is an end elevation of the seamless
tube shown in Figure 16;
Figure 18 shows the initial step for forming.
reduced bearing seats on the opposite ends of
tubular arms;
'10 theFigure
19 shows the completed swaging opera
tions on this end of the arm;
Figure 20 shows the arm of Figure 19 ‘welded
to the di?erential housing end with the spring
pad and brake plate attached thereto;
Figure 21 shows the completed housing;
Figure 22 shows a completed housing of the
passenger car type formed in the same manner;
Figure 23 illustrates a modi?ed manner of
forming the arm;
Figure 24 is a sectional view taker. on lines
24-24 of Figures 23 and 25;
Figure 25 shows the swaging of a cylindrical
pleted in one step if tubular blanks such as the
blank i5 are employed,_ and a double-‘ended ex
panding mandrel‘is employed. Obviously, how
ever, shorter lengths of individual seamless tub- ’
ing may be used and may be belied individually,
as previously described. It is optional whether‘a
welded cylindrical blank or a seamless tubular
blank is employedvfor forming the armsections.
In Figures 18 and 19 I disclose the method of
forming suitable bearing seats at the opposite 10
end of the blank such as the blank 20, which may
be previously belied as indicated at 22 in any
suitable manner. In this end forming operation .
a suitable punch is ?rst inserted axially in the
opposite end of the tube to force the metal inter 15
nally thereof and axially rearwardly of the blank
to produce a thickened internal shoulder 23.
During this'operation the end of the blank 20 is '
rigidly held in suitable die blocks 24. A punch
for producing this displacement is indicated dia
grammatically at 25.
Subsequent operations inv forming-the end of
arm into- an arm having a. rectangular section; the blank comprise swaging the external surface
inwardly adjacent the thickened portion to pro
Flgure 26 is a sectional view through a rectan- - vide the frusto conical section 25 adjacent the 25
gular arm taken on line 25-26 of Figure 25.
Referring now in detail to the drawings, the
plate 5 shown in Figure 1 which may comprise a
?at strip of boiler plate or the like which is ini
30 tially rolled into the circular form shown in
Figure 2 and has its beveled ends‘? disposed in
suitable abutting engagement and- welded to '
gether as indicated at 1.
The hoop of Figure 2 is then placed in a stand
ard type of flanging machine and the annular
edges thereof are turned inwardly as indicated at
8 to provide suitable bolting ?anges for the back
plate and differential carrier mounting.
The ?anged circular housing of Figure-4 is
40 then placed in any suitable type of punching ma
chine such as a horn punch and the opposite axle
openings 9 and iii are formed in the web por
tion of the casing. It will be noted that the open
ings 9 and iii are of relatively small diameter
45 whereby suitable bearing means, or if desired,
‘packing means or gasket means may be intro
duced, for preventing communication between‘
the central housing 5 and the extending tubular
arms. Such a construction is desirable in case a
hydraulic differential drive is employed in place
of the standard differential drive now in use.
The tubular arms for mounting the wheels are
formed as shown in Figures 8 to 13, being formed
thickened shoulder 23 and to provide a thickened
bearing portion 21 having an external diameter
substantially less than the external diameter of
theblank 20. The details of such forming oper
ations are described in the Mogford and Spatta 80
Patent No. 1,978,685, issued October 30, 1934._
When each of the tubes or arms has been formed
in this manner suitable brake plates 28 are slipped
over the ends thereof and attached to the cy
lindrical portion of the arm 20 adjacent the
frusto-conical portion 25. The plates 25 maybe
secured to the arms by welding or the like as in
dicated at 29. Similarly, spring pads 30 are se
cured to the arms inwardly of the plates 28 by
means of .welding as shown at 32. The belied ends 40
of the arms are then trimmed in any suitable ma- '
chine to ‘it closely about the external curved sur
face of the central casing .5 and are aligned
axially of the openings 9 and it in the housing 5
by any suitable means. The peripheral edges at 45
‘the ends of the arms 20 are then welded to the
central casing 5 as indicated at 33 to rigidly join
the arms to the central housing.
It will be noted that .the belied portion of the
arms 20 extends outwardly into substantially tan 50
gential relation with respect to the web portion of
the housing 5 whereby the stresses produced tend
to impose longitudinal tension and compression
from a ?at plate member l2 which is rolled into .stresses on the metal of the central housing
55 cylindrical form such as shown in Figure 19 and whereby substantially no shearing stresses are 55
welded along its longitudinal seam as indicated produced along the welded joint.
at I3. If desired one end of the blank l2 may be
After the arms have been joined to the cen- ’
scalloped as indicated at H to provide the in
tral housing in the manner shown in Figure 20
wardly extending arcuate portions at the end of
facilitatesto some extent the belling of the tubu
lar member l2 into the form shown in Figure 12,
in which the end thereof is forced outwardly by
60 the cylindrical tube portion in Figure 10.
means of a suitable mandrel to form the oval
65. bell shaped section l5.
If vdesired a~ ?at plate member or a seamless '
tubular ‘blank of substantially twice the longi
tudinal extent of the blank l2 may be employed
the entire housing, including the arms, the brake
plates and the spring pads, is heat-treated by 00
heating the same up to a temperature of from
1525° to 1575° F. and then quenching the. same,
after which the entire housing is reheated up to
approximately 925 F. and then allowed to cool.
This heat treatment removes any defects or im
perfections introduced‘ by the welding operations
and makes the housing approach a substantially
homogeneous mass of metal in which no parts ,
as indicated at l5 in Figure 14. Such a blank can ' have been weakened by the heat introduced in
70 be provided at its center with transversely ex
tending slots I‘i whereby it may be expanded or
belied outwardly by engagement with the slotted
portions thereof to provide the belied end sections
such as shown at l8-in Figure 16. Thus the bell
-76 ing operation for both the tubes may be com
The ends of the arms 20 are then machined to
?nal form-as shown in Figure 21 to provide a
bearing seat :4, an oil groove 25, and an oil re
tainer surface 55. At the same time the ?anges
5 of the central housing 5 are tapped at spaced 76
intervals, as indicated at 31, to receive the bolts
axis of‘ revolution of‘ said cylindrical surface to‘
for ‘securing the differential carrier mechanism_
which said ends are welded.
‘ '
2. The method of making a rear axle housing
and back plate thereto. -
which comprises rolling-a ?at strip into a hoop,
forming inturned ?anges at opposite sides‘ of said
‘If desired, the outer ends of the armsv 20 may
be forged or upset to provide thickened radially
extending ?anges 40 on which brake plates or the
like may be mounted and the interior of the ends
hoop, punching diametrically opposed axle open- ‘
ings of a size substantially equal to the diameter
of an axle spindle in the web of ‘saidvhoop, form
‘20 may be suitably. machined after heat-treat?
ment. of the housing to provide bearing seats 42.
ing a pair of tubular arms, belling out one end
of each of vsaid arms into an oval shape having '10
an axial curvature of substantially the same
1.0 Such-forming operations are described in detail
in my copending application, Serial No. 534,747,
?led May 4, 1931.‘ The housing shown in Figure ' radius as said hoop,-forming ‘a thickened radial
22 is especially adapted for use in passenger cars I?ange at the opposite ends of each of said arms,
and welding the belled ends of said arms to the
'or the like;
15 "lfidesired a tubular blank such as the blank 44 cylindrical surface of said hoop about said open 15
of; Figure 23, which is; initially swaged down to
3. The method of making a rear axle housing
thereof, may ‘have itsend‘portion further swaged
which comprises rolling a ?at strip into a hoop,
forming inturned ?anges at opposite sides of
to.‘ form a cylindrical end 45 of reduced external
‘diameter ‘and joined to the intermediate reduced
said hoop, punching diametrically opposed axle
portion of the blank by the frusto-con‘ical sec;
tion 46. A subsequent swaging operation may
openings of a'diameter such as to receive an axle
' then be employed for converting the intermediate
‘cylindrical portion of the arm 44 into .the rec-.
of tubular arms, belling out one end of each of
spindle in the web of said hoop, forming a-pair
vt'angular portion Ill-whereby the arm is provided
‘ with increased strength without any correspond
ing‘ increase in size as shown in Figure 26. The
bearing portions at the opposite ends of said
arms, and welding the edges of said belled ends ’
of said arms to the cylindrical surface of said 30
hoop about said openings with the axes of said
arms extending normal to the axis of generation
rectangular section is described in detail in my
copending application, Serial No. 39,666, ?led Sep
tember 9, 1935. This portion 41 ofv the arm has its
said arms so that the de?ning edges thereof are
of the same curvature as said hoop, forming the
intermediate portions of said arms into rec;
tangular section, forming reduced and thickened
I . swaging operation for forming this intermediate
._ thicken the. same and produce some elongation
vertical extent greaterthan the horizontal extent
in order to provide an increased'moment-of inertia
and the swaging operation also produces an in
as creased density of metal in the corners of the sec
of the surface of saidhoop to which‘ said edges
4. The method of making a rear axle housing
which comprises‘rolling a ?at‘.strip into a hoop,
tion as shown at 48 which is of distinctvalue in
preserving the strength of the-section. The re-, forming inturned ?anges at opposite sides of said
duced end of the ‘arm 44, an indicated at 45,- may hoop, punching diametrically opposed axle open
.then be upset to form radially thickened ?anges, ings in the web‘ of said'hoop, forming a pair of .
40 as-shown at 40 in Figure 22, or may be further tubular arms, belling out one end of eachof
reduced and thickened to form wheel bearing said arms to bring them into substantial tangency
seats, as indicated in Figure 19. It is obvious with the external surface of said hoop, forming
that the arm 44 may be thus‘ further. worked after thickened radial upset ?anges at the opposite
"the formation of the intermediate rectangular
portion, and no. illustration of such further steps»
is deemed necessary.
The‘ end 49. of such a -
a blank ‘is then belled and trimmed in any suit
able manner and joined to the central housing 5.
. It- is therefore believed apparent that I have
endsof said arms, and welding the ‘edges of the
belled ends of said arms to the cylindrical sur
face. of said hoop about-said openings with the’
axes of said arms'extending normal to the axis‘
of generation of the surface of said hoop to
which said edges are welded.
5. As‘ an article of manufacture, a rear axle
provided a noveltypé of axle housing which housing
comprising a rolled central differential
provides for economy in formation and facilities ' casing having an uninterrupted external cylin
I ‘assembly in that the'relative lengths of tube are drical surface provided with diametrically op
much easier to handle ‘during the forging opera
posed openings, and a pair of tubular-arms on
- tions than the tubes used in forming- a one-piece
expanded type housing.
' i do not intend .to limit my'invéntion to the
opposite. sides of said casing and extending nor
.mal to the axis thereof, said arms having belled
ends adjacent said casing of oval concave ‘shape
exact structure disclosed or to the precise steps _ ?tting said external surface of said casing, and I '
described in the formation of- the housing inas A weldedadirectly' thereto about'said openings.
much as these may be widely varied. " The in
vention is therefore tobe limited only as de?ned
by the scope and spirit of the appended claims.
I '1. The method of making a reariaxle housing
which co'mprisesrolling a ?at strip into a hoop,
6. An axle housing comprising a central por
tion forme'dgfrom a ?at strip and rolled into a
cylindrical casing, and a pair of hollow arms
having belled end sections secured directly to. the
external annular surface of said strip, each of
said end sections extending about and enclosing
‘butt-welding the adjacent ends of said strip,
substantially ‘one-sixth of the total circumfer
hoop, punching diametrically opposed axle open
ings in the ‘web. of said hoop, forming a pair of
substantially tangent to said casing. '
' '71 In the method of forming an axle housing,
surface-of said hoop about said openings with
the axes of said-arms extending normal to the
said notched end to form an outwardly ?ared
' forming inturned ?anges atopposite sides of said ential surface of said casing and terminating
tubular arms, belling out one end of'each of said the novel steps comprising cutting a’rectangularq' 70
- arms to- bring them into substantial tangencyj ly shaped blank witha pair of laterally spaced
arcuately shaped notches in one end thereof, roll
‘ ‘ with the -external,_surface-of' said hoop, and .weld
- ing the belled ends of said arms to the cylindrical ing‘said blank into a tube and welding it lon
gitudinally along the meeting edges, bellingv out
arcuately dished portion, providing a cylindrical
peripherally ?anged di?erential casing, and
welding the de?ning edge of said ?ared portion
to the external annular surface oi’ said casing.
8. In the method of forming a three-piece axle
housing, the novel procedure comprising rolling
‘ a'eheet of ?at stock into a hoop, butt-welding
by cutting a rectangular am from in: stock
with a pair or inwardly arched arcuate notches
in one end thereof. i'orming, said blank into a
tube, belling out said notched end to form an
outwardly ?aring oval-shaped ‘inwardly dished
portion, and welding the de?ning edges oi'_ each
'01’ said portions to the external annular surface‘
the meeting edges, punching diametrically op-_ at said. hoop about the respective openings in said
posed openings in said hoop, forming inturned
10 peripheral ?anges on‘ said hoop, and forming a
pair of housing arms, each arm being formed
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