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Патент USA US2131310

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&p%. 27, 1938.
Filed Dec. 9. 1953
4‘ Sheets-Sheet 1
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%pt, 27, W38.
' ' $133,310
yF'iled Dec. 9, .1933
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Filed Dec. 9, 1953
4 Sheets-Sheet 5
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Sept. 2?, 1938,
Filed Dec. 9. 1933
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
Patented Sept. 27, 1938
Hiram J. Carson, Omaha, Nebr. I I
Application December 9, 1933, Serial No. l701,590
4 Claims.
This invention relates to improvements'in car
buretted ‘water gas apparatus.
In the present application, Figures 1, 2 and 3
of the drawings and the accompanying descrip
' 5' tive matter have been divided out from my prior
application, No. 353,576, ?led April 8, 1929, now
Patent No. 1,953,843, issued April 3, 1934, and
Figures 4, 5 and 6 of the present application with
‘accompanying description have been divided out
'10 from my prior application No. 608,277, ?led April
29, 1932, now Patent No. 2,033,511, granted March
(.01.. 48-80)
widely, with a fairly rapid deterioration of the
heat absorbing material, as ?re brick, because of
the thermal shock incident to the temperature
The temperature in the top courses
' ?uctuations.
of checker brick have been found to fluctuate" 5
from an average minimum of 640 degrees F, to
an average maximum of 1886 degrees F. with ex
t'reme mean variations from 513' degrees
2000 degrees F, and shut-downs and replacement: , >
of the checker brick have been frequently neces- 10
sary. Furthermore, at' the higher temperatures,v
10, 1936. The present application is therefore a ’ the hydrocarbons areover-cracked with a deposit
of carbon and the formation of objectionable.
compounds such as naphthalene and, at the
As is well known, in the usual operation of lower temperatures‘, the hydrocarbons are income
carburetted water gas sets, the time is roughly pletely cracked and‘ utilized and other objection
able compounds such ‘as ihde'ne and styrene are
divided into two periods; the air blasting or heat
ing up period, and the running or gas making formed.
Also, in ‘the former usual types of carburetter
period. The heat developed during the air blast
O ing period and stored in the generator fuel bed, is apparatus referred to, the brick in the carburet- 20
continuation-in-p-art of my two prior applica
available during the gas making period for de ‘ter are. rapidly cooled by the vaporization and
composing the steam admitted to the generator. cracking of'the oil and, in the usual up and down
During the blasting or heating up period, the po frun' methods of operation of carburetted water
gas sets, are further cooled by the relatively cool
. tential and sensible heat in the blast gases leav
blue gas and undecomposed steam which enter 25'
" 25ying the generator is used to store heat in re
' generative chambers known as carburetting and
superheating chambers, the heat so stored being
used for vaporizing and cracking liquid hydro
carbons and ?xing the resulting hydrocarbon
30 gases during the gas making period for enrich
ing or carburetting the water gas.
In carrying out the carburetting of water gas,
the general practice, prior to this invention, has
been to employ a carburetter having a secondary
‘ 35 combustion chamber at the top thereof with a
the carburetter at temperatures substantiallyv
lower than required for optimum oil crackingcon
ditions; 'This cooling often progresses to such
an extent that it is dii?cult to ignite the blow ‘7
gases and-secondary air during the following air' 30
blasting period.
As previously stated, in the usual apparatus
for carburetting water gas, the hydrocarbon par
ticles are injected downwardly into and travel,
downwardly with the passing stream of water~~35
gas. The greater density and initial velocity'of
vcheckerwork of brick or other suitable body of
heat absorbing material positioned therebelow, the hydrocarbon particles causes these to have‘ a
the blast gases bemg burned by the admission of greater downward velocity than the gas particles
and, also, the greater density of the cooler gas 1
secondary air for combustion in such top cham
particles as they are cooled by‘ contact with the“ 40
* 40 her and passed downwardly through the checker
work of brick and out through the remaining ap hydrocarbon particles, causes these to have‘ a
paratus. During the gas making period, the ' greater ‘downward velocity than the hotter gas .
water gas or blue gas has likewise been admitted ‘particles and the‘ hotter. gas particles to have a
to said top chamber and the hydrocarbons for lesser downward velocity; The downwardly mov-W
ing hydrocarbon particles are thussurrounded‘eiifi
‘45 carburetting the water gas. simultaneously ad
mitted into said chamber from the top thereof in with cool particles of gas'and the cracking and/or
gasi?cation of the hydrocarbon particles is re
a' downward direction, coinciding. with the down
' ward flow of the water gases, the resultant prod
ucts then being passed through the checkerwork
~50 of brick downwardly and thence from the bottom
tarded by this surrounding atmosphere of cooler
Further, the undecomposed steam and _.
water'gas enter the carburetter below the desired: 50
’ of the carburetter to the-superheater and from temperatures for cracking and must be heated
the latter to such other apparatus as desired.
It is well known that optimum conditions for
In the manufacture of carburetted water gas
in sets such as referred to, it is well known that ‘the gasi?cation or cracking of liquidhydrocari
v‘1355 the temperatures in the carburetter ?uctuate
bons in the carburetter require the maintenance?“
.2 >
of temperatures within fairly narrow limits and
one object of this invention, therefore, is to pro
vide, in apparatus for the manufacture ofcar
buretted water gas, a carburetter which will
eliminate or minimize all of the disadvantages
ter, in striking or impinging against the hydro
carbon particles, cool and drop out of the way
of the hydrocarbons, gas and steam introduced
or admitted thereafter, with a resultant uniform
descent of the mixed gas column through the
hereinbefore pointed out in connection with prior carburetting chamber.
known types of carburetted water gas sets and,
Further objects of the invention'are to provide,
more speci?cally, to maintain the temperatures in an apparatus for the carburetting of water
in the carburetting and hydrocarbon cracking gas, improved means for the handling of a large
10 zones within such minimum and maximum tem
volume of blue gas entering the carburetter by 10
peratures as will prevent the formation of ob
reducing the absolute pressures therein to pro
jectionable compounds and minimize the cleteri—> ' mote the conversion of the-hydrocarbons into
oration of heat absorbing material in the car
stable hydrocarbon gases; to provide an arrange
Another object of this invention is to provide,
in connection with apparatus for the manufac
ture of carburetted water gas, improved means
for preheating the water gas prior to the intro
duction of hydrocarbons thereinto and for in
20 jecting the hydrocarbons into the stream of water
gas in such manner and at such time as to insure
buretters being so associated with the generator
that the up run steam may be superheated in the
additional carburetter; and to provide apparatus 20
substantially optimum conditions of operation
such that when employing the two carburetters,
ignition of the up and down blast gases will be
and the production of carburetted water gas
insured after each gas run.
without objectionable compounds being formed
Other objects of the invention will more clearly
appear from the description and claims herein 25
~25 in any substantial amount.
Another object of this invention is to provide
improved means for insuring ignition of the blast
gases entering the carburetter at the beginning
7 of the air blasting periods.
The invention has for a further object, the
provision of a combustion and heat-absorbing
chamber located between the generating and
carburetting chambers, such that heat may be
ment such that down run Water gas may be
carburetted in the same efficient manner in a 15
second carburetter as in the case of the up run
water gas as previously indicated, the two car
stored therein during each blasting period to be
utilized for preheating the blue gas and unde
compos'ed steam toward and above the optimum
temperatures for oil enriching hydrocarbon gasi
after following.
In the drawings forming a part of this appli
cation, Figure 1 is a part elevation, part vertical
section of a’ carburetted water gas plant showing
the improvements incorporated therein. Figure, ,30
2 is a partial top plan view of the structure shown
in Figure 1. Figure 3 is a view similar to Figure 1
illustrating a somewhat modi?ed embodiment of
the invention. Figure 4 is a view similar to Fig
ure 1 illustrating still another modi?cation of the 35
invention. Figure 5 is a vertical, sectional view
of a carburetter such as illustrated in Figure 4,
but slightly modi?ed and adapted to be used in
?cation, during the succeeding gas run, before
such blue gas and undecomposed steam enter the lieu thereof. And Figure 6 is a View similar to
oil or hydrocarbon admission zone, whereby, Figure 4 illustrating still another embodiment of 40
during the gas runs, the water gas and undecom
the invention.
posed steam are heated to relatively high tem
Referring ?rst to the construction illustrated
peratures in their passage through the combus ' in Figures 1 and 2, a generator 5l2 is there
tion and heat-absorbing chamber and, upon en
shown, the same having a fuel bed 5|‘! and means
tering the oil gasi?cation zone with the heat im ‘for supplying air to the fuel bed at selectively].
controlled different levels 520, 5203 and 520".
the oil gasi?cation zone with assurance of more
Steam, for the gas run, is adapted to be admit
ted under control through the pipes 52l at a level
above the lowermost air, blast level. The gen
erator is connected by a passageway 525 from thet 50
top thereof to an inlet at the top of the carbu
retter 5| 3, which in turn has an outlet at the bot
tom thereof connected by a passageway to gas
nearly uniform and optimum temperatures pre
vailing therein.
parted thereto, carry heat to the oil particles in
Another object of the invention is to provide
in apparatus of the character indicated, a mix
ing chamber in the oil or hydrocarbon admission
‘ zone in the carburetter, to allow for the thor
ough mixing therein of the highly heated enter
55 ing blue gas and steam with the oil vapors or
mist, to the end that the mixture of the entering
hot gas and steam with the oil particles heated
by radiation from the carburetter lining and ad
jacent refractory material will‘ insure‘ bringing
the oil particles to or nearly to optimum temper
atures for cracking and, in the presence of a re
active gas, such as hydrogen, in the blue gas at
optimum cracking temperatures, stable hydro
carbon gases will be formed with ‘a practically
complete conversion of the carbon and hydrogen
in the oil into such gases.
A still further object of the invention is to
provide, in apparatus of the character indicated,
means insuring a uniform or substantially uni
5170 form descent of the mixture‘ of hydrocarbon par
ticles or gases, and blue gas and steam within the
hydrocarbon admission zone by the utilization of
7 means
the hydrocarbons into,
superheater 5“. The latter is equipped with the
usual top gas o?take' 533 for use when desired,
and with another gas offtake 534 leading to a
condenser 535 and vacuum pump 531, by means
of which the gases may be withdrawn under a
partial vacuum, when desired. The gas super
heater is provided also with the usual stack valve 60
532 and, adjacent the top thereof, is connected by
a passageway 38 to regenerator 5l5 and from the
latter with alternate regenerators 5l6 and 5l6a
(see Figure 2) and through which the blast gases
are passed to store heat therein for superheating 65
steam and preheating air. The generator is also
shown as provided with novel means for effect
ing carbonization of the fuel in its descent to the
fuel bed proper and for withdrawing the products
of distillation, but inasmuch as these form no 70
part of the present invention, detailed descrip~
tion thereof is deemed unnecessary. Neither is it
deemed necessary to describe in detail in this
. against and/or countercurrent to the downward
application, the preferred manner of selectively
1y descending blue gas and steam so that the lat
admitting the air blasts to the lower zone of the
fuel column inasmuch as these features are more - ignition of the blast gases during each subse
fully described in said Patent No. 1,953,848 to
quent air blasting period and, further, by elim
which reference may be had.
inatingv or minimizing the cooling of the heat
The carburetter 5|3 is shown equipped with a absorbing material. 528, the latter is relieved of ,
secondary air supply 559 and also a steam supply excessive thermal shocks such as inherently in- 215
564 which latter may be used when desired. In cident to prior known carburetters. Shut-downs
the drawings is also shown a top oil inlet 521, for replacements or repairs are, therefore, in the
such as customarily heretofore employed, but present invention, reduced to a minimum.’
In the arrangement of Figure 3 a generator
which, in the present invention, is dispensed
10 with. In the present invention, the enriching > 5l2' and carburetter 5I3, similar to those shown 5310
hydrocarbons for carburetting the blue gas are in Figure 1, are employed but with the usual gas
admitted through the plurality of inlets 529a and superheater omitted and the gas offtake shown
529b arranged circumferentially in the shell of at 533 leading to a seal separator or such other
apparatus as desired. With. this offtake not used
the carburetter, as clearly shown.
During each air blasting period, the blow gases . or omitted, the gas may be drawn off through a1‘.- 15
vacuum pump 531, preferably through. av con- '
enter the carburetter at the top through the pas
_ sageway 525 and, with secondary air admitted fdenser 535. The blast gases are led from the
thereto through 559, are burned in the top com ' carburetter through passageway 538, to regener
bustion chamber 526 and in contact with a body ators 5l5 and 516 and 5H5a (the latter not shown
of heat-absorbing material 528 which is thereby in Figure 3) as indicated in Figure 2, with thei-‘igo
heated by such burned and/or burning gases heat therefrom largely stored-‘in such regener
passing downwardly therethrough and/or in con ’ ators for superheating steam and preheating air.
tact therewith. When air blasting is discontin
The operation of the carburetter and withdrawal
ued after the heat-absorbing material 528 has of the gases therefrom is similar to that hereto,
fore described for Figure 1 except that the car-e25
25 been heated to the desired extent, steam is ad
mitted to the generator and the blue gas and any buretting is completed in the carburetter. with
undecomposed steam admixed therewith, pass out the use of the gas superheater.
into the carburetter through the passageway 525
Referring next to the construction illustrated
(the usual oil inlet 521 not being used). The blue in Figure 4, a three shell water gas set is. there
illustrated consisting of a generator, improvedrii'ao
~30 gas and steam then pass downwardly through
carburetter and a gas superheater. The gener~
and/or in contact with the heat-absorbing mate
rial 528 and are heated thereby, the extent of ator I0 is shown. provided with means for the
the heating in such case depending upon the tem
alternate admission of blasting air and steam in
perature to which previously heated, and amount ’ the usual well known manner, the air being ad
of heat-absorbing material 528. The gas and mitted through pipe 43, controlled by ,valve l4,-i>,35
steam then enter the hydrocarbon admission zone the air being supplied from any suitable. source,
529 below the heat-absorbing material 528 ‘and as will be understood. The. fuel is adapted‘to be
the enriching hydrocarbons are simultaneously admitted through the top of. the generator
- injected into and against the descending stream through the passage l5 normally closed by the
of gas and/or steam, through‘ the inlets 5299- and coaling lid l6.
The blast gases and generated water gas. are
With the heat-absorbingmaterial 528 used in passed from the generator 40 to the top- of‘ the
sufficiently large amount and heated to a su?i . carburetter 29 by a passageway 40 within which
ciently high temperature, the blue gas and steam is disposed a control valve 4|. Water gas gener
ated by a down run in the generator is delivered 515
45 are heated to a sufficiently high temperature
such that, when admixed with the hydrocarbons from the bottom of the generator to the passage
injected as aforesaid, the mean temperature of way 40 by the pipe l1, having control valve l8
the oil, gas and steam supplemented by the heat included therein, as shown.
radiated thereto from the adjacent refractory
. Steam is supplied from any suitable source,
material of the shell lining, is at or close to the such as a boiler, not shown, through pipe 425;
optimum temperature for the vaporization and having branches 43 and 44 adapted to conduct
cracking of the hydrocarbons into stable hydro ‘the steam to the top of the generator and bot
carbon gases.
-tom,_ respectively, as shown, the admission of
Additional heat-absorbing material 530 may steambeing controlled through suitable valves
45, 46 and 41. Steam may also be admitted to?“
55 be used when desired, below the carburetting
zone 529, for completing the cracking and/or the top of the superheater 30 through. pipe 48
?xing of the hydrocarbon gases in conjunction having control valve 49 therein, when the set is
with the gas superheater 5l4 but said heat-ab
operated in the. manner hereinafter described.
sorbing material 539 may be omitted when de
When steam is admitted to the superheater, the
water gas may be drawn off from the bottom ofif‘go
60 sired as, for example, when heavy high carbon
oils are used which would tend to deposit carbon the generator through the pipe 50 having control
on or clog the heat-absorbing material 530 to valve 5| therein and passed from the pipe‘ 50
an objectionable extent.
through a water seal, not shown, or other suit
From the preceding description, considered in able apparatus not deemed necessaryto describe.
Air for secondary combustion of the blast gasesl'65
" 65 connection with the drawings, it will be. noted
that the heat-absorbing material 528. is not ex
is preferably admitted through pipe 2| into the
posed to the cooling action of the hydrocarbons passageway 40 between the valve 4! and carbu
so that, whatever its amount or mass, it remains - retter, said supply of air being controlled by the
at the end of each gas run at a much higher tem
perature than in the case of carburetters hereto
valve_22.’ The carburetter 20, as shown, is pro
‘vid'ed' in the top portion thereof with a com-1170
fore commonly used where the oilsis- injected bustion chamber 23 and below the latter ‘with a
downwardly from the top of the carburetter. body of heat-absorbing material, such as a check
Hence, as will be evident, the heat-absorbing ma »erwork of brick 24 supported by an arch 25. Be
terial’ 528 will remain at a sufficiently high tem
ms perature so as to always insure-readyhandieasy
low the arch 25' is the carburetting chamber or ,
hydrocarbon admission zone-.26 and below‘ the I75
' 2,131,310
latter a second body of heat-absorbing material
21 is shown which may also be a checkerwork of
brick or the like, but which may be omitted when
desired. The arch 25 is so located as to provide
the desired proportions and/or spaces in 23, 24,
26 and/or 27. The heat-absorbing material 21
may be used when desired to further and complete
the cracking and/or gasi?cation of any hydro
carbons uncra‘cked in 26, but may be omitted
10 when desired, as for example, when not required
or when very heavy high carbon oils are used
which would deposit carbon thereon and tend to
clog the openings therein.
The hydrocarbons or enriching agents are sup
.15 plied to the carburetting chamber or hydrocarbon
admission Zone 25 through a set of pipes 28_28
and/or another set of pipes 29-29, each of which
is provided with a suitable control valve I28 and
I29, respectively, said pipes being more fully de
scribed hereinafter.
From the vbottom of the carburetter 20, the
burned blast gases and the carburetted water
gas, as the case may be, are conveyed to the
bottom of the superheater 30 through passage
25 way 52 and thence pass upwardly through the
regenerative zone, also preferably comprised of a
checkerwork of brick or other suitable material
3|. In the case of the burned blast gases, the
same are adapted to pass up into the stack 32
.30 through the ?ue 33, controlled by valve 34 or to
such other apparatus as desired. .During the gas
making period, the carburetted water gas is de
livered from the top] of the superheater as through
pipe 35 and passed through a water seal to other
,135 apparatus where it may be treated in the usual
throughthe pipes 43 and 44, the entire or any
desired portion of the resultant gas may be car
buretted in the carburetter 20 as obvious. When,
however, a down run is made from steam ad
,mitted to the superheater at 48, the resultant gas
from such down run will not be carburetted in the
carburetter 20 but will be taken off through the
pipe 50 and passed to such other apparatus as
Referring now to the carburetter I20 shown in 10
Figure 5, the same is of the same general char
acter as the carburetter 20, previously described,
except that the body of heat-absorbing material
I24 is made larger; the carburetting chamber or
hydrocarbon admission zone I26 made larger and 15
the second body of heat-absorbing material I21
also made larger, which latter may be omitted,
however, when desired. The upper pipes 228
for injecting the enriching agents are located and
disposed similar to the corresponding pipes 28 20
of the carburetter shown in Figure 4 form and the
inclined pipes 229 are disposed somewhat lower
down in thechamber and upwardly inclined at a
more acute angle to the vertical than as shown in
carburetter 20. By employing a larger body or 25
heat-absorbing material I24, a greater amount
of heat may be stored and the preheat of the
water gas raised higher than with the smaller
body 24 of the ?rst described form. By inclining
the injector pipes 229 at a more acute angle to 30
the vertical, the injection of the enriching agents
may be made more nearly directly full counter
current to the ?ow of the downwardly moving
water gas to insure the proper intermingling,
heating, vaporization and cracking of various‘ 35
classes of enriching agents in the desired quan
Assuming a column of fuel in the generator I0 tity and to the desired degree.
and the same having been ignited, air is admitted
When the carburetter I20 is used in lieu of
through the pipe I3 and the blast gases are then carburetter 20, (as will be clear from Figure 6 de
conducted through the passageway 40 (valve 4| ‘ scribed hereinafter) the passageway 240 is con-. ~10
being open); burned in the passageway 40 and nected to the passageway 40 from the generator
combustion chamber 23 by admission of secondary and the passageway-‘252 is connected into pas
air through the pipe 2| with valve 22 open, the sageway 52 leading to the superheater. In such
burned and/or burning blast gases then passing arrangement, the valve 253 may be omitted and
downwardly through the passages of and in con
also the valved pipes 244, 245 and 255, which 45
tact with the body of heat-absorbing material are now shown on Figure 5.
24; through the chamber 26; and thence up
through the superheater 30 and out through the
It is also contemplated that the carburetter
I20 may be used in certain installations of su?‘i
stack 32, the stack valve 34 being open, as will be ' cient size so that the vaporization and cracking
of the hydrocarbons and formation of the suit 50
. After the air blasting has been continued the
able hydrocarbon gases is completed within the
desired length of time, the supply of air is shut
off and steam then admitted either through the
carburetter I20 and without using the super
heater 30. Insuch cases, the body of heat-ab
pipe'43 or 44. The water gas then generated is f sorbing material I27 may or may not be used
2155 conducted from either the top, of the generator as desired. When the carburetter I20 is used:
or the bottom, depending upon whether it is an
up or a down run, through the passage 40 into
without the superheater 30, the carburetted wa
ter gas may be drawn off in any suitable manner
the chamber 23, thence downwardly through the as through the valve controlled pipe 255; and ~
‘passages of and in contact with the body of heat
absorbing material 24 and on downwardly through
the carburetting chamber or hydrocarbon ad
.' 60
therein. Further, in this arrangement, the down
mission Zone 26, where it is carburetted as here
mn steam may be admitted to the bottom of the
inafter described, thence through passageway 52
carburetter I20 through the valved inlet 244,
together with any oxygen~containing gas, such
as air admixed therewith, if desired, admitted 65
through the valved'inlet 245.
Referring now to Figure 6, the‘ apparatus
there shown is similar to Figure 4 with, however,
a carburetter of the type indicated in‘Figure 5
and previously. described, substituted for the 70
p and up through the superheater 30 and out
1.65 through the pipe 35. When an up run is being
made, the valve 4| is open and valve I8 closed
and, during a down run, valve 4| is closed and
Valve I8 open. When desired, the steam is ad
.mitted through pipe 48 to the top of the super
heater, then‘ passed downwardly therethrough
andthen upwardly through the carburetter from
_which it is delivered to the top of the generator,
valve 4| being open. The blue gas formed is
then drawn off through the pipe 50._ ,
, When steam is admitted ior up and down runs
57,5 ‘ ‘
the blast gases discharged through the pipe or
passageway 254 having the control valve 253 60
carburetter 20 and an additional similar car
buretter connected to the generator at the op
posite side for down run gases.’ In said Figure
6, the carburetter 320 at the right thereof is
shown ‘with its inlet 340;connected by pipe I40."
to the passageway 40 from the generator Ill'rand combustion of they blasting gases from up- air
the passageway 352. connected into the passage
blasting. ‘In the same arrangement, whenfthe
way 52 leading to the superheater 3B, which is 2 carburetter 428 is not utilized for carburet'ting
only partially indicated in order to accommo
down run’gas, the .down run blastTgases ‘result
'date the view on the sheet. When the super
ing from‘ air' admitted at 213 at the top. of the
heater 30 is so used, the valved pipes 353, 344, - generator or at “3 atthe .top of the superheater
345, 355 and 32I maybe omitted ‘andthe carbu- r 30, may be takenoff from the bottom of the
retter 320 will then be operated in the same man- ' . generator through the. valved outlet I34, valve '
ner as previously described for carburetters 2'0
10 and I20 of Figures 4 and 5. ‘When- the. super- i
heater 30 is omitted, as previouslyindicated and '
which may be desirable under some conditions,
5| being," closed. .- Further, with valve '4 Iain place ' '
andclosed, the resultant blast gases from down 10-03
blast air admitted at 2 I3, may be passed through 1.
the pipe IT to the carburetter'3210'and burned ‘
therein by secondary air admitted through the "
the outlet passage 352 will be suitably blanked
off and the carburetted water gas drawn o? in
pipe >32I', as previously described.
' ,
It will‘ be seen from the-preceding description,
blast gases discharged through the outlet 354. - that not only does the invention provide improved
In this. last described arrangement wherein the means for manufacturing carburetted water gas
superheater 30 is omitted, the down run steam in a set’ employing a generator, carburetter and
may be admitted through the valved inlet 344, 1‘ superheater, in the arrangement'shown in Fig
20 together withany oxygen containing gas, such . ures 1,3 and. 4 for either up run gas only, or
15 any desired manner through the offtake 35.5 and '
as air, admixed therewith, if desired, admitted. ' both up and .down run gas butalso, when the ar- 1
rangements involvingthe use of the carburetters :
In utilizing the carburetter 420 shownat the
I20, 320 and 420 are employed as described, fur
left of the generator, for carburetting down frun ther improved results are- obtained'. When down '
25 gas, the pipe I34 at the base of the generator is ‘ air blasting is'employed with the resultant blast
connected through pipe 240 to the inlet 44!) at 1 gases leaving either the base of ‘the; generator
the top of the carburetter. Air for a down blast orpassing to the carburetter and burned therein,v ~
through the valved inlet 345.
7 -
is admitted in the upper portion of the gener
the carburetting can be carried out with equal?v
ator through the valved inlet 2I3-2I4, as for e?iciency.
Referring now more particularly to ‘the carbue
30 instance after a down steam run, and :therblast
gases will then be passed through I34—'24II into retters in each-?gure, it will beobserved that
with the apparatus‘in operatiomthe blast gases
the carburetter 420 and burned in the combus
tion chamber 423 thereof with secondary air and secondary air therefor during each air blast
admitted through 42I. The burned gases, after‘ ing period are immediatelyignited adjacent the
passing downwardly through the carburetter 420,
inlet to the carburetter by the hot heateabsorbing
material in'the carburetter which ‘doesynot be
come cooled by contact with the hydrocarbons
are passed out through the passageway 454, the
body of heat-absorbing material 424, arch 425
and body of heat-absorbing material 421 (when
used) being thereby heated in ‘the same manner .
40 .as previously described for the carburetters '20
and I20. The down run gas will follow'the same
course and be carburetted within the carburet
ting chamber 426 in the same manner as previ: .
ously described in connection with the car-bu-y
45 retters 20 and I20. With the arrangement de»
scribed utilizing the carburetter 420, up ,run _
steam and any oxygen-containing gas such as air,
which it may be desired to admix therewith, are ’
admitted through the valved inlets ‘444 and 445 _'
and such gases are ormaybe substantially com
pletely burned prior'to and/ or in passing through
the‘ passages in'or ‘in contact ‘with such heat-»
absorbing material.
The burned gases, in» passing ‘through or in
contact ‘with such heat-absorbing material, heat
the ‘latter to such temperature as desired and, ‘
after passing therethrough, will also serve to heatv
the ‘lining of the 'c'arburetting chamber or hydro
carbon admission zone and (when used)'the heat- ' '
absorbing material in the lower portion ofthe
carburetter as well as the body of regenerative
and superheated in the upward passage through
material in thefgas superheater of Figure 4.
bottom of the generator through 240 and I34,
and suchundecomposed steamas’may be mingled
50 the carburetter 420 whence it is delivered to the»
During the gas forming period, the water gas
therewith,'is preheated in its downward passage
When the carburetter 420 is used‘ forcarbu- , through the combus'tionchambers at vthe tops of
as obvious.
retting down run gas as described in the 'pre-~_ , the respective carburetters andthe heat-absorb~ '55
ceding paragraph, the air for up blasting the
fuel column which is admitted to the bottom of
the generator may be preheated in said carbuw
ing material immediately therebelow so that, by
the time the water? gas and/or steam enter the
carburetting chambers below the‘heat-absorbing
retter 420, being admitted thereto through the
material, the water gas and/or steam have at
valved inlet 445 at the bottom thereof. In this tained the desired temperature for most effec
case, the air blasting inlet’ I3 may be entirely ' tively heating, vaporizing and cracking the hy 60.
dispensed with or, if desired, retained for use ' drocarbons injected thereinto.
from time to time. Further, with the arrange
In injecting the enriching agents into'the car
ment just described, when the carburetter 420 is buretting chambers, it will be observed‘ that the
utilized for carburetting down run gas with the . same are injected at‘ a plurality of points around
steam for a down run admitted at the top of the
the periphery ‘of the chamber: or periphery of
superheater 30 (see Figure 1 or at 344 of, carbue the ‘downwardly moving stream of ‘gas, and lat
retter 320, Figure 6), and steam for an uprun erally into and/or against the'stream of super
admitted through 444, the steam admission- pipes > heated gas. The enriching agents may be in?
70 42, 43 and 44 to the generator may be dispensed jected horizontally,>as shownin all the embodi 70
with as well as the connection‘ I‘! and the valve '
4|. In this latter arrangement also, the air in
ments illustrated or at an‘ upward angle toward
~' the arches as shown inFigures 4, 5 and 6. In
any event, the enriching agents are injected from
valved inlet, the latter being utilized for admis w the periphery into the body of the downwardly‘
76 sion of both down air blasting and secondary ‘moving gas stream, the injection being under
lets 2I3 and 32I may be combined into a single
2,131,310 1
relatively high velocity which may be varied ‘to .‘ gases during each subsequent air-blasting period. .
suit the enriching agents employed and/or the
For the, enriching‘. agents, various grades of
degree of cracking desired. In actual practice, liquid hydrocarbons may be‘ employed and also 9
nozzles or spuds will preferably be used on the " hydrocarbons, such as butane and propane, which
latter are in the gaseous state at ordinary atmos
229, 328, 328, 428 or 429, as the case may be and pheric temperatures and pressures. Kerosene
adjusted so as to spray the enriching agents in
and gasoline, which are unsuitable for distribu
the desired manner and at the desired angle rela
tion as city gas, may also be employed.
tive to the downwardly moving stream of gas.
In those localities where natural gas is used
As the hydrocarbon particles of the enriching as an enricher for water gas, the improved carbu
10' agents
are projected into the stream of preheated retted water gas apparatus may be operated as
water gas under relatively high velocity, their a blue water gas set normally, with partial en
velocity or momentum is progressively and grad
richment by hydrocarbons introduced ‘ and
ually decreased as the same move into and pene
cracked as hereinbefore-described in order to
trate the gas stream and, simultaneously there
improve and stabilize the rate of use of natural
:inner ends of the pipes 5293*, 529*’, 28, 29, 228,
with, the hydrocarbon particles will be progres
sively heated, vaporized and cracked as the hy—
drocarbon particles impinge against the gas par
ticles until all of the hydrocarbon particles are
20 cracked. The greater the mass of such hydro
' carbon particles and the greater their velocity,
the farther the same will penetrate into the de
scending gas stream and the angle at which in
jected may be varied accordingly. The larger
heavier the hydrocarbon particles injected, the
greater the need for more velocity and distance
of penetration into and against the gas stream
in order to insure the complete cracking thereof,
as will be understood.
As the hydrocarbon par
30 ticles impinge on successive particles of the de
scending gas, the same are gradually heated, va
porized and cracked and diminished in size until
complete cracking occurs and the resultant car
buretted mixture is passed downwardly through
35 the lower body of checkerwork in the carburetter
(if and when used) and thence to the super
The water gas particles, as they descend
through the carburetting chamber or hydrocar
bon admission zone and are ‘carburetted by the
40 penetration of the hydrocarbon particles therein,
are cooled and the particles,‘as cooled and car
buretted, have a greater density and accelerated
downward velocity, thus automatically drawing
more of the superheated water gas downwardly
45 after them and into the carburetting chamber or
zone and path of the hydrocarbon particles ad
gas from day to day and for augmenting the
supply, as desired.
Further, by the improved -
carburetting apparatus herein disclosed, the
water gas may be so carburetted as to approxi
mate the heating valuesv and burning character 270 1:
istics of water gas enriched by or mixed with
natural gas and of natural gas and hence may be '
used instead of, or supplemental to, such. en
riched or mixed gases or natural gas, when neces
sary, and without the necessity of burner ad 25
justments and at the same time eliminating other
serious di?iculties occurring when gases of dif
ferent heating values and/or other characteris
tics are used.
The preheat in the blue gas and steam may be 30%
varied in either or both of two ways, one by the
amount or mass of heat-absorbing material in
the walls and/or body of heat-absorbing material
above the carburetting zone of the carburetter,
and the second, the quantity of heat units stored
in such heat-absorbing material depending upon
the temperature to which raised. For illustra
tion, and referring to the embodiment shown in ‘
Figure 4, with the body of heat-absorbing ma
terial 24 in the drawings entirely omitted and with 40:"
only the heat-absorbing surfaces of the carbureté
ting shell available, when the hydrocarbons are _
sprayed counter-current ' into and against the
down-coming stream of gas and steam, the hydro
carbons are mixed and vaporized in the stream,
the radiant heat of the carburetter lining to
gether'with the sensible heat in the gas stream
mitted therein, with a resultant relatively uni ‘entering the carburetter heating the hydro
form descent of the gases through the carbu
carbons and the heat stored in the'gas super
retter. The hydrocarbon particles in their travel
heater mainly relied upon to crack and gasify the
50 into the gas stream, continually meet hot gas
hydrocarbons. Also, the mass of the body of
particles and cracking is thereby acceleratedand heat-absorbing material 24 may be made such as
completed in a relatively uniform manner.
to be no more than su?'icient to insure the igni
As will be understood, the body of heat-absorb
tion of the air blast gases at the beginning of
ing material above the carburetting chamber, each air blasting period, in which case relatively
may be of such size and may be heated during little preheat is imparted to the descending"
the air-blasting period to such desired degree stream of gas‘ and steam. The injection‘ of the
that, when the water gas is subsequently passed hydrocarbons below such body of heat-absorb
therethrough and preheated, the temperature of ing material, as will be obvious, avoids the cool
the water gas and any undecomposed steam car
ing of said body of heat-absorbing material and 60
60 ried therewith and the heat from the lining of
the improved construction and resultant process
the chamber will effect the desired complete thereby provide for the mixing, vaporizing and/or
cracking of the enriching agents in a relatively cracking of the hydrocarbons in the downwardly
rapid manner, and more nearly uniform and opti
moving stream with the superheater relied upon
mum temperatures maintained.
It will further be noted that, with the improved
carburetters described, the heat-absorbing ma
terial above the carburetting chamber (and the
supporting arch when employed), is not exposed
.to the cooling action of the hydrocarbons ad
70 mitted to the carburetting chamber so that it
remains at a much higher temperature than the
checkerwork in the case of the carburetters which
inject the oil from the top downwardly thereon
.and insures ready and easy ignition of the blast
for completingof the cracking and/or gasi?ca
Obviously, the greater the quantity or mass of
the body of heat-absorbing material 24, the
greater the quantity of heat units at any given
temperature which may be stored therein during
an air blasting period and which may then be‘
absorbed by the blue gas and steam during the
following gas-making period. By increasing the
quantity or mass of said body of heat-absorbing
material and/or the temperature to which it is
2,131,810 I
heated during each air blasting period, theldee requirements ’ .in particular ' situations.
A11 .
gree of preheating of the gas and/or steam changes and modi?cations coming within .the'
may be controlled as desired up to the maximum
temperature or close to the highest temperature
scope of the appended claims are contemplated.
obtainable by the secondary combustion of the
air blast gases. As is wellknown, the tempera
ture and the time of contact during which the
1. An upright carbureter for. use in a car- I
bureted gas generating set, said carbureter hav- ing a gas inlet, an .air inlet, and a‘ combustion 7'
cracking and/or gasi?cation of the hydrocarbons
takes place, determine the character of the re
10 sultant products and it is obviousthat with the
construction herein described, the temperature
of the gas and steam into which the hydro
carbons are injected may be varied as desired
and kept within relatively narrow limits for the
15 optimum conditions for producing the products
of the desired character. The hydrogen of the
water gas assists in the formation of the hydro
carbons in that the hydrogen acts as a deterrent
toward the formation of additional hydrogen and
20 the depositing of carbon liberated thereby.
From the preceding description, it will be seen
that the temperature of the water gas as de
livered into the carburetting chamber may be
more effectively controlled within the desired
25 limits than in prior used arrangements such as
referred to; the formation of objectionable com
pounds and deposits of carbon are avoided;
?uctuations in the temperatures of the body of
heat-absorbing material may readily be con-'
30 trolled within reasonable limits to prevent ex
cessive deterioration; and the enriching hydro
carbons are injected in such manner and under
such temperature control conditions of the Water
gas, as to insure and accelerate the progressive
35 heating, vaporization and desired cracking there
of and the desired intermingling with the water
gas e?ected without appreciably cooling the
heat-absorbing material and/or supporting arch,
whereby ignition of the blast gases of a succeed;
40 ing period may be readily effected and the water
gas effectively enriched to a greater degree than
in prior constructions or methods.
The invention further provides means for car
buretting the down run gas in a carburetter of
45 the usual water gas set wherein the carburetter
includes the improvements herein describedv and
in which the enriching agents are injected
counter-current into and against a descending
stream of blue water gas and/or steam; the pre
50 heating of such gas and steam prior to carbure
tion; and a means insuring ignition of the blow
gases at the beginning of each blasting period.
The invention further provides for the use of
an additional improved carburetter for carbu
55 retting the down run gases and which is also
adapted to superheat the up run steam and/or
preheat the air for up blasting while at the same
time the improved carburetter and/or super
heater occupying the usual position in the regu
lar water gas set are similarly adapted to super
heat the down run steam and/or preheat the
down blast air. As will be apparent, the up
blasting with air provides a hot zone in the
lower portion of the fuel bed, the down blasting
with air provides a hot zone in another portion of
the fuel bed and the two hot zones thereby formed
increase the steam decomposition and gas gen
erating capacity of the fuel bed.
Although there has herein been shown and de
scribed what is now considered the preferred
manner of carrying out the invention, the same
is intended by way of description and not by way
of limitation, since it is obvious that the con
struction may be varied without departing from
the invention, to suit different conditions and
What is claimed is:
chamber at the top thereof and an outlet at the
bottom; heat-absorbing and regenerating mate
rial in the interiorof the carbureter passage be
low the combustion chamber and an arch for
supporting said material; an unobstructed car-v
bureting chamber below the arch extending for
a substantial vertical distance and located above
the bottom outlet to ‘allow of movement of gases 15
downwardly therethrough in a vertical path for
a substantial distance before entering the out
let; and means located below the arch for in
jecting hydro-carbons. into said carbureting
chamber at an angle to the vertical, said means 20
including a. plurality of nozzles disposed around
the periphery of the carbureting chamber, said
nozzles being inclined upwardly toward the arch.
2. An upright carbureter for a water gasgen
erating set, said carbureter comprising a shell 25
with a single top gas inlet, a single bottom out
let, and a combustion chamber at the top of
the shell; a, supporting arch approximately mid
way of the shell and located therewithin; a body
of checker brick supported by the arch and lo 30
cated below the combustion chamber; a car- ,
bureting chamber within the shell below and
extending from the arch to'the bottom of the
shell, and a plurality of hydro-carbon injecting
means disposed around and extending through 35
the periphery of the shell, said means being in
clined upwardly in a general direction toward
the center of the arch and located a substantial
distance below the arch and above said bottom
3. In a carbureterfor a water gas generating
set comprising a shell with a top inlet, a bottom
outlet, and a combustion chamber at the top
of the shell; a body of heat regenerative material
in the upper portion of the shell; means for 45
supporting said material; a carbureting chamber
below said supporting means and extending to
the bottom of the shell; and means for injecting
hydro-carbons upwardly within said carbureting
chamber, said injecting means being located be 50
low said supporting means and at least one
fourth the height of the shell above said outlet.
4. In a water gas generating set, the combina
tion with a water gas generator; of a carbureter
having a main vertical passage therethrough 55
from top to bottom with a single inlet only at
the top for alternate admission of blast and
water gases and a single, outlet only at the bot
tom for said gases; means for conducting blast
gases and water gas produced in said generator
into the carbureter through said inlet; means
for introducing air for secondary combustion
into said blast gases; a combustion chamber in
the upper portion of said passage of the car
bureter for the secondary combustion of blast 65
gas and admixed air passing through the car
bureter; heat regenerating means located within
said main passage with the top thereof disposed
in proximity to said inlet and the bottom thereof
terminated above and distant from said outlet, 70
for the absorption of heat of the secondary com
bustion of the blast gases of one run and the
ignition of the blast gases in the next succeeding
gas run; a carbureting chamber extending a
substantial distance vertically in said main pas 75
2,131,310 1
and substantially prior to 'the passage of the
immediately below said heat regenerating means; water gas into said outlet, said hydro-carbon
and means, located below said heat regenerating injecting means including a nozzle positioned to
means for injecting hydro-carbons into the
deliver the hydro-carbons in an upward direc
stream of water gas during that portion of the tion and countercurrent to the downwardly 5
vertical downward path of travel of the water
moving water gas stream.
gas after passing said heat regenerating means
sage and located above said bottom outlet and
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