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Патент USA US2131752

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Oct. 4, 1938.
w. H. REICHARD ET AL
2,131,752
CODED CONTINUOUS INDUCTIVE TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEM
'
Filed Nov. 2'7, 1936
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INVENTORS
\NH‘Téeicrzard & (IS-Bushnell
T 1
!
BY ZMQHM;
THEIR ATTORN EY
Patented Oct. 4, 1938
2,131,752
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,131,752
CODED
CONTINUOUS‘ INDUCTIVE
CONTROL SYSTEM
TRAIN
Wade H. Reichard and Charles S. Bushnell,
Rochester, N. Y., assignors to General Rail
way Signal Company, Rochester, N. Y.
Application November 27, 1936, Serial No. 112,858
9 Claims.
This invention relates to automatic train con
trol systems for railroads and more particularly
to systems of the type commonly known as coded
continuous inductive train control systems.
01
One object of the present invention is to pro
vide a three indication continuous inductive sys
tem of control whereby conditions in the ?eld
will determine the presence of one of two train
control currents of different frequencies in the
track rails, and means whereby such currents can
be transmitted to a moving vehicle in a simple
and direct manner ‘to produce the various indi
cations.
Another object of this invention is to provide,
by arrangement and organization of parts, means
whereby
car-carried
apparatus is
protected
against false indications due to the presence of
stray currents in the tracks.
Other objects, advantages and characteristic
'20 features of this invention will be in part appar
ent and in part pointed out as the description of
the invention progresses.
The trackway apparatus, in accordance with
this invention, is such that under high speed run
25 ning conditions, an alternating current of 140
cycle frequency will be connected across the
rails at one end of the track section, and under
caution conditions a current of 90 cycle fre
quency will be connected across the rails in a
30 similar manner. The frequencies of 90 and 140
cycles have been selected, because these frequen
cies'are higher than the 25, 50 and 60 cycles or
dinarily used for power and industrial purposes,
and thus avoid interference by these commercial
35 frequencies and their ordinary harmonics.
In describing the invention, reference will be
made to the'accompanying drawing which shows.
in a simple and diagrammatic manner, wayside
and car-carried apparatus constituting one spe
40 ci?c embodiment of the invention, the parts be
ing shown in a manner to facilitate explanation
and understanding of the essential characteris
tics of the invention, and not necessarily to
show the particular organization and construc
45 tion that may be most advantageously used in
practice. In the drawing:
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view of one form of
the invention.
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary diagrammatic view of
50 parts in one operating position.
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary view of parts in an
other operating position.
The symbols (+) and (-) are employed to
indicate the positive and negative ‘terminals,
65 respectively, of suitable batteries or other sources
(Cl. 246—63)
of electrical energy, and those terminals with
which these symbols are used are presumed to
have current ?owing from the positive terminal
designated (+) to the negative terminal desig
nated (—). When these symbols are used in
connection with alternating current circuits they
are considered to represent the instantaneous
polarity of the respective terminals.
Referring to Fig. 1 of the accompanying draw
ing, asection of single track is shown with the 10
track rails I divided into blocks by insulated
joints 2, blocks C and D, and the adjacent ends
of blocks B and E having been shown. These
blocks may be provided with block signals or
these signals may be omitted and reliance placed 15
on cab signals. Semaphore signals S are shown
conventionally without attempting to illustrate
their control circuits which may be of any well
known type or form.
Suitable track relays T are connected across 20
the track rails at the entrance end of each block,
these relays being normally energized by track
batteries 4 connected across the rails at the exit
end of each block. Train control current is sup
plied to the rails of each block by transformers 25
5, the secondaries of which are connected in
series with the track batteries '4 and their usual
limiting resistances 6. The primary of trans
former '5 of each block is connected to a source
of current of either 140 or 90 cycle frequency 30
through vfront and back contact '1 respectively of
the track relay T of the block next in advance.
Therefore, it will be noted that current of 90
cycle frequency will be connected across the rails
at the exit end of the block next in the rear of 35
an occupied block through back contact ‘I of‘ the
track relay of the occupied block, and current of
140 cycle frequency will be connected across the
rails of the second block in the rear of the occu
pied block through front contact 7 of the track 40
relay of the block next in advance, and likewise
for all blocks to the rear.
The direction of cur
rent ?ow in each of the track circuits has been
indicated by the arrows a and a1 and is in oppo
site directions in the two rails. It is obvious that 415
any vehicle will always so shunt the track cir
cuit that no train control current will be present
in operating intensities behind, or in the rear of,
a vehicle.
A locomotive or vehicle equipped with train
control apparatus is shown conventionally in the
drawing as comprising a pair of wheels and axle
8, which represent the ?rst or ‘leading pair of
trucks of the vehicle. Carried ahead of the
wheels and in inductive relation to the rails, are 55
2,131,752
2
receivers R and R1 of any usual construction.
The voltages induced in the receivers R and R1
by the flow of train control current in the track
rails, produce currents that are passed through
band pass ?lters BPF and BPF1, of any usual
construction, to the in-put side of suitable ampli
flers A and A1 of the vacuum tube or other type.
These ampli?ers are constructed in conformity
with recognized principles to amplify the cur
10 rents induced in receivers R and R1 by the train
control currents in the track rails. The band
pass ?lters are designed to greatly attenuate any
circulating stray currents of frequencies below
90 cycles and above 140 cycles. Each receiver
has its own ?lter and amplifying circuit and its
own out-put circuit connected to a poly-phase
primary relay PR.
The relay PR is of the induction motor type,
but is of special construction and is provided
20 with three sets of windings, one set of windings
9 corresponding to the local winding of a poly
phase relay and energized through a circuit
which includes receiver R1, ?lter BPFl and ampli—
?er A1. Windings Ill and H are both connected
to an out-put transformer l2, of ampli?er A,
and are so tuned respectively, to 90 and 140 fre
quencies that but one or the other winging re
ceives current of operating intensity when cur
rent of one frequency is present in the rails. In
30 other words, and as shown in the accompanying
drawing, winding II is tuned so that it is much
more strongly energized than is winding ID, by
current of 140 cycle frequency, and winding I0
is tuned so that it is much more strongly ener
gized than is winding H, by 90 cycle current.
Thus in a block which is clear, or under high
speed running conditions, 140 cycle current is
applied to the relay PR, and the energy in coils
9 and H produces a torque which operates the
40 rotor of relay PR in a clockwise direction and
closes contacts l3 and M to the left. In a like
manner, when current of 90 cycle frequency,
which corresponds to a caution condition, is
present in the rails, current is applied to the
relay PR and the energy in coils 9 and Ill pro
duces a torque which operates the relay in a
counterclockwise direction and closes contacts [3
and M to the right.
In order to produce operating torque in relay
PR it is necessary that the time phase of the
existing currents in windings 9 and ill, or 9 and
It of the relay should be displaced with respect
to one another and to be in quadrature or as close
thereto as practical. A sufficient angular dis
placement of these ?eld currents is produced by
the adjustment of the separate ampli?ers A
and A1.
Fig. 2 shows the position contacts l3 and M
will assume when relay PR is deenergized. Re
ferring speci?cally to contact l3 it is obvious
that, with contact 13 biased to the position shown
coils l0 and H are both connected to a second
ary coil of transformer l2 but the direction of
rotation of relay PR will be determined only by
65 the coil tuned to receive the particular frequency
applied.
-
With contact 13 positioned as shown in Fig. 2,
a movement of the contact ?nger through an
arc of approximately 10° either to the right or
left is sufficient to break the right and left-hand
contacts respectively. A movement of contact
?nger l4 through an arc of approximately 45°
is necessary to close either its right or left-hand
contacts.
'
Fig. 3 shows theposition of contacts l3 and
l4 after relay PR is moved to its right-hand po
sition the result of a current of 90 cycle fre
quency being applied to the coils of the relay.
The relay PR may be employed to control any
suitable or desired form of automatic train con
trol indicating apparatus, which is controlled by
three in?uences or controls corresponding to said
relay being deenergized or energized to a clock
wise or counterclockwise position. One suitable
form of such application is shown in the draw ll)
ing, it being understood that this application
could be ampli?ed so as to include acknowledg
ing contactors and audible indications, etc, if
desired, without departing from the scope of the
invention, such, for example, as shown in Patent
No. 1,703,831, issued February 26, 1929, to W. H.
Reichard.
Assuming block E to be occupied, as shown, by
a vehicle V, when vehicle 8 is in a clear or green
block, as C, or B, as shown, alternating current p.
of I40 cycle frequency is applied to the rails
through front contact ‘I of a track relay T and
transformer 5. The currents induced in receivers
R and R1 are applied to relay PR to cause relay
PR to operate in a clockwise'direction and close
contacts l3 and M to the left. This energizes
the green indication G in the cab, through a
circuit traced from positive battery, contact Ill
in its left-hand position, green light G, to nega
tive battery.
If vehicle 8 enters track section D, 90 cycle
current, supplied to the rails through a trans
former 5 and back contact 1 of a track relay
T will cause relay PR to operate in a counter
clockwise direction and close contacts l3 and I4 '
to the right. The green indication G will be
extinguished and the yellow indication Y will
then be displayed in the cab through a circuit
which may be traced from positive battery, con
tact M to the right, the yellow indication light 40
Y, to negative battery.
If vehicle 8 moves into the occupied track
section E, relay PR will assume its deenergized
position as no appreciable energy is present in
the rail to the rear of V.
Contacts 13 and I4 .
will then assume their energized neutral biased
position and the red indication R will be displayed
in the cab through a circuit obvious from the
drawing.
1
One of the important features of this inven
tion is the protection afforded against false op
eration of relay PR by stray currents in the rails
of a frequency the same as, or close to, the regular
train control current. Such stray currents may
be falsely applied from a transmission line due
to crosses, grounds and the like, or may come
from some foreign source, of a frequency so
like the train control frequencies that the band
pass ?lters and the ampli?ers are not sufficient
to avoid operation of relay PR for large values of
stray current.
Such stray currents ordinarily
?ow in one rail alone or in both rails equally or
unequally but in the same direction for any given
instant.
The application of the ampli?ers A and A1 iii]
in connection with theoperation of relay PR can
guarantee operation only from currents which
are derived from an inter-rail potential, and
when the current flows down one rail to the
shunting axles of the vehicle, and back to the
source over the other rail. This is the case for
the reason that the coils are so arranged that
the instantaneous polarities of the currents in
these coils are such that eifective operating
torque is available in relay PR only'when the
2,131,752
currents in the track circuit ?ow in opposite
directionsri. e.,.in a loop circuit.
‘
If a condition be assumed in which the ve
hicle carrying train control equipment is in a
danger or .red block, and a current of train con
trol frequency is ?owing in one rail only, it is
evident thatrelay PR will not operate as only one
of its coils ‘is energized.
If, however, under the same conditions, cur
10 rents of operating frequency were present in
both rails and in the same direction, (i. e. simplex
current in the rails) the instantaneous relative
polarity of one of the receivers is reversed, with
respect to ‘the other. Ordinarily this would pro
15 duce an operating reverse torque in the out-put
circuit, and in the ordinary polyphase induction
motor-type relay reverse operation would take
place. In order to prevent such operation it will
be noted that the circuit to winding II which
20 normally produced clockwise torque, (i. e., with
loop current in the rails) is'broken through con
tact 13 of relay PR, which opens when the relay
moves in a counterclockwise direction.
Also the
circuit for winding 10, which produces counter
25 clockwise torque with loop current in the rails,
is broken when the relay is moved in a clock
wise direction. Therefore, it is clear, that if the
relay should tend to operate, due to stray circu
lating currents which ?ow in the same direction
30 in both rails, the ‘response of the relay to such
a condition will be in a direction to interrupt or
disconnect the operating ?eld which produced
such an initial movement.
If a condition be assumed in which vehicle 8
35 is in a yellow or caution block and a stray cur
rent of 140 cycle frequency corresponding to a
clear block, is present in the same direction in
both rails, the stray, current will have no effect
on relay PR as the circuit to coil II is opened
as indicated by the position of contact 13 in
Fig. 3. The presence of astray current of 90
cycle frequency will not effect the operation of
relay PR when the vehicle carrying train control
apparatus is in a green block ascontact I3, as
45 shown in Fig. 1, will open the circuit to coil II].
If vehicle '8 enters either a green or yellow
block in which the stray current in both rails
is of the same frequency as the train control
frequencies, relay PR in each case will have a
50 tendency to operate in a ‘reverse direction. How
ever, the circuit that supplies the energy for this
reverse operation will be interrupted as hereto
fore described by the operation of contact l3.
As a result, if, for example, when vehicle 8 is
65 in a green block and a stray current of 140
cycle frequency appears in both rails, contact
l3 of relay PR will move from its position, as
shown in Fig. 1, to a position slightly to the
right of that shown in Fig. 2, at which point the
60 left-hand contact I3 will be open. The relay
will then operate to intermittently close and
open contact l3 but the signal control contact
I4 will not move through a suf?cient arc from
its position shown in Fig. '3, to close its right
65 hand contact. Thus, in the circumstances as
sumed, a ?ashing redindication will be displayed
in the vehicle after the green indication has
been extinguished.
Likewise, if vehicle 8 is in
a cautionor yellow block and a stray current of
70 90 cycle frequency appears in both rails, relay
PR will operate in a manner similar to that de
scribed above, i. e., in a manner that will result
inv a ?ashing red indication being displayed in
the car after the yellow indication has been
extinguished.
3
The above rather speci?c description of one
form of system embodying the present invention,
has been given solely byway of illustration, and
is not intended, in any manner whatsoever, in a
limiting sense. Obviously, the invention can as
sume many different physical forms, and is sus
ceptible of numerousmodi?cations, and all such
forms and modi?cations are desired to be in
cluded by this invention, as come within the
scope of the appended claims.
10
Having described our invention, we claim:—
1. In a train control system, in combination,
trackway apparatus for placing current of two
different frequencies on the rails in a loop cir
cuit, in accordance with tra?ic conditions ahead, 15
car-carried apparatus, including two receivers
energized by the track rail currents of either
frequency, a three-position relay of the induction
motor type having a local winding and a normal
and a reverse winding, a circuit including the 20
local winding and one receiver, and a circuit con
necting the other two windings to the other re
ceiver, and means tuning the normal winding ,
for one of the frequencies of rail current, and
the reverse winding for the other frequency of 25
rail current whereby the relay is energized to one
or the other of its extreme positions in accord
ance with the frequency of rail current in the
rails, means biasing the relay to a central posi
tion, and three condition indicating means dis
tinctively controlled by the relay.
2. In a train control system, in combination,
trackway apparatus for placing current of either
of two different frequencies on the rails in a loop
circuit, in accordance with traffic conditions
ahead, car-carried apparatus, including two re
ceivers energized by the track rail currents of
either frequency, a three-position relay of the
induction motor type having a local winding and
a normal and a reverse winding, a circuit includ~ 40
ing the local winding and one receiver, and a
circuit connecting the other two windings to the
other receiver, and means tuning the normal
winding for one of the frequencies of rail cur
rent, and the reverse winding for the other fre 45
quency of rail current whereby the relay is enern
gized to one or the other of its extreme positions
in accordance with the frequency of rail current
in the rails, means biasing the relay to a central
position, and three condition indicating means
distinctively controlled by the relay contact 50
control.
3. In a train control system of the continuous
inductive type, car-carried apparatus including
a relay having a local winding, a normal winding, 65
and a reverse winding, means responsive to rail
current for applying current of one character, or
another character to the windings of the relay,
means permitting the local winding and one only
of the other windings to be energized at any one
time dependent upon the character of the cur
rent applied; the relay being operated to its nor
mal, or reverse, position upon its normal, or re
verse winding being thus energized.
4. In a train control system of the continuous
inductive type, car-carried apparatus including
a relay having a local winding, a normal winding,
and a reverse winding, means responsive to rail
current for applying current of two different fre
quencies to the windings of the relay, and the 70
normal and reverse windings being tuned, respec
tively, to one, and the other, of such different
frequencies, the relay being operated to its nor
mal, or reverse position upon its normal or re
verse winding being thus energized.
75
4
2,131,752
5. In a train control system of the continuous
inductive type, car-carried apparatus including a
relay having a local winding, a normal winding,
and a reverse winding, means responsive to rail
current for applying current of one character, or
another character to the winding of the relay,
means permitting the local winding and one only
of the other windings to be energized at any one
time dependent upon the character of the current
10 applied; the relay being operated to its normal,
or reverse, position upon its normal, or reverse
winding being thus energized, a winding control
contact on the relay, means biasing the contact
to a central position Where it closes an energiz~
15 ing circuit for both normal and reverse windings,
said contact opening the circuit for either the
normal, or the reverse, winding upon movement
of the relay a short distance from its biased neu
tral position.
20
6. In a train control system of the continuous
inductive type, car-carried apparatus including a
relay having a local winding, a normal winding,
and a reverse winding, means responsive to rail
current for applying current of one character, or
25 another character to the winding of the relay,
means permitting the local winding and one only
of the other windings to be energized at any one
time dependent upon the character of the cur
rent applied; the relay being operated to its nor
30 mal, or reverse, position upon its normal, or re
verse winding being thus energized, a winding
control contact on the relay, means biasing the
contact to a central position where it closes an
energizing circuit for both normal and reverse
35 windings, said contact opening the circuit for
either the normal, or the reverse, winding upon
movement of the relay a short distance from its
biased neutral position, the currents being of dif
ferent frequencies, and the normal and reverse
trackway apparatus for placing any one of a plu
rality of currents, of frequency determined in ac
cordance with traffic conditions ahead, on the
rails in a loop circuit, whereby the current in the
rails, at any given instant flows in opposite di UK
rections in the two rails, separate car-carried re
ceiving means with one over each rail for receiv
ing the energy of said rail currents of different
frequencies, decoding means on the car including
a primary translating means connected to one 10
of the receiving means and a plurality of other
translating means connected to the other receiv
ing means and each arranged in quadrature to
the said primary translating means, whereby to
be distinctively responsive to energy of each of 15
said currents of different frequencies, and to the
phase relation of the two currents in the said sep
arate receiving means to assume distinctive posi
tions, a plurality of indicators of varying restric
tivenesses controlled by the decoding means in
its distinctive positions to thereby set up indica
tions varying in restrictiveness, a most restrictive
indicator, means biasing the decoding means to
a position to control the most restrictive indicator
to give a most restrictive indication, control con
tacts for said plurality of. other translating means,
said decoding means responding to rail current
flowing through the rails in the same direction
at any given instant, or in one rail only, and of
any frequency, to move said control contacts so
as to cause the display of the most restrictive
indication.
9. In a train control system, in combination,
trackway apparatus for placing either one of two
currents, of one or the other of two different fre 35
quencies as determined by traffic conditions
ahead, on the rails in a loop circuit, whereby the
current in the rails, at any given instant flows
in opposite directions in the two rails, separate
40 windings being tuned, respectively, to one, and
car-carried receiving means with one over each
ratus with means for placing one of two fre
45 quencies on the track rails in a loop circuit, in
accordance with traffic conditions ahead, car
nected to one of the receiving means and a plu
the other, of such different frequencies.
7. In a train control system of the continuous
inductive type, in combination, trackway appa
carried receiving apparatus, including two re
ceivers energized by track rail currents of either
frequency, a three-position relay of the inductive
50 vmotor type having a local winding and a normal
and a reverse Winding, a circuit including the
local winding and one receiver, and a circuit con~
necting the other two windings to the other re
ceiver by means of a winding control contact,
55 means tuning the normal Winding for one fre—
quency of rail current, and the reverse winding
rail for receiving the energy of said rail currents
of diiferent frequencies, decoding means on the
car including a primary translating means con
rality of other translating means connected to
the other receiving means and each arranged in
quadrature to the said primary translating means,
whereby to be distinctively responsive to energy
of each of said currents of different frequencies,
and to the phase relation of the two currents in 50
the said separate receiving means to assume dis
tinctive positions, a plurality of indicators for
indicating clear, caution and danger and con
trolled by the decoding means in its distinctive
positions to thereby set up corresponding indi 55
cations, means biasing the decoding means to a
for the other frequency of rail current, the relay
position to control the danger indicator to give
being energized to one on the other of its extreme
a danger indication, control contacts for said
plurality of other translating means for setting
positions in accordance with the frequency of the
60 loop circuit current in the track rails, and means
biasing the relay to neutral position with no loop
current in the rails, to display the most restrictive
indication, and means whereby said winding con
trol contact operates to break the circuit to either
the normal or the reverse winding when the relay
responds to a simplex rail current of either said
one, or said other, frequency respectively, to dis
play the most restrictive indication.
8. In a train control system, in combination,
up clear and caution indications in response, re
spectively, to energy of one of said frequencies,
and to energy of the other of said frequencies,
said decoding means responding to rail current
flowing through the rails in the same direction
at any given instant, or in one rail only, to cause
the display of the danger indication.
WADE H. REICHARD.
CHARLES S. BUSHNELL.
60
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