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Патент USA US2131696

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Sept. 27, 1938-
2,131,696
M. M. BRANDEGEE ET AL
GAS MAK I NG APPARATUS
Original Fil-ed Dec. 16, 1935
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2,131,696
Patented Sept. 27, 1938
l
UNITED sures,
PATENT OFFICE .
2,131,898
GAS MAKING APPARATUS
Morris M. Brandegee, Pllin?eld, and Charles E.
Hemminger, West?eldJi'. 5., assignors to Gom
bastion Utilities Corporation, New‘York, N. Y.,
a corporation of Maine I '
Original application December 16, 1935, Serial
No. 454,‘! 04. Divided and this application April '
3. 1937, Serial No. 134,720
50mins.
lOl. 48-74)
This invention relates to the manufacture of
combustible gas and more particularly concerns
an improved apparatus for generating gas having
a wide range of calorific value and speci?c gravity
tlcal section of a three-shell water gas set which
has been modified to include ceramic screens,
‘combined forced draft oil burner and oil spray
units, and connections whereby the set may be
operated in accordance with several different op
for use in industrial and domestic, heating. The
cycles.
present invention was originally described in our erating
Fig. 2 is an enlarged view, partly in elevation
co-pending patent application Serial #54304, ‘ and partly in vertical section, of the upper portion
?led December 16, 1935, of which the present of a gas generator equipped with a combined
application is a division.
A particular object of the present invention is forced draft oil burner and'oil spray unit which 10
to meet the demand for a plan whereby existing forms one of the principal apparatus elements of
present invention.
three-shell water gas generating sets of small theFig.
3 is a somewhat diagrammatic plan view
capacity (1. e. below the so-called seven foot sets)
of the top of the gas generator (with parts broken 15
may be converted for operation as oil gas‘ genera
away) showing how primary air is admitted at a
‘tors without any considerable expense to the own
controlled rate tangentially to the oil burner at
ers. Another object is to provide simple operating
cycles on which such small water gas sets may be.
operated as oil gas generators without the use of
expensive automatic controls by operators of
average skill and ability. Another object is to
provide a plan whereby such small water gas sets
may be converted for operation with oil as the
sole source of fuel for use‘both in heating up the
set and in generating carbureted water gas. An
other object of the invention is to provide process
steps and apparatus elements whereby such small
water gas sets may be operated efficiently on an
intermittent cycle employing a relatively shorter
heating period in relation to the ‘gas making peri
30 od than is usually used.
A feature of the invention resides in the use
in the carbureter of a water gas set of a carbon
filtering screen of small uniformly sized ceramic
brick in placel‘oi the usual checker brick, and in
35 the employment of the screen‘ as the principal
high temperature oil cracking and gaslgeneratingl
zone of the apparatus during, the gas making
periods. Another important feature of the inven
tion consists in a novel design of combined oil spray
40 and forced draft oil burner unit which is mount
ed above the ceramic screen in substantially the
vertical axis thereof; the design of such unit and
the relative positioning of its parts being such as
to insure uniform heating of all sections of the
45 ceramic screen and uniform spraying of oil there
over during the gas making period.
With the above and other objects and features
in view, the invention consists in the improved
apparatus for making carbureted water gas which
50 is hereinafter described and more particularly
defined in the accompanying claims.
In the drawing forming a part hereof a pre
ferred form of the apparatus is illustrated in
which:
55
'
's.
Fig‘. l is a somewhat diagrammatic view in ver
the top of the generator.
Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawing, numeral Ill
designates a gas generator which is connected at
its top through ‘conduit 12 with a carbureter i4. 20
The carbureter is connected at- its base through
conduit it with a superheater It. A conduit 20
controlled by a hot valve 22 connects the base of
generator ill with the base of carbureter I4. An
other conduit 24 controlled by a hot valve 26 con- 35
nects the base of the generator with conduit l2
and the top of carbureter l4. A hot valve 28 is
mounted in conduit H at a point between genera
tor HI and the junction of conduit 24 with conduit
l2. Another conduit 30 equipped with a valve 82 3°
leads off from the upper part of superheater ill to
a wash box 34, and a gas offtake line 35 is ported
out from the wash box. The top of superheater
it has a hinged stack valve 38 opening into the
‘base of a stack 40. Another conduit 42 controlled 35
by a hot valve 43 connects the base of the gen
erator directly to the wash box 34.
Generator I0 is provided at a. point above the
level of conduits 20 and 42 with a refractory
checker brick arch 44 upon which is supported a 40
bed of ceramic material which may be three to
?ve feet in depth and which may consist partially
of checker brick 46 and partially of uniformly
sized small ceramic bricks or balls 48. The car
bureter I4 is also provided near its base with a 45
refractory checker brick arch 50 upon which is
supported a carbon filtering and cracking screen
composed partly of checker brick 52 and partly
of a bed of small substantially uniformly sized
ceramic bricks or balls 54. The depth of the 50
screen 54 is preferably in the neighborhood of two
to three feet. this depth varying somewhat de
pending upon the character of gas which is to be
produced by the plan of operation. Since tem
peratures as high as 2000’ Frmay be developed 56
2,131,696
on the surfaces of the refractory in the generator
and carburetor screens 46, 48, 52 and 54, these
screens are preferably composed of "Mullite" or
similar high alumina ceramic material adapted to
withstand spalling due to the alternate heating
and cooling. The individual ceramic bricks or
balls which make up the screens 48 and 54 are
preferably sized so that their maximum linear
dimensions or diameter lies in the range two to
three inches,
base of the generator I0 is provided with
a valved primary air inlet 56 adjacent which
there is also mounted an oil burner 58. A specially
designed combination forced drai't oil burner
16 and oil spray B0 is shown as mounted at the
top and in the vertical axis of the carburetor ll.
Air for operating the oil burner element of the
unit 80 enters the unit tangentially from a valved
air connection 6!. A similar combined oil spray
and oil burner unit 64 is shown as mounted at
the top of generator It ‘in the vertlcg: axis
thereof and as receiving air for its operation from
a valved air supply conduit 88. A valved air
supply line 58 opens into the top 0! the super
heater l8, and valved steam supply lines ‘Ill and
‘12 open respectively into the base oi’ the gener
ator and into the top of the superheater.
As illustrated particularly in Figs. 2 and 3. the
combined oilv burner and oil spray units 60 and
30 GI which are shown in Fig. 1 as mounted verti
cally at the top of the generator and carburetor
units, comprise an outer cylindrical shell or T 14
having a special tangential side inlet ‘ii for air
from one of the valved air supply pipes 62 and
35 8!. The velocity at which air enters the T ‘H
through opening 16 is controlled by means of a
butter?y damper 18. The bottom outlet of 1'' ‘II
is bolted to the usual top carburetor nozzle and/or
to the fuel charging inlet at the top of the gas
40 generator element of a standard set. Axially
mounted within the T ‘H and supported by a
?ange closure ‘I9 tor the top of the T, is a steam
atomizing oil burner 80 to which oil is supplied
by a valved oil pipe 82, and steam by a valved
45 steam connection 84. A multi-nozzle rosette-,
type oil spray 88 is suspended concentrically
around and closely adjacent to the burner 80,
the carbureting oil being conducted to the spray
through a valved oil supply connection 88.
The combined burner and oil spray is kept
50
cool by purging the burner with steam during
periods of gas make, and by clrculation'of cool
ing water through a water cooling chamber 90
concentrically mounted around ‘the oil spray and
55 oil burner and within the T 14. Additional cool
ing of the burner and oil spray is provided by
the air which is admitted to the annular air
supply chamber 92 which surrounds the oil spray
within the T ll, during periods when burner
80 80 is operating. Cooling water is supplied to
chamber Gil through a pipe 84 and is moved
therefrom through a pipe 96.
The damper 18 in the air supply conduit af
lords the means for controlling the velocity at
which the air enters the annular chamber 92,
and consequently the degree of turbulence with
which the air whirls about the nozzle of oil burner
lll as the air enters the gas generating chamber
at the top of generator ill and/or carbureter II.
By adjustment of the damper ‘Ill, ?ames may be
secured at the nozzle of burner 80 which vary
from short sharp balls of ?re immediately adja
cent the nozzle to a long diilused semi-radiant
flame projecting downwardly to the top of the
75 underlying refractory screen. Since the oil bur
ner 80 is mounted coaxlally within the air sup
ply conduit 92, an e?‘lclent smokeless ?ame is
insured as air is supplied uniformly to the'oil
issuing from each jet of‘ the burner so. By the
arrangement illustrated in Fig. 2, it will be seen
that the oil burner 80 may be removed through
the central aperture in ?ange ‘Ill for cleaning
without disturbing the other elements of the units
60 and 64; the burner being provided with a
stu?‘lng gland 98 for the purpose of preventing the
escape of gas under pressure around the burner
tube.
~By the concentric ‘arrangement of nozzles Hill
of the oil spray 88 about the burner III, the oil
for use in generating make gas or in carburetlng
make gas is delivered to the generator and/or
carbureter in its vertical axis with uniform dis
persion and with any degree of atomization and
rate 01’ supply required, without disturbing thecen
tral location of the oil burner 80 used in heating 20
'up the apparatus, and without having to depend
on the oil burner itself (equipped for low oper
ating rates and fine atomization) as the means
for supplying oil during the make period. A.
valved steam supply pipe Hi2 delivers steam ior 25
atomizing oil and for purging to the oil spray
86. Gas operated pilot burners I03 are mounted
adjacent ,the nozzles 01' the burner elements 01'
units 60 and B4 to insure ignition of the oil
burner elements particularly during periods when 30
the apparatus is starting up.
‘
According to one preferred operating cycle
which will now be described, some oi’ the appa
ratus elements illustrated in Fig. 1 may be
omitted, namely the connections 20, 24 and 42 35
with their hot valves, hot valve 28, the oil burner
(but not the spray) element 0! the unit it at
the top 0! generator H), as also the small refrac
tory brick portion 48 01' the ceramic screen in
the generator. In place of the generator fuel 40
bed a three to live foot depth 01' checker brick
is supported on the refractory arch M at a sum
cient height above the base of the‘ generator to
form- a combustion chamber below the arch.
For, control purposes, thermocouples I“ are
mounted below the screen in the carburetor, and
in the superheater. The only operating valves
required for this cycle are the stack valve, two
air valves, an oil valve, and a steam valve; any
other valves, and the steam atomizing valves for
the oil burners, being mechanically tied in with
other valves.
,
During the heating cycle the burner 58 at ‘the
case of the generator is operated simultaneously
with the oil burner element of the unit 60 at the
top of the carbureter. Sufficient excess air is
admitted to the set through air inlets 56 and B2
to insure combustion of any carbon residue re
maining on the refractory l6 and carbureter
screen 54 after avpreceding gas making cycle. 60
At the end of a heating period the stack valve
is closed, the air supply is cut oil at the inlets
58‘ and 62, and the oil burners 58 and 80 are
also shut oil’. Steam is then turned into the base
of the generator through inlet ‘ill, and the oil 65
sprays at the top of generator l0 and at the top
of carbureter M are turned on, make gas passing
from the generator in series through the carbu
reter and screen 64 and, thence through the
superheater to the wash box and out to storage 70
through oil’take 36. At the end of the make run
the oil supply to the generator and carburetor is
out off, and the set is purged of oil gas and vapor
by continuing for a brief period the supply of
steam to the base of the generator through steam 75
2,131,090
inlet ‘It. After the steam purge the cycle is re
posted by cutting of! the stea@lpply. opening
3
erator and the carbureter, with simultaneous ad
mission 0! oil through the oil spray elements of
units ll and it. The mixture of. oil and steam
burner 58 'and its
in passing through the generator and carbureter
air supply," allowed by the second burner and air
screens is converted into a mixture of oil gas and
water gas by cracking of the oil and reaction of
7
7
t 1 the stack
:and‘starting
primary
supply located at the top of the carbureter. '
when operating on a cycle such as that just
described, the calorific value of the make gas
carbon produced on cracking.
and the make gas is then conducted through the
produced is regulated largely by the tempera
checker brick of the superheater and thence
tures which are maintained at the‘ bottom of the through the wash box and o?take It to storage. 10
The make cycle is iollowed by a down steam
10 carbureter and in the superheater. These tem
peratures are controlled by regulating the supply purge during which steam alone is introduced
of oil and air to the burners 50 and to. If it is to both the carbureter and generator through the
desired to produce an 800 B. t. u. make gas, the oil spray and burner parts of units Oil and 84.
temperatures in the bottom of the carbureter and This results in a down steam purge of both the
should be maintained in the range generator and the carbureter, with‘ removal of
15 superheater
l650°‘1i'. to 1750' F; For making a 1060 B. t. u. the water gas produced on the purge through
gas, the allowable temperature range for the base the wash box and o?take 38 to storage“ The
or the carbureter and the superheater is between steam is then cut oi! and the heating cycle re
1500' F. and 1650‘ F... The oil which is intro
peated. The make cycles under this plan of op
duced to generator'lo' is vaporized and-partially eration have to be short in order that the tem
cracked in an atmosphere oi’ steam which has peratures in the generator and carbureter do
been preheated by passage through the generator not drop below a point at which“. there would be
checker brick 48. The oil vapors and any oil no ignition of the atomized oil introduced through
gas produced in the generator pass therethrough the oil burners during the heating-up period.
into the top oi’ the carbureter where it'forms an This second cycle has the advantage of con
atmosphere within which the oil introduced to siderably increasing the gas making capacity of
the carbureter through the carbureter spray is the set by operation of both the generator and
cracked as it’ passes through the open spaces at the carbureter in parallel as twin screen gen
the top of the carbureter, through the ceramic erator units. The principal disadvantage over
.30 carbureter screen Bl, and through the checker the cycle ?rst described is the slightly lower heat
brick of» the superheater. While operating on utilization emciency and the more complicated
this cycle, the checker brick 46 in the generator apparatus requirements. According to either of
is only slightly cooled by the small quantities of the operating cycles just described, the steam re
1 steam which are passed therethrough during the quirements are relatively low and the gas pro
gas making run, and accordingly this checker duced accordingly has desirable characteristics,
brick is maintained at a suiiicient temperature having a relatively high methane content and
as an igniting surface for the primary air and lower hydrogen and carbon monoxide content and
atomized oil introduced beneath the generator lower gravity, then the usual type of mixed oil
arch ll during the heating-up period. Any car -gas and water gas.
‘
bon residue on the generator screen and on the
According to a third plan of operation. that
40
carbureter screen is consumed by reaction with cycle would be substantially the same as that just
excess air introduced into thc'apparatus during described except that the apparatus would in
the blowing-up period.
Another modi?ed cycle employs a slightly dif
ferent apparatus set-up than that required for
the cycle just previously described, in which the
checker brick 48 of the generator is changed
clude connection 2! between the base or the gen
so as to include a middle section of small sized
that the blow gas and make gas produced in the
generator would flow in series through the car—
bureter and carbureter screen rather than in par
broken ceramic bricks or balls 48, thereby re
sulting in a generator of the type illustrated hav
ing a screen corresponding to the carbureter
screen. For this cycle the cross connection 20
between the base of the generator and the base
of the carbureter is also required, as is also the
complete forced draft oil burner and oil spray.
unit 84 which is illustrated at the top of the gen
erator in Fig. i of the drawings. When operat
ing in accordance with this cycle hot valve 28 is
closed, or else a blank ?ange is introduced at the
location of the hot valve in conduit ii.
The heating period according to this second
process cycle, starts with down heating of the
generator and the carbureter by simultaneous op
.eration of the forced draft oil burner elements
of units 8i and it. The products of combustion
pass downwardly through the ceramic screens
in the‘ generator and carbureter in parallel, and
are then passed from the base of the generator
and the base of the carbureter into and upwardly
through v‘the superheater checker brick. and out
70 of the stack. On completion of the heating
period, the air and oil supplies to the burners at
the top of the generator and carbureter are cut
oil’ and the stack valve II is closed, after which
steam is admitted to the tops of both the gen
76
erator and the top of the carbureter, and would
omit the connection 20 between the base of the
generator and the base of the carbureter. The
operating cycle would then be the same except
allel with gases produced in the carbureter.
According to a fourth plan of operation, a
relatively low B. t. u. gas of say 550 B. t. u. and
.68 gravity can be made from low gravity Bunker 65
C fuel oil by first producting an oil gas of ap
proximately 750 B. t. u. and then diluting with a
mixture of blow run gas and blue gas. Part of
‘the heat for the set can then be obtained'by
combustion (during the heating cycle) of carbon 60
resulting from the cracking of the high gravity
high carbon oil used during the make cycle.
According to this fourth plan of operation, a hot
valve or backrun set may be employed having
an oil spray in the top of the generator, but with 65
out requiring the forced draft oil burner element
of the unit it illustrated. Shallow screens of
small sized refractory 48, N, are preferably em
ployed both in the generator and in the car
bureter. During the make period, all the oil
required to produce make gas is sprayed into the
top of the generator where it is vaporized by the
radiant heat stored in the generator during the
heating-up or blow period. The oil is vaporiaed
in an atmosphere of steam which is introduced,
4
2,131,696
to
base of the generator throughout the make
period. The steam reacts with any carbon de
posited on the refractory screen of the generator
to form water gas. Heating up of the generator
and carbureter between make periods is effected
by means of the oil burner at the base of the
generator, supplemented by combustion of car
bon deposit on the refractory screens with excess
air.
In a hot valve set the cycle begins with the
stack valve 38 open and with supply of pri
mary air to the base of the generator and secon
dary air to the top of the carbureter. The heat—
ing-up period is suspended when 'the thermo
15 couple lgt, the base of the carburetor reaches a
readin?lf 1600" to 1700° F. The stack valve
and the; primary and secondary air supplies are
then turned on’ and steam is introduced to the
base of the generator, and heavy oil is simul
taneously sprayed into the top of the generator.
The mixture of steam and oil vapors passes from
the top of the generator into the top of the car
bureter and thence downwardly through the re
fractory screen in the carburetor and upwardly
through the checker brick in the superheater into
the wash box. Cracking of the oil takes place
largely in the zone oi the carbureter screen. At
the end of the oil run the oil supply is cut off
and the apparatus is purged by continuing the
supply of steam through the steam supply pipe
10. Before opening the stack for the next heat
ing cycle a short blow purge is carried out by
closing the steam supply at 10 and opening the
air supply 56 for a brief period during which air
blast gases are carried through the set to the
wash box and are then conducted to the holder.
A fifth operating cycle may be carried out in
the set illustrated. in which the principal change
in operation is that which makes use of the
40 back run connection 42 directly from the base of
the generator to the wash box. The heating and
make cycles are similar to those just described
for the fourth plan of operation, but during the
steam pure cycle steam is introduced through
45 connection 12 to the super-heater. Gas produced‘
during a reverse steam pure is conducted directly
from the base of the generator to the wash box.
A reverse air purge follows the reversesteam purge
during which air is introduced to the superheater
through the connection 68 and the reverse blow
gases g're conducted directly from the base of the
generator to the wash box, and thence to storage.
The next heating-up operation is started after
closing the air valve in the top of the superheater
and opening the stack valve, and after closing
the valve in connection 42.
Having thus described the invention, what we
claim as new is:
a
1. In gas generating apparatus, the combina
tion of an upright refractory lined shell having
an arched roof, a bed of small uniformly sized
ceramic bricks supported within the said shell on
a refractory arch and having suf?cient depth to
form a carbon ?ltering screen for gases passed
65 vertically through the shell, a combined oil spray
and forced draft oil burner mounted in the roof
of the shell in the’vertical axis thereof, the oil
burner and oil spray being mounted in concentric
relation, and an air supply duct disposed con
centrically with respect to the oil burner and hav
ing a tangential air inlet provided with a damper
by which to control the peripheral velocity of air
flow in the duct around the oil burner nozzle.
,
2. In gas generating apparatus, a water gas
75 set including a single generator, a single carbu
reter, a single superheater and a wash box, open
conduits communicably connecting the base and
top of the superheater respectively with the base
‘of the carbureter and with the wash box, valved
conduits communicably connecting the base and
top of the carbureter respectively with the base
and top of the gas generator, an oil burner dis
posed at the base of the generator, carbon ?lter—
ing beds of ceramic bricks supported in the ver
tical mid-portions of both the generator and car
bureter, and a pair of combined oil spray and
forced draft oil burner units mounted respectively
at the top and in the vertical axes of the carbu
reter and generator, each of said units having
their burner and spray elements mounted in
coaxial relation concentrically within an air sup
ply duct, and an air supply inlet ported out tan
gentially into, said duct and having a butter
fly damper whereby to control the peripheral ve
locity of air ?ow in the duct around the oil
burner nozzle.
3. In gas generating apparatus, a water gas
‘set including a single generator, 8. single carbu
reter, a single superheater and a wash box, open
conduits communicably connecting the base and
top of the superheater, respectively, with the
base ‘of the carbureter and with the wash box,
valved conduits communicably connecting the
base andv top of the gas generator with the top
of the carbureter, and a combined oil spray and
forced draft oil burner unit mounted at the top
and in the vertical axis of the carbureter, said
unit having its burner element mounted concen
trically within the oil spray element and having
both the burner and spray elements mounted in
coaxial relation concentrically within an air sup
ply duct,.and an air supply inlet ported out tan
gentially into said duct and having a butter?y
damper whereby to control the peripheral velocity
of air ?ow in the duct around the oil burner
nozzle.
.
4. In gas generating apparatus. a water gas set
including a single generator, 9. single carbureter.
a single superheater and awash box, open con
duits communicably connecting the base and top 45
of the superheater, respectively, with the base
of the carbureter and with the wash box, valved
conduits communicably connecting the base and
top of the gas generator with the top of the car
bureter, and a combined oil spray and forced
draft oil burner unit mounted at the top and in
the vertical axis or the carbureter, said unit hav
ing its burner element mounted concentrically
within the oil spray elements and having both
the burner and spray element mounted in coaxial
relation concentrically within an air supply duct,
a water cooling chamber for the burner and oil
spray, the water cooling- chamber being mounted
concentrically within the air duct, separate valved
oil and steam supplying pipes for the oil burner
and for the oil spray, and an air supply inlet
ported out tangentially into said duct and having
a damper by which to control the peripheral
velocity of air flow in the duct around the oil
burner nozzle.
5. In gas generating apparatus, the combina~
tion of an upright refractory lined gas generat
ing shell, a bed of small randomly placed ceramic
bricks uniformly sized within maximum linear
dimensions of two to three inches supported 70
transversely within the generator on a refractory
arch and having a depth of one to three feet
to form a carbon ?ltering screen for gases passed
vertically through the shell, another refractory
lined shell having a like filling of small ceramic 75
9,131,096
bricks disposed transversely therein. valved con
duits communicably connecting the base and top
of the iirst shell with the base and top of the
second shell, an open gas o?take conduit leading
on’ from the base or the second-named shell.
and a combined oil spray and forced draft oil
burner unit mounted at the top and in the vertical
axis of the ?rst-named :eneratcr shell, the burner
and spray elements of said unit being mounted
5
in coaxial relation concentrically within an air
supply duct, and an air supply inlet ported out
tangentially into said duct and having a butter
i'iy damper whereby to control the peripheral
velocity of air ?ow in the duct around the air
burner noale.
MORRIS M. BRANDEGEE.
CHARLES E.
GER.
CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION.
September 27, 1958.
Patent No. 2,151,696.
‘MORRIS H. BRANDEGEE, ET AL.
It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification
of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 2, first
column, line 61, for "moved" read removed; page it, first column, lines lib,
and 11.6, for the word "pure" read purge; same page, second column, line 514.,
for I'elements" read element; and line 55, for "element" read elements; and
that the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein
that the same may conform to the record of the ease in the Patent Office.
Signed and sealed this 25th'day of October, A. D. 1958.
Henry Van Aredale
(Seal)
Acting Gonmissioner of Patents.
9,131,096
bricks disposed transversely therein. valved con
duits communicably connecting the base and top
of the iirst shell with the base and top of the
second shell, an open gas o?take conduit leading
on’ from the base or the second-named shell.
and a combined oil spray and forced draft oil
burner unit mounted at the top and in the vertical
axis of the ?rst-named :eneratcr shell, the burner
and spray elements of said unit being mounted
5
in coaxial relation concentrically within an air
supply duct, and an air supply inlet ported out
tangentially into said duct and having a butter
i'iy damper whereby to control the peripheral
velocity of air ?ow in the duct around the air
burner noale.
MORRIS M. BRANDEGEE.
CHARLES E.
GER.
CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION.
September 27, 1958.
Patent No. 2,151,696.
‘MORRIS H. BRANDEGEE, ET AL.
It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification
of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 2, first
column, line 61, for "moved" read removed; page it, first column, lines lib,
and 11.6, for the word "pure" read purge; same page, second column, line 514.,
for I'elements" read element; and line 55, for "element" read elements; and
that the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein
that the same may conform to the record of the ease in the Patent Office.
Signed and sealed this 25th'day of October, A. D. 1958.
Henry Van Aredale
(Seal)
Acting Gonmissioner of Patents.
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