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Патент USA US2131607

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Patented Sept. 274', 1938
2,131,607
'unrrao STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,131,607
CONTROL SYSTEM
Allan‘ J. Wade, Schenectady, N. Y., assignor to
General Electric Company, a corporation of
New York
Application December 15, 1937, Serial No. 179,887
'11 Claims. (Cl. 172-179)
This invention reiates to control systems, more
particularly to systems for controlling the stop
ping of reversiieie alternating current motors, and
it has for an object the provision of a simple,
reliable and improved system of this character.
Heretol’ore, control systems for reversible al
ternating current motors have been proposed
wherein provision was made for stopping the
motor and its load by plugging the motor. A
H) motor is plugged when its primary winding'is
connected to the power source for rotation in a
direction opposite to that in which its rotor is
actuallyrotating. This occurs, for example, when
a motor is rotating and driving its load in the
15 forward direction, and the connections between
the motor and the source are suddenly reversed.
When a motor is plugged, a large reverse torque
is developed which quickly brakes the motor and
its load to rest. After stopping the load, the
vention is the provision of a novel arrangement
of control apparatus and circuits whereby an
alternating current motor may be plugged, i. e.
reverse power braking connections established
for the motor, and a simple and reliable electro- 5
responsive device provided for interrupting the
reverse power braking connections at substan
tially zero speed of the motor and'in which pro
vision is made for eliminating inaccuracies re- '
sulting from variations in line voltage and from 10
frequency effects.
In carrying the invention into effect in one
form thereof, means are provided for connecting
the motor to a source of alternating voltage for
rotation in the forward direction, and means 15
are provided for disconnecting the motor from
the source and reconnecting it therewith for
rotation in the reverse direction, thereby estab
For the purpose of overcoming this difficulty,
various forms of control switches operated either
frictionally or electromagnetically by the driving
lishing reverse power braking connections for
the motor.' In addition, means responsive to 20
the voltage of the primary and secondary wind
ings are provided for interrupting the reverse
power braking connections at substantially zero
speed of the motor. In order to eliminate the
frequency effects from the voltages supplied to 25
this voltage responsive means, suitable rectify
ing means are provided in the connections.
In illustrating the invention in one form there
gears, have been arranged to disconnect the
30 motor upon initial reverse movement of the load.
duction motor suitable for driving a load which 30
90 motor will start to. drive the load in the reverse
direction unless disconnected from the source
' at the proper instant. In many industrial and
other applications, such a reversal of the load
is undesirable and may lead to damage to ex
25 pensive machinery or other serious accidents.
Devices of this character require special drive
shaft extensions which, in turn, require space
which often is not available. Such devices are
also subject to vibrations which adversely af
35 fect their operation and produce rapid deteriora
tion. Furthermore, such devices are not suit
able for vertical motors without a considerable
amount of extra gearing and other complications.
Electroresponsive devices connected in the
of, it is shown as applied to a wound rotor in
must be stopped quickly such, for example, as a
large sugar centrifugal or ‘the supercalender of
a paper-?nishing machine. It will be understood,
however, that the invention has other applica
tions and may be applied to other types of motors. 35
For a better and more complete understanding
of the invention, reference should now be had
to the following speci?cation and to the accom
panying drawing in which Fig. 1 is a simple,
40 secondary circuit of an alternating current motor
diagrammatical representation of an embodiment
have also been utilized for this purpose, but the
of the invention, and Fig. 2 is a simple, di
agrammatical illustration of a modification of
accuracy of these devices was adversely ‘affected
by variations in the line voltage and by the
frequency effect of the variable frequency alter
45 nating voltage supplied by the secondary wind;
ings to the actuating coils of such devices. In
this connection, the secondary voltage and fre
quency vary in direct proportion and as a result
the current supplied to the actuating coil of an
the system of Fig. 1.
'
Referring now to the drawing, a load, such for 45
example as a sugar centrifugal (not shown) is
driven by an alternating current motor l0, illus
trated as ‘a wound rotor induction motor. Motor
I0 is supplied with power from a suitable source,
represented by the three supply lines II to which 50
the motor is connected for rotation in the forward
quency', thereby rendering ‘the electroresponslve direction by means of .an electromagnetic con-'
device insensitive to variations in the speed of tactor [2 under the control of a suitable master
"switch ii, The master switch 13 is illustrated
the motor.
'
55 Consequently, an important object of this in? as comprising a pair-of stationary contacts Ii. 55
50 electroresponsive device remains substantially
constant over a wide range of voltage and fre
2
2,131,607
and a movable contact l3s for bridging the sta
resistor 3| is included in the connections 26 for“
tionary contacts.
.the purpose of initially adjusting the balance ofv
the coils Us and 2h.
A lockout relay 32 is provided to prevent re
starting the motor l? until the master switch I3
has been operated to the off position after a
,
For the purpose of plugging the motor, i. e.
establishing reverse power braking connections
therefor, and electromagnetic contactor I4 is
provided for connecting the primary winding of
motor Hi to the source H for rotation in the
reverse direction. For the plugging operation,
'both contactors i2 and M are under the ‘control
10 of a control relay l5 which, in turn, is under
the control of a. suitable “stop” push button type
switch 15.
A plugging resistor i1 is included in the second
ary circuit oi’ the motor W for limiting the cur
15 rent inrush to the motor during the plugging
operation. An electromagnetic contactor it is
provided for short~circuiting this resistor when
‘the motor is started from rest.
A resistor it known as an accelerating resistor
23 is ‘also including in the secondary circuit of the
motor,
providedand
for an‘
short-siren
electromegn he centactor
acceleratin
sister it during the starting operation 0; ’
motor.
For the purpose of controlling the reverse cone
tactor M to interrupt the reverse power liveli
ing connections at substantially zero speed
plugging operation.
_
With the foregoing understanding of the ele
ments and apparatus and their organization in
the system, the operation of the system itself will
readily be understood from the following detailed
description.
To start the motor ill, the master switch I3 is
actuated to its closed position in which a circuit
is established for the actuating coil of the for
ward contactor Hi. This circuit is traced from
the lower supply line H, through conductor 33, i
contacts of master switch I3, conductors 34 and
Elli, lower contacts of lockout relay 32 and control
relay i5, conductor 36, actuating coil of contactcr
iii to the upperslde oi‘ the supply source ii. In.
response to energization, oontactor it‘ closes its
contacts to connect the primary winding or"; motor
iii to the supply source H for rotation in the
forward direction. Simultaneously, an energiz~~
ing circuit is established for the actuating coils of
This circuit is the same
as previously traced for contactor it. as for as the
. ; lugging contactor i8.
'
motor,
provided,
having asuitable
core
These
member
electrorespcnsive
meanstie
areupon
iilustrated
which
means
as
twoa cctun
30
conductor 35
thence through conductors ST
and 38, actuating coil of plugging contactcr i8
and conductor 39 to the upper side of the supply
shown
ating coils
as provided
Us and with
ale are
a pair
wound.
of stationary
relay
torr
tacts ii in and an armature member Zia carrying a
cooperating movable contact member H; which
is biased to the open position by a spring Us.
In order to eliminate any inaccuracies in the
operation of the electroresponsive
2! re"
sulting from variations in the line voltage, one of
‘the actuating coils is connected to the primary
winding of the motor Hi and the other of the actu“
source ii. Plugging contactor Iii closes ‘its c0n~
tacts in response to energization and short-sin
cults the plugging section ll of the secondary
resistor. At the same time the actuating coil of
a time delay relay 40 which is connected in par
allel with the actuating coil of contactor I8 is
energized, and after an interval of time deter-
eludes connection to a special small secondary
the conductor 31 as before and thence through
the contacts of time delay relay 40 and actuating
coil of accelerating contactor 2D to the upper
side of the supply source ii. In response to en“
erg’ization, accelerating contactor ‘20 closes its
contacts to short~clrcuit the accelerating resist-0r
it, as a result of which'the speed of the motor
mined by the setting of the time delay device 40s,
the time delay relay 40 closes its contacts to es
ating coils is connected to the secondary winding tablish an energizing circuit for the actuating
Obviously, this connection oi’ the actuating coil coil of the accelerating cont-actor 20. This circuit
to the secondary winding oi the motor also in~ is readily traced from the lower supply line i l to
45 winding on motors such as squirrel-cage motors
‘which do not have secondary working windings,
The actuating coils 2h, and Me are so connected
that their magnetomotive forces oppose each
other. Since any variation in the line voltage is
re?ected in the secondary voltage of the motor,
any inaccuracy or the relay as a result or" varia“
tion in the line voltage is balanced out
the
connections described.
As the1
* actuating
cell We is connected through it
open in~
tcrlocks M. on the reverse contact
iii to one
phase of the secondary terminals . he motor i3.
Similarly the actuating coil ‘its ‘ relay 2!
connected by means of conducts
25 and
and the normallyy open contacts is or relay
motor
60 to the primary winding terminals
is
2E
‘26
or
to the source as shown.
In order to eliminate the effects oi‘ ‘varying fre
quency of the variable frequency voltage supplied
to the actuating coil 2%, suitable full wave recti
65 fying means 21 are included in the connections
between the actuating coil and the secondary
winding of the motor iii, and a similar rectifying,
means 28 is included in the connections between
the actuating coil Ric and the source. Although
any suitable rectifying means may be employed,
the rectifying devices 2'! and
are iiiustrateti as
copper oxide type recti?ers connected. in‘ Bridge
circuit connections to provide full wave recti?ca
tion. Suitable resistors 29
3B are included in
the coil connections, and a suitable adjustable
is increased to full operating speed.
If it is desired to stop the motor and. to bring
it rapidly to rest, the push button 46 depressed
to complete an energizing circuit for the actuating
coil of the control relay iii. In response to en
ergization, control relay l5 closes its upper and
intermediate normally open contacts and opens
its lower normally closed contacts thereby to in
terrupt the circuit for the actuating coil of for
ward contactor i2, and also to interrupt the
energizing circuit for contactors I8 and 20, and
the time delay relay 40 previously traced through
these contacts.
As a result forward contactor I2
opens its contacts and vdisconnects the motor In
from the supply source I l.
Simultaneously con
tactor i8 opens its contacts and inserts the plug
ging resistor I1 in the secondary circuit of motor
iii, and accelerating contactor 20 opens its con
tacts and inserts the accelerating resistor IS in
the secondary circuit of motor to.
In the closed position of the control relay IS,
a circuit is established for the actuating coil of the
reverse contactor I4 which is traced from the a
lower side of the supply source H through the
contacts of the master switch I3, conductors 34,
3
2,131,007
35, and H, intermediate contacts of control relay
I5, conductor 42, normally closed interlocks on
circuit independent of the upper contacts of con
trol relay I5 so that when the upper contacts of
control relay I5 were subsequently opened in re
sponse to deenergization of the relay 2 I, the lock
out relay 32 remained closed. In its closed posi
the forward contactor I2, actuating coil of re
verse contactor I4 to the upper side of the- supply
source I I. In response to energization, contactor
I4 closes its main contacts to connect the motor ' tion, lockout relay 32 maintains its lower contacts
' III to the supply source II for rotation in the re
verse direction while its armature is still rotating
in the forward direction. As a result of the es
10 tablishment of these reverse power braking con
open and thereby prevents reenergization of the
forward contactor I2 until the lockout relay 32
is deenergized by actuating the master switch I3
to its open position in which it is illustrated.
10
In the modi?cation of Fig. 2, the single core
type relay 2I is replaced by a balanced voltage
nections, a large braking torque is produced which
tends to bring the motor III rapidly to rest. The
magnitude of the current inrush to the motor and ' type relay 43 illustrated as comprising a pivoted
the magnitude of this braking torque are limited arm member ‘3a to which two core members 43s
15 to safe values by means of the plugging resistor and 43¢ in turn are pivoted as illustrated. The 15
l1 and the accelerating resistor I9, both of which coils 43d and ‘3e are similar respectively to the
are now included in the secondary circuit of the
coils 2Ib and 2I¢ of Fig. 1 and are similarly con
nected through recti?ers 44 and 45 to the sec
In the closed position of the reverse contactor ondary and primary terminals of the motor. The
20 l4, the interlock I4- is also closed to connect contacts 43: correspond to the contacts 2Id and
the actuating coil 2Ib of relay 2I to one phase of 2I1 of the relay 2I of Fig. 1. The coils 43d and
the secondary winding of the motor I0.
‘3e and resistors in the balanced voltage relay are
At the instant the motor is plugged, the secon
so proportioned that at the instant of plugging,
dary voltage and frequency of motor III become the contacts 43: will close, and not until the volt
age generated across the slip rings of the motor 25'
25 double the locked rotor values and since the fre
quency effect of the voltage supplied to coil 2Is, has decreased to one-half of the locked rotor
is eliminated by means of the recti?er 21, the voltage, will the contacts of the relay open.
magnetomotive force of coil 2Ib is also doubled.
The operation of the modi?cation of Fig. 2 is
As a result a ?ux is set up through the core and
identical with the operation of the system of Fig.
‘ motor.
30 armature member 2'1: of the relay, which causes
the armature member to move the movable con
tact member 2|: to bridge the stationary contact
2 Id and the movable contact member 2 I j to bridge
the stationary contact members 2h. of the relay
1 described in the foregoing.
.
‘
able contact member 2I1, a. circuit is completed
thepatent statutes the principle of this inven
tion has been explained ‘and the structure de
scribed and explained which embodies the best
mode in which it is contemplated applying the
principle of the invention, it will be understood
that the apparatus and elements and connections
in parallel with the contents of the push button
' switch
I 6 which may now be released. The
that the invention is not limited thereto, since
35 against the tension of the spring Zlg. When the
stationary contacts 2| 4 are bridged by the mov
40 closing of contacts 2h; completes the connection
80
Although in accordance with the provisions of
shown and desscribed are merely illustrative and
alterations and modifications‘; will readily suggest 40
of coil 2Ic to the primary winding of motor Ill.
themselves to persons skilled in the art without
As the speed of the motor III is reduced, the , departing from the true spirit of this invention or
magnitude of the secondary voltage and the from the scope of the annexed claims.
magnitude ofv the magnetomotive force of the
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
45 coil 2h, are correspondingly reduced. At sub
stantially zero speed of motor ID the magnetomo
tive force of coil 2Ib‘becomes equal to and bal
anced by the magnetomotive force of coil 2|c
thereby reducing the ?ux in the core and arma
50 ture of the relay to zero and allowing the spring
2|; to open the contacts 2Ie and 2Ih. Since the
push button switch I6 has been released, relay 2I
in its open position interrupts the energizing
circuit for the control relay I5. As the result of
55 deenergization, control relay I5 closes its lower
contact and opens its upper and intermediate
contacts to interrupt the energizing circuit for
Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. A control system 'for alternating current
60
~
,
70
motors having primary and secondary windings
comprising means for establishing reverse power
connections to brake said motor, and means con
trolled in response to the voltage supplied to the
primary winding and the voltage 01' said. second
ary winding for interrupting said reverse power
connections at substantially zero speed of said
motor.
2. A control system for an alternating current
motor having a primary winding and a secondary
winding comprising means for establishing 're
verse power braking connections to the primary
the reverse contactor I4. As a result of its de
energization, contactor I4 opens its main contacts ' winding of said motor, and means responsive to
the voltage of said secondary winding and the 60
to interrupt the reverse power braking connec
tions for the motor III, and also opens its inter-, voltage supplied to said primary winding for in
lock contact I 4! to interrupt the connections for terrupting said reverse power connections com
the actuating coil 2h, of relay 2I. The circuit of prising an electromagnetic switching device hav
ing electrical connections to both said windings.
coil 2 Ic is interrupted at contacts 2 lb
3. A control system for an alternating current 65
When control relay I5 was actuated to the
closed position in response to closure of the push motor having a primary winding and a secondary
winding, comprising means for establishing re
button switch I6, a'circuit was established for the
verse power braking connections from a source
actuating coil of the lookout relay 82 which cir
cuit is traced from the lower side of the supply of power to said primary winding, and means re
source II through the contacts of the master sponsive to the voltage supplied to said primary
switch I3, conductors 34, 35 and 4|, upper con- ‘ winding and the voltage‘of said secondary wind
tact of control relay I5 and actuating coil of lock
out relay 32 to the upper side of supply source
I I. In response to energization, the lookout relay
closed its upper contacts to complete a locking ‘
ing for interrupting said connections at substan
tially zero speed of said motor comprising an
electromagnetic switching device having electri
cal connections to both said windings and recti
75
4
2,181,607
tying means included in said electrical connec
tions.
-
4. A control system for alternating current
motors having a primary winding and a second
ary winding comprising means for connecting
said motor to a supply source, means for estab
lishing reverse power braking connections for
said motor, and means responsive to the voltage
of said secondary winding and the voltage sup
plied to said primary winding for interrupting
said reverse power connections at substantially
zero speed of said motor’comprising an electro
magnetic switching device having a core member
and a pair of coils arranged in opposition there
on, electrical connections from one of said coils
to the primary winding of said motor and from
the other of said coils to said secondary winding
and rectifying means included in said connections
for eliminating the effect of the frequency of said
voltages.
-‘
5. A control system for an alternating current
motor having a primary winding and a second
ary winding comprising a contactor for connect
ing the primary winding to a supply source for
rotation in a forward direction, a second con
tactor for‘ connecting said primary winding to
said source for rotation in the reverse connec
tion, means for actuating said first contactor to
disconnect said primary winding from said source
30 and for actuating said second contactor to con
nect said primary winding to said source to estab
lish reverse power braking connections for said
motor, and means for actuating said second con
tactor to interrupt said braking connections at
substantially zero speed of said ' motor com
prising an electromagnetic switching device hav
ing a core member and a pair of coils, each
connected to one of said windings and arranged
on said core so that their magnetic fluxes are
in opposition.
6. A control system for alternating current
motors having a primary winding and a second
ary winding, reversing switching mechanism for
said motor comprising forward and reverse elec
45 tromagnetic contactors, means for actuating said
forward contactor to connect said primary wind
ing to a source, a switching device for deener
gizing said forward contactor thereby to discon
contactor to establish reverse power braking con
nections for said motor, and means for inter
rupting said reverse power braking connections
at substantially zero speed of said motor com
prising a balanced type relay having a pivoted
member provided with a pair of cores connected
to said member on opposite sides of the pivot
and a coil surrounding each of said cores, and
electricalyconnections from one of said coils to
said primary winding and from the other of said 10
coils to said secondary winding.
8. A control system for an alternating current
motor, having a primary winding and a second
ary winding, comprising in combination, revers
ing switching mechanism for said motor com 15
prising forward and reverse electromagnetic con
tactors, means for actuating said forward con
tactor to connect said primary winding to a
source, means for actuating said forward con
tactor to disconnect said primary from said 20
source and for actuating said reverse contactor
to connect said primary, winding to said source
to establish reverse power braking connections
for said motor, and means for actuating said re-'
verse contactor to interrupt said connections at
substantially zero speed of said motor compris
ing an electromagnetic switching device for con
trolling the energization of said reverse contactor
having electrical connections to said windings,
interlock contacts controlled by said reversing
switching mechanism for establishing said elec
trical connections only when said braking con
nections are established,- and rectifying means in
said electrical connections.
9. A control systemfor an alternating current
motor having a primary winding and a secondary
winding comprising forward and reverse con
tactors, means for actuating said forward con
tactor to connect said primary winding to a
source for rotation in the forward direction,
means for actuating said forward contactor to
disconnect said motor from said source and for
actuating said reverse contactor to establish re
verse power braking connections from said pri
mary winding to said source, and a balanced volt
age type relay for effecting the actuation of said
25
30'
85
40
45
reverse contactor at substantially zero speed of
said motor, said relay having a pivoted arm mem
ber, a pair of cores attached thereto on opposite
sides of said pivot, a coil surounding each of 50
said cores, contacts actuated by the movement of
nect said primary winding from said source and
for establishing an energizing circuit for said
50
reverse contactor thereby to actuate said Creverse
contactor to establish reverse power braking , said pivoted member/and electrical connections
from one of said coils to said primary winding
connections for said motor, and means for deen
ergizing said reverse contactor to interrupt said and from the'other of said coils to said second
ary winding, said coils being so proportioned that 55
reverse power braking connections at substan
tially zero speed of said motor comprising an their magnetomotive forces are substantially
equal at zero speed of said motor whereby said
electroresponsive device having a first coil con
nected to be responsive to the voltage supplied to contacts are actuated to deenergize said reverse
the primary winding of said motor, an opposing contactor.
60 coil connected to be responsive to the voltage of
said secondary winding and contacts controlled
by said coils for maintainingsaid energizing cir
cuit for said reverse contactor upon establish
ment of said reverse power connections and for
interrupting said energizing circuit when the
magnetization of said opposing coil becomes equal
to the magnetization of said ?rst coil.
'7. A control system for an alternating current
motor having a primary winding and‘ a second
ary winding comprising in combination a forward
contactor and a reverse contactor, means for ac-r
tuating ~said forward contactor to connect said
primary winding to a source, means for actuating
‘said forward contactor to disconnect said winding
75 from said source and for actuating said reverse
10. A control system for alternating current
motors having a primary winding and a second
ary winding comprising reversing switching
mechanism for said motor, means for actuating
said switching mechanism to connect said pri
mary winding to a source for rotation in the 65
forward direction, means for actuating said
mechanism to disconnect said motor from said
source and for establishing reverse power brak
ing connections for said motor, and means for
controlilng said switching mechanism to inter 70
rupt said reverse power braking connections at
substantially zero speed of said motor compris
ing an electroresponsive device having electri
cal connections to said secondary winding and
rectifying means included in said connections 76
9,181,607
5
for eliminating frequency effects from the volt
age supplied to said electroresponsive device.
connections comprising an electroresponsive re
lay having an actuating coil and a pair of nor
11. A control system for an alternating cur
rent motor having a primary winding and a sec
mally open contacts in parallel with said stop
control switch, auxiliary interlock contacts ac
tuated by said reversing contactors for connect
ing said coil to said secondary winding so that
said device closes said normally open contacts
ondary winding comprising a forward contactor
and a reverse contactor, means for actuating said
forward contactor to connect said primary wind
ing to a source for rotation in the forward di
rection, a stop control switch for actuating said
10 forward contactor to disconnect said primary
winding from said source and for actuating said
reverse contactor to establish reverse power brak
ing connections for said motor, and means for
actuating said reverse contactor to interrupt said
when said braking connections are established
and opens said contacts at a predetermined mo
tor speed, and rectifying means included in the
connections between said coil and said secondary
winding for eliminating frequency effects from
the voltage supplied to said coll.
ALLAN J. WADE.
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