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Патент USA US2131665

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Sept. 27, 1938.
P. JORDAN
'
ROTARY MUFFLE
2,131,665 '
FURNACE
Filed ‘June 9, ‘1957
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4 Sheets-Sheet 1
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M‘MMMMAKIAQ
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' PAUL 4012 DAN
by Ms a?orneys
'
Sept. 27, 1938.
P: JORDAN
‘
2,131,665
ROTARY MUFFLE FURNACE
Filed June 9, 1957
.
-
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
Fig.2
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3/182
lnventor:
PAUL. JORDAN
07 ms dfarneys'
Sept. 27, 1938.
-
‘
P. JOR‘DAN
2,131,665
ROTARY MUFFLE FURNACE
Filed June 9, 1957
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
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PAUL
Inventor:
JORDAN
Patented Sept. 27, 1938
2,131,665
UNITED‘ STATES PATENT OFFICE f
2,131,665
ROTARY MUFFLE FURNACE.
Paul Jordan, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany,
assignor to American Lurgi Corporation, .New
York, N. Y., a corporation of New York
~Application June 9, 1937, Serial No. 147,332
In Germany June 10, 1936
15 Claims.
'
(Cl. 263-34)
This invention relates to rotary mu?le furnaces
masonry of the furnaceshell two or more rows of
of the type consisting of a mulile to receive the bricks
projecting into the interior of the furnace.
material to be treated and a shell carrying the On the side opposite the rowsof bricks, spring
mu?le, the furnace being heated by means of ?re plungers or similar pressure-exerting means are
ducts disposed between the muffle and the shell.
provided, preferably likewise in multiple-rowed _5
The difficulties attending the construction and arrangement, which act on the mu?le and press it
operation of such furnaces lie in the securing of it against the rows of bricks. The springplungers
the mu?le to the outer shell, and the calking of are yielding, so that they will always hold the
the internal mu?le against the ?re ducts, espe
muf?e sufficiently ?rmly to preclude any dis
cially in cases where the mu?ie is constructed of a placement relative to the shell,‘ but under heavy
plurality of parts. Revolving muffles having their loading they can yield, preventing'destruction of
walls sub-divided both longitudinally and trans
the mu?le- by excessive pressure. Or, the plungers
versely to the axis of the mu?ie, or longitudinally ’ or other yielding holding means are pressed
thereto only, have already been constructed with againstthe muffle by springs which act between
15 the longitudinal joints of the mu?le supported
the plungers and the furnace shell.
15
on bricks projecting from the masonry of the
furnace shell. These bricks, usually wedge
shaped. have also been provided with a recess for
the reception of a lug formed from projections
provided on the longitudinal edges of each mu?le
segment.
for calcination, they are not suitable for the
melting of material containing metal, since the
L joints could not heretofore be made tight against
liquid metal.
The lack of tightness is due to the differing
amounts of axial and circumferential expansion
occurring in the individual structural parts.
When the furnace is heated up, the masonry in
the iron shell expands more than the muffle inside
the furnace. The bricks projecting inward from
the furnace lining, which are intended to hold
the mullie in position and at the same time to
calk the joints where the muffle segments abut
together by their ?rm hold on the projections on
the longitudinal edges of the muf?e sections,
recede more from the joints of the muffle seg
ments, under heat expansion, than the muffle ap
proaches under the expansion of its own bricks.
Thus they are not capable of holding the pro
jections of the muf?e sections tightly together at
'
The main object of the present invention is to
overcome this disadvantage, and this is accom
plished by connecting the internal muffle, whether
composed of a plurality of segmental parts or of
one or more mutually adjacent tubular sections,
directly with the shell by yielding parts, prefer
ably in such wise that the muffle is brought into
bearing with counter-bearing elements provided
on the inner side of the furnace shell, by means
of the yielding parts, which exert a thrust or a
pull on the mu?‘le.
55
For example, there may be disposed in the
‘
'
Figure 1 is a section through a mu?le furnace
according to the preferred‘embodiment of the
present invention, taken along the line A—B of
Fig.
While mu?‘le furnaces so designed are suitable
high temperatures.
In the drawingsq
2;
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20
Figure 2 is a longitudinal section through the
mu?le furnace;
'
"
Figure 3 is a cross-section showing details of
the brick arrangement;
‘Figure 4 is a longitudinal section through the
same;
Figure 5 is a plan view of the same;
Figure 6 is a perspective view of a piece cut
from the muffle furnace;
.
.
-
Figure 7 is a section through Figure 8 showing 30.
a modi?ed brick arrangement;
Figure 8 is a plan view of Figure '7;
Figure 9 is a modi?cation of Figure 2; and
Figure 10 is an enlarged detail of a portion of
Figures 2 and 9.
'
'
The mu?le' in. this example is sub-divided in
cross-section into ?ve segments, as shown in Fig
ure 1.
The muflle may also be sub-divided per
pendicular to the axis of rotation, so that two or 7
more tubular sections are formed, each of which 40
is composed of ?ve segments I, constructed for
example of silicon carbide. The inner lining 2
of the iron furnace shell 2a is constructed of ?re
clay or the like, and is provided with ?ve ribs
made of preferably wedge-shaped bricks 3, 4,
and 5.
Between the shell 2a and the lining 2 there is
also preferably provided a heat-retaining layer
2b, constructed for example of insulating bricks.
The bricks 3 are preferably'equipped with shoes 01 0
3a, of silicon carbide for example, placed between
the mu?ie and the bricks, to aiford the mulfle a
broader bearing surface. To guard against dis
placement of the shoes on the bricks, the con
tact surfaces preferably have a dovetail form.
55
2,131,665
2
ner there are formed a number of compartments
The bricks 4 and 5 are preferably held in the
masonry, as shown in Figures 3, 4 and 5, by dis
posing bricks 6 between the bricks 4 and 5 in each
row; the bricks 6 are preferably also wedge
shaped. However, the bricks 6 do not completely
?ll the space between bricks 4 and 5 in each row,
but leave spaces ‘I free between them. The bricks
4 and 5 are of such shape that, in each row, the
mutually confronting lateral surfaces of the bricks
corresponding to the number of consecutive sec
tions in the axial direction. The liquid metal
present in one of the compartments of the fur
nace can flow into the adjoining compartment
only through the matched openings I3 in the
abutting rims I4 of two sections or segments I2,
and so long as no opening is lower than the sur
face of the bath it will be con?ned to its own
10
compartment of the muffle.
The height of the ?ange-like rims I4 and
10 4 and 5 are parallel to one another for one-half _
of the height of the brick.
'
'
the depth of the cut-outs I3 can be determined
to suit the kind and quantity of metal in the
compartment. The mu?le segments I2 can be
further reinforced with internal or external stiff
In the space bounded by the parallel surfaces
rise the projections 8a of the shoes 8. The shoes
8 are pressed against the internal mu?le by the
15 plungers 9, which are urged thereagainst by the
springs II], the pressure of which may be adjusted
by means of nuts or screw caps Illa.
eners I5, which when internal serve also as turn
ing devices and when external improve the heat
absorption.
The shoes
3a of the bricks 3 form the counter-bearings for
the mu?ie, and the springs Iil insure that the
7 When materials or mixtures are treated which
mu?le is always pressed against these counter
bearings.
are not required to be protected from contact 20
with ?re gases except at high temperatures, the
The ?re ducts I8 are formed by pairs of ribs
constituted of bricks 4 and 5, or 3 as the case may
furnace can also be so constructed as shown in
be, and by the muf?e wall and the lining of the
part in an inclined furnace, serve as muffle fur
nace, and the other part as direct-heated or com
bination-heated furnace. In such case the heat
drum shell.
Figure 2, so as to have one part, say the lower
The plungers can be further pro
tected against overheating by a suitably resistant
loose block I I. Instead of forming the ribs with
the bricks 4 and 5, it is of course possible to make
them of undivided bricks 33 provided with suit
30 able perforation or molded-in opening 34 as shown
in Figures '7 and 8, so that instead of pairs of
bricks 4 and 5 single bricks are: used. The num
ber of segments and consequently of bearing o
35 within wide limits.
The muille according to the present invention
is distinguished by other advantages in addition
to the reliable fastening to the furnace shell. It
has the further considerable advantage that it
passing through the lowest point still project
The ?re ducts I8 may end over the highest
pipe II as shown in Figure 9, so that the re
moval of the gases takes place through the fur- »
nace and the upper furnace-head. But as shown
in Figure 2 it is also in many cases advantageous
to pass one part of the furnace gases through
the upper part of the furnace and toruse an
other part for the external heating of the whole -
other shaped pieces, and that nevertheless‘the
joints, particularly those running parallel to the
axis of rotation of the mu?le, are dependably
tight against molten materials. 'In order to in
sure the tightness of the joints circumferential
to the muffle, additional special measures can be
upper portion of the apparatus.
The internal
and external heating can also be effected in this
applied if necessary. This also can often be dis
pensed with, for example if the muffle is not sub
divided longitudinally, or if fusion takes place
in only one section of the muffle and the molten
case by other heating media than those serving
does not reach the circumferential
joints.
If sufficiently long mu?le segments'are used,
it is possible in many cases, by suitably inclining
the furnace, to avoid having any circumferential
joint touched by liquid metal, that is to say, a
metal bath is formed only in the lowest section
of the muffle.
drying section for the material to be treated.
The pipes I‘! may be of heat and corrosion-re
sisting metal or refractory material, and when
plished.
can be made of a large number of segments or
50 material
inclined furnace which serves as preheating or
beyond the level of the charge. With this ar
rangement direct transmission of heat from the
heating gas to the material treated is accom
rows and of ?re ducts can of course be varied
4.0
ing gases may be led by means of pipes II, from
the ?re ducts I8 of the mu?le into the part of the
-
But if the zone of fusion has to be greater than
the possible or advantageous structural length
for the heating of the muf?e.
The length of the indirectly and directly heated ;
zones of the furnace may differ greatly and will
be adapted to the type of process being ‘carried
on. If for example it is desired to reduce ma
terial containing iron oxide to iron sponge or
powder with the aid of gases, which are brought
in‘ for example through the conduit or pipe 40
through the lower furnace-head and through the
opening 2I, it will be advantageous to have the
indirectly heated zone begin at the point where
the reduction from F6203 to FeO is nearly or
of a mu?le section, and if the calking of the cir-‘
entirely completed. 7 The reduction from FeO to
cumferential joints against the ?re ducts offers
special difficulties, it is possible according to the
invention, in order to prevent liquid metal from
penetrating into the ?re ducts‘, to use a special
65
form of muf?e segment which con?nes any pas
sage of metal to those points of the circumfer
Fe then follows in the indirectly heated part of
ential joints which are located over one of the
ribs formed by the bricks 3 or 4 and 5. For this
purpose the sectional pieces of the muffle wall are
plied, preferably in stages, through openings 36
distributed along the length, and advantageously
made, for example trough-shaped.
As shown in Figure 6, the trough-shape can be
obtained by equipping the sections I2 on their
circumferentially running edges with inwardly
75 extending projections or rims I4. In this man
the furnace, possibly at higher temperature. The
gases of reduction leaving the indirectly heated
zone through the pipe section I'I shown in Fig
ure 9 are burned in the directly heated zone,
mainly in the upper part thereof, air being sup
also about the circumference, of the furnace
shell, and when so burned heat the charge to
the necessary temperature. ‘
The lower furnace-head shown by way of ex
ample in Fig. 2 can, depending on circumstances
Serve for the-taking off of the metal, for the re 75
2,131,665
dium, etc., or simultaneously for'several of such said inwardly projecting portions,’ said'plungers
and said portions having bearing parts, andshoes
moval of residues, for the supply of heating me
purposes or all of them.
The metal flows'con
tinuously, for example through the'opening's l9
pierced through a number of places in the lower
end wall Isa, into the duct 20 in the furnace
head, and which removes the metal by siphon
action. If residues or slags are present which
float on the metal, they can be brought out
10 through the pipe 2| into the down-pipe 22,
through which they reach the bunker 26. On the
down-pipe 22 is placed the bell or cover 23, hav
ing a water trough 24 which forms a gas tight
seal between the bunker and the open air. The
15 bunker 26 can be emptied by opening the sliding
gate 25.
The supply of heating medium to the ?re ducts
of the muffle may be received through the pipe ‘2'!
into the annular space 30, which is closed off from
the furnace by the sliding surfaces or labyrinths
28, 29 shown in Figure 10, and is connected with
the ?re ducts l8. The combustion air is brought
into the ?re ducts by way of the damper-adjust
able air nozzles 31. The muille in all its various
possible embodiments can also lie horizontally.
interposed between said muffle and‘ certain of
said bearing parts.
'
7
-_5. Rotary mulile furnace comprising a mu?ie
and'a masonry shell having inwardly projecting
bricks forming bearings for said muffle, shoes en
gaging said mulfle and carried by pairs of bricks,
and plungers mounted between said pairs: of
bricks and radially spring pressed against said 10
shoes.
'6. Rotary muffle furnace comprising a mu?le
and a shell having counter bearings, said mu?le
‘consisting of joined sections, and spring pressed
plungers carried by said shell and urging said
mu?le radially against said counter bearings and
resiliently holding the joints together.
>
'7. Rotary mu?ie furnace comprising a muf?e
and a shell having counter bearings, said mu?le
consisting of joined sections having inwardly di
rected annular projections, and resilient means
carried by said shell urging said muffle against
said counter bearings.
.
In particular, when so arranged, it can be oper
8. Rotary mu?le furnace comprising a muffle
and a shell having counter bearings, said muflle
ated by charges. The gas outlets can also be
located at other points of the mu?le or of the
?re ducts, or even of the upper directly heated
surfaces, and resilient means carried by said shell
radially urging said mu?ie against said counter
portion of the furnace. If the closure 4! in Figure
9 be opened, then gas will flow out of the muffle
. at this point.
In this way for example, a con
tinuous operation of the muffle is possible. The
muffle cross-section can be circular, oval, angular,
or of other shape.
This cross-section can be
different at different points of its length.
The mu?ie furnace according to the present ‘
consisting of sections having inter?tting joint
bearings and thereby tightening said joints.
9. Rotary muffle furnace comprising a mu?ie 30
and a shell having counter bearings, and spring
pressed plungers carried by said shell urging said
mu?le against said counter bearings, said mu?ie
having inwardly directed annular projections in- .
terrupted at points where the muilie rests on said '
counter bearings.
_
10. Rotary muffle furnace comprising a‘ muffle
invention has an exceedingly manifold ?eld of
‘
and
a shell having counterjbearings, and yield
application. For example it is suitable for the
able means pressing said muffle against said
40 melting out of metals from ashes. drosses, and
other materials containing metals together with counter bearings, the inner surface of said shell,‘ ‘I
impurities; for the reduction of oxides to metal the outer surface of said mu?le, and the lateral
surfaces of said counter bearings de?ning ?re
with indirect and combined indirect and direct ducts for said furnace.
.
V
heating; for the calcination and drying of mate
11.
Rotary
muffle
furnace
comprising
a muffle
rials which cannot be allowed to come into con
having
longitudinal
ribs,
and
a
shell
having
tact with heating gases at any but low tem
counter bearings, and spring pressed plungers
peratures, if at all; for the volatilization of ele
carried by said shell and urging said mu?le against
ments, e. g., metals, or of oxides and other com
said counter bearings.
pounds; for the effecting of chemical reactions,
such for example as chlorination and the volatili
zation of chlorides; and for other like uses.
I claim:
'
i
1. Rotary mu?ie furnace comprising a muffle to
receive the material to be treated and a shell
carrying said mu?le, said furnace being heated
during rotation by ?re ducts disposed between
the mu?le and the shell, and radially yielding
parts associated with said shell and muffle for
directly connecting said mu?ie to said shell.
2. Rotary mu?le furnace comprising a muflle
to receive the material to be treated and a shell
having counter bearings, said furnace being
heated during rotation by ?re ducts disposed be~
tween the muiiie and the shell, and radially yield
able parts pressing said muffle against the counter
bearings.
3. Rotary mu?le furnace comprising a mu?le
and a masonry shell having inwardly projecting
bricks forming bearings for said mu?le, and
radially spring pressed plungers carried by said
shell urging said muifle against said bearings.
4. Rotary muf?e furnace comprising a muille
and a masonry shell having inwardly projecting
portions, and spring pressed plungers carried by
75 said shell for urging said muffle radially against
12. Rotary muffle furnace comprising a muffler
constructed of heat and corrosion resisting metal, 5 0
a shell having a refractory lining with inwardly
projecting portions forming counter bearings, and
radially yieldable means carried by said shell
pressing said mu?le against said counter bearings.
13. Rotary furnace comprising a muille and a
shell having a lining and counter bearings, and
yieldable means pressing said mu?le against said
counter bearings, the inner lining of said shell,
the outer surface of said muille, and the lateral
surfaces of said. counter bearings de?ning ?re
ducts, said furnace having a part constructed and
arranged for direct heating and connected to said
muffle, and means for passing heating medium
into the interior of said furnace between said
?re ducts and said part constructed and arranged
for direct heating and connected to said muifle.
co
14. Rotary furnace comprising a muffle and a
shell having counter bearings, and yieldable
means pressing said muffle against said counter
bearings, the inner surface of said shell and the
outer surface of said muifle and said counter
bearings de?ning ?re ducts, said furnace having
a part constructed and arranged for direct heat- ‘
ing and connected to said muffle, means for sup
plying heating medium to said ?re ducts at one 75
2,131,665
4
end of said furnace, and means for supplying
combustion air at points distributed along the
length of the ducts.
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15. Rotary furnace comprising a mu?ie and
a shell having counter bearings, and means press
ing said mu?‘le against said counter bearings, said
furnace have a part constructed and arranged
for direct heating and connected to said muffle,
said furnace having separated outlets for the re
moval of solid, liquid and gaseous substances.
UK
PAUL JORDAN.
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