Патент USA US2131696код для вставки
Sept. 27, 1938- 2,131,696 M. M. BRANDEGEE ET AL GAS MAK I NG APPARATUS Original Fil-ed Dec. 16, 1935 \\ Q40 \\ \\ \ \ \ MI H"uunm?l/innh. ,i m 4 m Z 4 w \a 7 a + / / \ IW\> ‘\f. 2,131,696 Patented Sept. 27, 1938 l UNITED sures, PATENT OFFICE . 2,131,898 GAS MAKING APPARATUS Morris M. Brandegee, Pllin?eld, and Charles E. Hemminger, West?eldJi'. 5., assignors to Gom bastion Utilities Corporation, New‘York, N. Y., a corporation of Maine I ' Original application December 16, 1935, Serial No. 454,‘! 04. Divided and this application April ' 3. 1937, Serial No. 134,720 50mins. lOl. 48-74) This invention relates to the manufacture of combustible gas and more particularly concerns an improved apparatus for generating gas having a wide range of calorific value and speci?c gravity tlcal section of a three-shell water gas set which has been modified to include ceramic screens, ‘combined forced draft oil burner and oil spray units, and connections whereby the set may be operated in accordance with several different op for use in industrial and domestic, heating. The cycles. present invention was originally described in our erating Fig. 2 is an enlarged view, partly in elevation co-pending patent application Serial #54304, ‘ and partly in vertical section, of the upper portion ?led December 16, 1935, of which the present of a gas generator equipped with a combined application is a division. A particular object of the present invention is forced draft oil burner and'oil spray unit which 10 to meet the demand for a plan whereby existing forms one of the principal apparatus elements of present invention. three-shell water gas generating sets of small theFig. 3 is a somewhat diagrammatic plan view capacity (1. e. below the so-called seven foot sets) of the top of the gas generator (with parts broken 15 may be converted for operation as oil gas‘ genera away) showing how primary air is admitted at a ‘tors without any considerable expense to the own controlled rate tangentially to the oil burner at ers. Another object is to provide simple operating cycles on which such small water gas sets may be. operated as oil gas generators without the use of expensive automatic controls by operators of average skill and ability. Another object is to provide a plan whereby such small water gas sets may be converted for operation with oil as the sole source of fuel for use‘both in heating up the set and in generating carbureted water gas. An other object of the invention is to provide process steps and apparatus elements whereby such small water gas sets may be operated efficiently on an intermittent cycle employing a relatively shorter heating period in relation to the ‘gas making peri 30 od than is usually used. A feature of the invention resides in the use in the carbureter of a water gas set of a carbon filtering screen of small uniformly sized ceramic brick in placel‘oi the usual checker brick, and in 35 the employment of the screen‘ as the principal high temperature oil cracking and gaslgeneratingl zone of the apparatus during, the gas making periods. Another important feature of the inven tion consists in a novel design of combined oil spray 40 and forced draft oil burner unit which is mount ed above the ceramic screen in substantially the vertical axis thereof; the design of such unit and the relative positioning of its parts being such as to insure uniform heating of all sections of the 45 ceramic screen and uniform spraying of oil there over during the gas making period. With the above and other objects and features in view, the invention consists in the improved apparatus for making carbureted water gas which 50 is hereinafter described and more particularly defined in the accompanying claims. In the drawing forming a part hereof a pre ferred form of the apparatus is illustrated in which: 55 ' 's. Fig‘. l is a somewhat diagrammatic view in ver the top of the generator. Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawing, numeral Ill designates a gas generator which is connected at its top through ‘conduit 12 with a carbureter i4. 20 The carbureter is connected at- its base through conduit it with a superheater It. A conduit 20 controlled by a hot valve 22 connects the base of generator ill with the base of carbureter I4. An other conduit 24 controlled by a hot valve 26 con- 35 nects the base of the generator with conduit l2 and the top of carbureter l4. A hot valve 28 is mounted in conduit H at a point between genera tor HI and the junction of conduit 24 with conduit l2. Another conduit 30 equipped with a valve 82 3° leads off from the upper part of superheater ill to a wash box 34, and a gas offtake line 35 is ported out from the wash box. The top of superheater it has a hinged stack valve 38 opening into the ‘base of a stack 40. Another conduit 42 controlled 35 by a hot valve 43 connects the base of the gen erator directly to the wash box 34. Generator I0 is provided at a. point above the level of conduits 20 and 42 with a refractory checker brick arch 44 upon which is supported a 40 bed of ceramic material which may be three to ?ve feet in depth and which may consist partially of checker brick 46 and partially of uniformly sized small ceramic bricks or balls 48. The car bureter I4 is also provided near its base with a 45 refractory checker brick arch 50 upon which is supported a carbon filtering and cracking screen composed partly of checker brick 52 and partly of a bed of small substantially uniformly sized ceramic bricks or balls 54. The depth of the 50 screen 54 is preferably in the neighborhood of two to three feet. this depth varying somewhat de pending upon the character of gas which is to be produced by the plan of operation. Since tem peratures as high as 2000’ Frmay be developed 56 2,131,696 on the surfaces of the refractory in the generator and carburetor screens 46, 48, 52 and 54, these screens are preferably composed of "Mullite" or similar high alumina ceramic material adapted to withstand spalling due to the alternate heating and cooling. The individual ceramic bricks or balls which make up the screens 48 and 54 are preferably sized so that their maximum linear dimensions or diameter lies in the range two to three inches, base of the generator I0 is provided with a valved primary air inlet 56 adjacent which there is also mounted an oil burner 58. A specially designed combination forced drai't oil burner 16 and oil spray B0 is shown as mounted at the top and in the vertical axis of the carburetor ll. Air for operating the oil burner element of the unit 80 enters the unit tangentially from a valved air connection 6!. A similar combined oil spray and oil burner unit 64 is shown as mounted at the top of generator It ‘in the vertlcg: axis thereof and as receiving air for its operation from a valved air supply conduit 88. A valved air supply line 58 opens into the top 0! the super heater l8, and valved steam supply lines ‘Ill and ‘12 open respectively into the base oi’ the gener ator and into the top of the superheater. As illustrated particularly in Figs. 2 and 3. the combined oilv burner and oil spray units 60 and 30 GI which are shown in Fig. 1 as mounted verti cally at the top of the generator and carburetor units, comprise an outer cylindrical shell or T 14 having a special tangential side inlet ‘ii for air from one of the valved air supply pipes 62 and 35 8!. The velocity at which air enters the T ‘H through opening 16 is controlled by means of a butter?y damper 18. The bottom outlet of 1'' ‘II is bolted to the usual top carburetor nozzle and/or to the fuel charging inlet at the top of the gas 40 generator element of a standard set. Axially mounted within the T ‘H and supported by a ?ange closure ‘I9 tor the top of the T, is a steam atomizing oil burner 80 to which oil is supplied by a valved oil pipe 82, and steam by a valved 45 steam connection 84. A multi-nozzle rosette-, type oil spray 88 is suspended concentrically around and closely adjacent to the burner 80, the carbureting oil being conducted to the spray through a valved oil supply connection 88. The combined burner and oil spray is kept 50 cool by purging the burner with steam during periods of gas make, and by clrculation'of cool ing water through a water cooling chamber 90 concentrically mounted around ‘the oil spray and 55 oil burner and within the T 14. Additional cool ing of the burner and oil spray is provided by the air which is admitted to the annular air supply chamber 92 which surrounds the oil spray within the T ll, during periods when burner 80 80 is operating. Cooling water is supplied to chamber Gil through a pipe 84 and is moved therefrom through a pipe 96. The damper 18 in the air supply conduit af lords the means for controlling the velocity at which the air enters the annular chamber 92, and consequently the degree of turbulence with which the air whirls about the nozzle of oil burner lll as the air enters the gas generating chamber at the top of generator ill and/or carbureter II. By adjustment of the damper ‘Ill, ?ames may be secured at the nozzle of burner 80 which vary from short sharp balls of ?re immediately adja cent the nozzle to a long diilused semi-radiant flame projecting downwardly to the top of the 75 underlying refractory screen. Since the oil bur ner 80 is mounted coaxlally within the air sup ply conduit 92, an e?‘lclent smokeless ?ame is insured as air is supplied uniformly to the'oil issuing from each jet of‘ the burner so. By the arrangement illustrated in Fig. 2, it will be seen that the oil burner 80 may be removed through the central aperture in ?ange ‘Ill for cleaning without disturbing the other elements of the units 60 and 64; the burner being provided with a stu?‘lng gland 98 for the purpose of preventing the escape of gas under pressure around the burner tube. ~By the concentric ‘arrangement of nozzles Hill of the oil spray 88 about the burner III, the oil for use in generating make gas or in carburetlng make gas is delivered to the generator and/or carbureter in its vertical axis with uniform dis persion and with any degree of atomization and rate 01’ supply required, without disturbing thecen tral location of the oil burner 80 used in heating 20 'up the apparatus, and without having to depend on the oil burner itself (equipped for low oper ating rates and fine atomization) as the means for supplying oil during the make period. A. valved steam supply pipe Hi2 delivers steam ior 25 atomizing oil and for purging to the oil spray 86. Gas operated pilot burners I03 are mounted adjacent ,the nozzles 01' the burner elements 01' units 60 and B4 to insure ignition of the oil burner elements particularly during periods when 30 the apparatus is starting up. ‘ According to one preferred operating cycle which will now be described, some oi’ the appa ratus elements illustrated in Fig. 1 may be omitted, namely the connections 20, 24 and 42 35 with their hot valves, hot valve 28, the oil burner (but not the spray) element 0! the unit it at the top 0! generator H), as also the small refrac tory brick portion 48 01' the ceramic screen in the generator. In place of the generator fuel 40 bed a three to live foot depth 01' checker brick is supported on the refractory arch M at a sum cient height above the base of the‘ generator to form- a combustion chamber below the arch. For, control purposes, thermocouples I“ are mounted below the screen in the carburetor, and in the superheater. The only operating valves required for this cycle are the stack valve, two air valves, an oil valve, and a steam valve; any other valves, and the steam atomizing valves for the oil burners, being mechanically tied in with other valves. , During the heating cycle the burner 58 at ‘the case of the generator is operated simultaneously with the oil burner element of the unit 60 at the top of the carbureter. Sufficient excess air is admitted to the set through air inlets 56 and B2 to insure combustion of any carbon residue re maining on the refractory l6 and carbureter screen 54 after avpreceding gas making cycle. 60 At the end of a heating period the stack valve is closed, the air supply is cut oil at the inlets 58‘ and 62, and the oil burners 58 and 80 are also shut oil’. Steam is then turned into the base of the generator through inlet ‘ill, and the oil 65 sprays at the top of generator l0 and at the top of carbureter M are turned on, make gas passing from the generator in series through the carbu reter and screen 64 and, thence through the superheater to the wash box and out to storage 70 through oil’take 36. At the end of the make run the oil supply to the generator and carburetor is out off, and the set is purged of oil gas and vapor by continuing for a brief period the supply of steam to the base of the generator through steam 75 2,131,090 inlet ‘It. After the steam purge the cycle is re posted by cutting of! the stea@lpply. opening 3 erator and the carbureter, with simultaneous ad mission 0! oil through the oil spray elements of units ll and it. The mixture of. oil and steam burner 58 'and its in passing through the generator and carbureter air supply," allowed by the second burner and air screens is converted into a mixture of oil gas and water gas by cracking of the oil and reaction of 7 7 t 1 the stack :and‘starting primary supply located at the top of the carbureter. ' when operating on a cycle such as that just described, the calorific value of the make gas carbon produced on cracking. and the make gas is then conducted through the produced is regulated largely by the tempera checker brick of the superheater and thence tures which are maintained at the‘ bottom of the through the wash box and o?take It to storage. 10 The make cycle is iollowed by a down steam 10 carbureter and in the superheater. These tem peratures are controlled by regulating the supply purge during which steam alone is introduced of oil and air to the burners 50 and to. If it is to both the carbureter and generator through the desired to produce an 800 B. t. u. make gas, the oil spray and burner parts of units Oil and 84. temperatures in the bottom of the carbureter and This results in a down steam purge of both the should be maintained in the range generator and the carbureter, with‘ removal of 15 superheater l650°‘1i'. to 1750' F; For making a 1060 B. t. u. the water gas produced on the purge through gas, the allowable temperature range for the base the wash box and o?take 38 to storage“ The or the carbureter and the superheater is between steam is then cut oi! and the heating cycle re 1500' F. and 1650‘ F... The oil which is intro peated. The make cycles under this plan of op duced to generator'lo' is vaporized and-partially eration have to be short in order that the tem cracked in an atmosphere oi’ steam which has peratures in the generator and carbureter do been preheated by passage through the generator not drop below a point at which“. there would be checker brick 48. The oil vapors and any oil no ignition of the atomized oil introduced through gas produced in the generator pass therethrough the oil burners during the heating-up period. into the top oi’ the carbureter where it'forms an This second cycle has the advantage of con atmosphere within which the oil introduced to siderably increasing the gas making capacity of the carbureter through the carbureter spray is the set by operation of both the generator and cracked as it’ passes through the open spaces at the carbureter in parallel as twin screen gen the top of the carbureter, through the ceramic erator units. The principal disadvantage over .30 carbureter screen Bl, and through the checker the cycle ?rst described is the slightly lower heat brick of» the superheater. While operating on utilization emciency and the more complicated this cycle, the checker brick 46 in the generator apparatus requirements. According to either of is only slightly cooled by the small quantities of the operating cycles just described, the steam re 1 steam which are passed therethrough during the quirements are relatively low and the gas pro gas making run, and accordingly this checker duced accordingly has desirable characteristics, brick is maintained at a suiiicient temperature having a relatively high methane content and as an igniting surface for the primary air and lower hydrogen and carbon monoxide content and atomized oil introduced beneath the generator lower gravity, then the usual type of mixed oil arch ll during the heating-up period. Any car -gas and water gas. ‘ bon residue on the generator screen and on the According to a third plan of operation. that 40 carbureter screen is consumed by reaction with cycle would be substantially the same as that just excess air introduced into thc'apparatus during described except that the apparatus would in the blowing-up period. Another modi?ed cycle employs a slightly dif ferent apparatus set-up than that required for the cycle just previously described, in which the checker brick 48 of the generator is changed clude connection 2! between the base or the gen so as to include a middle section of small sized that the blow gas and make gas produced in the generator would flow in series through the car— bureter and carbureter screen rather than in par broken ceramic bricks or balls 48, thereby re sulting in a generator of the type illustrated hav ing a screen corresponding to the carbureter screen. For this cycle the cross connection 20 between the base of the generator and the base of the carbureter is also required, as is also the complete forced draft oil burner and oil spray. unit 84 which is illustrated at the top of the gen erator in Fig. i of the drawings. When operat ing in accordance with this cycle hot valve 28 is closed, or else a blank ?ange is introduced at the location of the hot valve in conduit ii. The heating period according to this second process cycle, starts with down heating of the generator and the carbureter by simultaneous op .eration of the forced draft oil burner elements of units 8i and it. The products of combustion pass downwardly through the ceramic screens in the‘ generator and carbureter in parallel, and are then passed from the base of the generator and the base of the carbureter into and upwardly through v‘the superheater checker brick. and out 70 of the stack. On completion of the heating period, the air and oil supplies to the burners at the top of the generator and carbureter are cut oil’ and the stack valve II is closed, after which steam is admitted to the tops of both the gen 76 erator and the top of the carbureter, and would omit the connection 20 between the base of the generator and the base of the carbureter. The operating cycle would then be the same except allel with gases produced in the carbureter. According to a fourth plan of operation, a relatively low B. t. u. gas of say 550 B. t. u. and .68 gravity can be made from low gravity Bunker 65 C fuel oil by first producting an oil gas of ap proximately 750 B. t. u. and then diluting with a mixture of blow run gas and blue gas. Part of ‘the heat for the set can then be obtained'by combustion (during the heating cycle) of carbon 60 resulting from the cracking of the high gravity high carbon oil used during the make cycle. According to this fourth plan of operation, a hot valve or backrun set may be employed having an oil spray in the top of the generator, but with 65 out requiring the forced draft oil burner element of the unit it illustrated. Shallow screens of small sized refractory 48, N, are preferably em ployed both in the generator and in the car bureter. During the make period, all the oil required to produce make gas is sprayed into the top of the generator where it is vaporized by the radiant heat stored in the generator during the heating-up or blow period. The oil is vaporiaed in an atmosphere of steam which is introduced, 4 2,131,696 to base of the generator throughout the make period. The steam reacts with any carbon de posited on the refractory screen of the generator to form water gas. Heating up of the generator and carbureter between make periods is effected by means of the oil burner at the base of the generator, supplemented by combustion of car bon deposit on the refractory screens with excess air. In a hot valve set the cycle begins with the stack valve 38 open and with supply of pri mary air to the base of the generator and secon dary air to the top of the carbureter. The heat— ing-up period is suspended when 'the thermo 15 couple lgt, the base of the carburetor reaches a readin?lf 1600" to 1700° F. The stack valve and the; primary and secondary air supplies are then turned on’ and steam is introduced to the base of the generator, and heavy oil is simul taneously sprayed into the top of the generator. The mixture of steam and oil vapors passes from the top of the generator into the top of the car bureter and thence downwardly through the re fractory screen in the carburetor and upwardly through the checker brick in the superheater into the wash box. Cracking of the oil takes place largely in the zone oi the carbureter screen. At the end of the oil run the oil supply is cut off and the apparatus is purged by continuing the supply of steam through the steam supply pipe 10. Before opening the stack for the next heat ing cycle a short blow purge is carried out by closing the steam supply at 10 and opening the air supply 56 for a brief period during which air blast gases are carried through the set to the wash box and are then conducted to the holder. A fifth operating cycle may be carried out in the set illustrated. in which the principal change in operation is that which makes use of the 40 back run connection 42 directly from the base of the generator to the wash box. The heating and make cycles are similar to those just described for the fourth plan of operation, but during the steam pure cycle steam is introduced through 45 connection 12 to the super-heater. Gas produced‘ during a reverse steam pure is conducted directly from the base of the generator to the wash box. A reverse air purge follows the reversesteam purge during which air is introduced to the superheater through the connection 68 and the reverse blow gases g're conducted directly from the base of the generator to the wash box, and thence to storage. The next heating-up operation is started after closing the air valve in the top of the superheater and opening the stack valve, and after closing the valve in connection 42. Having thus described the invention, what we claim as new is: a 1. In gas generating apparatus, the combina tion of an upright refractory lined shell having an arched roof, a bed of small uniformly sized ceramic bricks supported within the said shell on a refractory arch and having suf?cient depth to form a carbon ?ltering screen for gases passed 65 vertically through the shell, a combined oil spray and forced draft oil burner mounted in the roof of the shell in the’vertical axis thereof, the oil burner and oil spray being mounted in concentric relation, and an air supply duct disposed con centrically with respect to the oil burner and hav ing a tangential air inlet provided with a damper by which to control the peripheral velocity of air flow in the duct around the oil burner nozzle. , 2. In gas generating apparatus, a water gas 75 set including a single generator, a single carbu reter, a single superheater and a wash box, open conduits communicably connecting the base and top of the superheater respectively with the base ‘of the carbureter and with the wash box, valved conduits communicably connecting the base and top of the carbureter respectively with the base and top of the gas generator, an oil burner dis posed at the base of the generator, carbon ?lter— ing beds of ceramic bricks supported in the ver tical mid-portions of both the generator and car bureter, and a pair of combined oil spray and forced draft oil burner units mounted respectively at the top and in the vertical axes of the carbu reter and generator, each of said units having their burner and spray elements mounted in coaxial relation concentrically within an air sup ply duct, and an air supply inlet ported out tan gentially into, said duct and having a butter fly damper whereby to control the peripheral ve locity of air ?ow in the duct around the oil burner nozzle. 3. In gas generating apparatus, a water gas ‘set including a single generator, 8. single carbu reter, a single superheater and a wash box, open conduits communicably connecting the base and top of the superheater, respectively, with the base ‘of the carbureter and with the wash box, valved conduits communicably connecting the base andv top of the gas generator with the top of the carbureter, and a combined oil spray and forced draft oil burner unit mounted at the top and in the vertical axis of the carbureter, said unit having its burner element mounted concen trically within the oil spray element and having both the burner and spray elements mounted in coaxial relation concentrically within an air sup ply duct,.and an air supply inlet ported out tan gentially into said duct and having a butter?y damper whereby to control the peripheral velocity of air ?ow in the duct around the oil burner nozzle. . 4. In gas generating apparatus. a water gas set including a single generator, 9. single carbureter. a single superheater and awash box, open con duits communicably connecting the base and top 45 of the superheater, respectively, with the base of the carbureter and with the wash box, valved conduits communicably connecting the base and top of the gas generator with the top of the car bureter, and a combined oil spray and forced draft oil burner unit mounted at the top and in the vertical axis or the carbureter, said unit hav ing its burner element mounted concentrically within the oil spray elements and having both the burner and spray element mounted in coaxial relation concentrically within an air supply duct, a water cooling chamber for the burner and oil spray, the water cooling- chamber being mounted concentrically within the air duct, separate valved oil and steam supplying pipes for the oil burner and for the oil spray, and an air supply inlet ported out tangentially into said duct and having a damper by which to control the peripheral velocity of air flow in the duct around the oil burner nozzle. 5. In gas generating apparatus, the combina~ tion of an upright refractory lined gas generat ing shell, a bed of small randomly placed ceramic bricks uniformly sized within maximum linear dimensions of two to three inches supported 70 transversely within the generator on a refractory arch and having a depth of one to three feet to form a carbon ?ltering screen for gases passed vertically through the shell, another refractory lined shell having a like filling of small ceramic 75 9,131,096 bricks disposed transversely therein. valved con duits communicably connecting the base and top of the iirst shell with the base and top of the second shell, an open gas o?take conduit leading on’ from the base or the second-named shell. and a combined oil spray and forced draft oil burner unit mounted at the top and in the vertical axis of the ?rst-named :eneratcr shell, the burner and spray elements of said unit being mounted 5 in coaxial relation concentrically within an air supply duct, and an air supply inlet ported out tangentially into said duct and having a butter i'iy damper whereby to control the peripheral velocity of air ?ow in the duct around the air burner noale. MORRIS M. BRANDEGEE. CHARLES E. GER. CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION. September 27, 1958. Patent No. 2,151,696. ‘MORRIS H. BRANDEGEE, ET AL. It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 2, first column, line 61, for "moved" read removed; page it, first column, lines lib, and 11.6, for the word "pure" read purge; same page, second column, line 514., for I'elements" read element; and line 55, for "element" read elements; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the ease in the Patent Office. Signed and sealed this 25th'day of October, A. D. 1958. Henry Van Aredale (Seal) Acting Gonmissioner of Patents. 9,131,096 bricks disposed transversely therein. valved con duits communicably connecting the base and top of the iirst shell with the base and top of the second shell, an open gas o?take conduit leading on’ from the base or the second-named shell. and a combined oil spray and forced draft oil burner unit mounted at the top and in the vertical axis of the ?rst-named :eneratcr shell, the burner and spray elements of said unit being mounted 5 in coaxial relation concentrically within an air supply duct, and an air supply inlet ported out tangentially into said duct and having a butter i'iy damper whereby to control the peripheral velocity of air ?ow in the duct around the air burner noale. MORRIS M. BRANDEGEE. CHARLES E. GER. CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION. September 27, 1958. Patent No. 2,151,696. ‘MORRIS H. BRANDEGEE, ET AL. It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 2, first column, line 61, for "moved" read removed; page it, first column, lines lib, and 11.6, for the word "pure" read purge; same page, second column, line 514., for I'elements" read element; and line 55, for "element" read elements; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the ease in the Patent Office. Signed and sealed this 25th'day of October, A. D. 1958. Henry Van Aredale (Seal) Acting Gonmissioner of Patents.