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Патент USA US2131781

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Oct. 4, 1938.
A. LYSHOLM
2,131,781
GAS TURBINE SYSTEM OF THE CONTINUOUS COMBUSTION TYPE
Filed Jan. 19, 1955
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Patented Oct. 4, 1938
2,131,781
UNITED STATES ‘PATENT OFFICE
2,131,781
GAS TURBINE SYSTEM OF THE CONTINUOUS
COMBUSTION TYPE
-
-
All’ Lysholm, Stockholm, Sweden, assignor to
Aktiebolaget
Milo, Stockholm, Sweden, a cor
poration of Sweden
Application January 19, 1935, Serial No. 2,457
In Germany January 20, 1934
10. Claims. (CI. 60-41)
The present invention relates to gas turbine
ing shafts l4 and 16 having the usual turbine ro
systems of the continuous combustion type as dis
tinguished from the intermittent combustion or tors associated therewith, and on the extensions
explosion type and has particular reference to of the turbine shafts are mounted respectively the
systems of this character in which motive fluid is rotors laand 20 of the two sections 22 and 24
produced by internal combustion of fuel with a of arotary or centrifugal ‘compressor indicated
generally at 26. Other forms of compressor may
gaseous combustion supporting medium com
be employed. The sections of the compressor are
pressed in one or more compressors which are in
turn driven by one or more turbines utilizing the serially connected by means, of a suitable connec
tion 28. The shaft 30 of the axial ?ow turbine
10 products of such combustion as motive ?uid.
I2 is independent of the turbine shafts l4 and I6
The general object of the invention is to pro
vide a system of the above character including and drives by means of a suitable toothed gearing 10 v
axial flow gas turbines and double rotation radial 32 the shaft 34 of a propeller 36 constituting the
flow gas turbines, and to arrange the said turbine driven part of the gas turbine plant. Air is
drawn into the low pressure compressor section
15 types with respect to the compressors, driven en
22 through the inlet 38 and. is discharged through 15
gines and the ?ow of fuel and combustion sup
conduit 28 to the high pressure compressor sec
porting medium in such a manner that the differ
tion 24. The ?nally compressed air is delivered
ent parts of the gas turb‘ne system may be op
erated under their most advantageous conditions. from the outlet 40 of the compressor to a conduit
no
The invention is applicable to many different 42 which leads to the inlet of a combustion cham~
speci?c arrangements of gas turbine systems, and ber generally indicated at 44. Fuel is admitted
for purposes of illustration I have shown in the to chamber 44 through pipe 46 under the con
accompanying drawing two embodiments of trol of suitable valve means indicated at 48. The
apparatus for carrying the invention into effect. amount of fuel admitted to the combustion cham
ber may be regulated in any suitable‘manner to
(,5 In the systems illustrated the combustion sup
porting medium employed is air, in which liquid obtain the desired temperature of the motive ?uid 25
fuel such as fuel oil is burned to produce motive discharged through conduit 52 to turbine
?uid. For convenience I will refer, but without the present instance, the valve 48 is controlled by
limitation, to the combustion supporting medium temperature responsive means consisting of a
no as air, it being understood that other media hav
ing equivalent functions maybe employed instead.
Also the fuel may be a gaseous medium such as
blast furnace gas, suitably compressed.
In the drawing forming a part of this speci?ca
tion:
Fig. 1 is a more or less diagrammatic illustra
tion of a gas turbine system embodying the
invention,
‘
Fig. 1a is a portion of the apparatus shown in
40 Fig. 1, drawn to a larger scale, and
Fig. 2 is a view similar to Fig. 1 and showing
a different embodiment of the invention.
56 connecting the bellows with the valve member
58 of valve 48.
As illustrated in the drawing '
valve 48 is arranged to, throttle the amount of 35
fuel delivered to the combustion chamber upon
rise of the temperature of the motive ?uid pass
ing through conduit 52 and admitted to turbine
10 and to increase the supply of fuel upon drop
. Due to this control the tempera- 40
ture of the motive ?uid passing through conduit
Referring to Fig. 1, the system shown in this 52 may be kept constant at any desired value.
As will be seen from the drawing, the combus
?gure, comprises a double rotation radial flow,
tion chamber 44 is divided into two compartments
45 turbine indicated at H], which turbine is prefer
ably of the Ljungstrom type with reaction blad- - 60 and 62, the inner compartment 60 serving as 45
I ing and full admission of motive ?uid to the combustion chamber proper, whereas the outer
blade system. The gas turbine system further compartment 62 together with the annular space
comprises an axial flow turbine 12 which is pref
50 erably provided with a reaction blade system and
which may be of the type described in my copend
ing application Serial No. ‘710,465 ?led February
9, 1934 (matured into Patent No. 2,080,425, grant
ed May 18, 1937).
55 The turbine I0 comprises two oppositely rotat
between the conduit 52 and the conduit 64 forms
a passage through which compressed air may be
conducted to the turbine 19 without having been 5
heated in the combustion chamber 60. Thus, the
motive fluid supplied to the turbine is divided into
two separate streams, one'of which is at high tem
perature and the other of which is at a relatively
lower temperature, the latter stream being em- 55
2
2,181,781
ployed to protect certain of the turbine parts
against the temperature of the high temperature
stream of motive ?uid. The two streams of mo
tive ?uid are maintained in separated state to a
point adjacent to the inlet of the turbine blading
and are then mixed and delivered to the blade
system of the turbine for expansion therein. The
exhiéisist motive ?uid is passed through the out
let
10
.
The axial ?ow turbine I2 receives motive ?uidi
from chamber 60 through conduit 68 which is
surrounded by a conduit 10 connected to conduit
42 by means of a by-pass pipe 12 provided with a
suitable valve means 14. Air is conducted
15 through pipe ‘I2 into the space formed between
the conduits 68 and ‘I0, and the motive ?uid
for turbine I2 is thus divided into two streams of
different temperatures in the same manner and
for the same purpose as described with regard
to the motive ?uid admitting means for turbine
I0. Through apertures ‘I6 in the conduit 68 part
of the air admitted by means of. pipe 12 enters
the inner conduit 68, thereby cooling the motive
?uid in the said conduit so that‘the axial ?ow
turbine I2 will receive the motive ?uid at a lower
temperature than the double rotation radial ?ow
turbine I0. After having been expanded the
motive ?uid is exhausted through the outlet ‘I8.
In order to keep the temperature of the motive
30 ?uid admitted to turbine I2 at any desired con
stant value, the amount of air passed through
pipe ‘I2 is regulated by temperature responsive
means consisting of a thermostat 80 located in
conduit 68, a bellows 82 and a rod 84 connecting
85 the bellows with the valve member 86 of valve
14. Upon rise of the thermostat temperature
valve ‘I4 will increase the cross-section of passage,
and consequently a greater amount of air will
pass through pipe 12 and enter the conduit 68,
thereby reducing the thermostat temperature to
~
in the drawing are arranged and designed under
observance of the above mentioned considera
tions, it being understood that the temperatures
are named by way of example only. The com
pressor turbine thus operates under the most ad- 5
vantageous conditions securing a high thermo
dynamic e?iciency, while the gearing provided
between. the useful power turbine and the driven
part becomes very simple. The fact that the two
compressor sections are drivn by the double rota 10
tion turbine makes it possible to operate the com
pressor sections with different speeds relatively
to each other as the existing working conditions
may require.
_
While in the embodiment illustrated in Fig. 1 a 15
reduction of the temperature of the motive ?uid
admitted to the axial ?ow turbine is accomplished
by mixing the motive ?uid with compressed air
of a relatively low temperature, Fig. 2 shows an
embodiment in which this purpose is achieved by
the provision of two combustion chambers in
the manner to be described in the following.
The general arrangement is the same in this
?gure as in Fig. l,- and like parts are designated
with the same reference numerals.
In the system shown in Fig. 2 the compressed
air delivered by the compressor 26 is led through
conduit 88 into a ?rst- combustion chamber 90
into which fuel is admitted through pipe 46 under
the control of valve means 92. Valve 92 is con
trolled by means of a thermostat 94 located in
conduit 98 through which motive ?uid is admitted
to the axial ?ow turbine I2. The thermostat
acts upon a bellows" members 96 operative upon
change of thermostat temperature to admit more
fuel to thevcombustion chamber if the tempera
ture in conduit 98 tends to fall and to throttle
the fuel supply upon rise ofv temperature. Part
of the combustion gases containing air in excess
passes through conduit I00 into a second com
the desired normal value. Should, on the other bustion chamber I02 where further heating by
hand, the thermostat temperature fall below the combustion is effected by means of fuel admitted
normal value, the valve 14 will be caused to close through pipe I04 and controlled by valve I06 in
the passage of air to such an extent that the response to variations of temperature of the mo
tive ?uid passing through conduit I08 to the tur~ 45
45 desired temperature of the mixture in the con
bine I0. Regulation of valve I06 is effected by
duit 68 will be restored.
As is known to those skilled in the art, double - means of thermostat IIO located in pipe I08,
rotation radial ?ow turbines may be driven with bellows H2 and connecting rod H4 in the same
motive ?uid of very high temperatures at very manner as described with reference to the regu
lation of valve 92, that is, the temperature of the 50'
50 high ef?cienoies due to the fact that the diam
eters of the ?rst stages, where the temperature motive ?uid as admitted to the turbines is auto
matically maintained at a constant or substan
‘ is highest, are very small and that the deforma
tions due to the creeping effect are practically tially ‘constant value.
From the foregoing description it will be under
of. no consequence in turbines of this type. On
stood that due to the additional heating of the 55
55 the other hand, double rotation radial ?ow tur
bines cannot be built for considerably great motive ?uid in the second combustion chamber
I02 the temperature of the motor ?uid as sup
quantities of motive ?uid and they further re
plied to the double rotation radial ?ow turbine
quire complicated and expensive gearing mecha
nism if the speed is to be reduced, as, for instance, will be higher than that of the motive ?uid ad
is the case in marine engines. As will be seen mitted to the axial ?ow turbine. In accordance
from the drawing, the compressor turbine is of with the previously mentioned example the mo
the double rotation radial ?ow type, while the tive ?uid may be heated in the first combustion
useful power turbine is of the axial ?ow type and chamber 90 to a temperature of about 870° F.
receives its motive ?uid at a lower temperature and in the second combustion chamber I02 to a
than the compressor turbine. A gas turbine temperature of about 1200° F.
Other controlling means than those described
power plant having a motive ?uid inlet tempera
above may be employed. While for the sake of
ture of about 1070° F. can be constructed to oper
ate with a thermal efficiency of above 30 per cent. simplicity relatively simple systems have been
However, axial ?ow turbines cannot-be driven at illustrated, it is to be understood that the. in
vention is not restricted in its scope to systems 70
70 so high a temperature. The same thermal effi
ciency may be attained, however, if the axial ?ow of‘ the speci?c kinds hereinbefore described as
turbine is driven with motive ?uid of only 870° F., illustrative embodiments, but is to be understood
and the temperature of the motive ?uid for the as including all such variations in apparatus and,
double rotation radial ?ow turbine is increased to in mode of operation as may fall within the scope '
75 1200° F. The turbine power plants illustrated , of the appended claims when theyv are construed 75
' 2,131,781
as broadly as is consistent with the state of- the
prior art.
What I claim is:
1. A gas turbine system of the continuous com
bustion type including a double rotation radial
?ow turbine, an axial ?ow turbine independent
of said radial ?ow turbine with respect to speed
of operation, power output means driven by-said
axial ?ow turbine, compressor means driven by
10 said radial ?ow turbine for compressing a gaseous
, constituent of motive ?uid to be expanded in said
turbines, means providing a combustion cham
ber, means for conducting the compressed gaseous
medium from said compressor means to said
15 combustion chamber, means for supplying fuel to
said combustion chamber, means for conducting
3
independently of each other and each operating
under the in?uence of the motive ?uid supplied
to a diiferent one of said turbines for separately
producing from the gaseous bedium compressed
by said compressor means a first motive fluid,
supply for expansion in said radial ?ow turbine
and a ‘second motive ?uid supply of lower tem
perature than said ?rst motive ?uid supply for
expansion in said axial ?ow turbine.
4. . A gas turbine system of the continuous com
10
bustion type including a double rotation radial
?ow turbine arranged to exhaust against sub
stantially atmospheric back pressure, an ,axial
?ow turbine independent of said radial ?ow tur
bine with respect to speed of operation and ar
motive ?uid from said combustion chamber to
ranged to exhaust against substantially atmos
lating mechanisms operable independently of
by said axial ?ow turbine, compressor, means
driven by said radial ?ow turbine for compressing
15
each of said turbines, and means including regu-_ , pheric back pressure, power output means driven
20 each other and each operating under the in
?uence of the motive ?uid supplied to a different
a gaseous constituent of motive ?uid to be ex 20
one of said turbines for separately producing panded in said turbines, means providing a com
from the gaseous medium compressed by said bustion chamber, means for conducting the com
compressor means a ?rst motive ?uid supply for pressed gaseous medium~ from said compressor
25 expansion in said radial ?ow turbine and a second means to said combustion chamber, means for
motive ?uid supply of lower temperature than supplying fuel to said combustion chamber, means
said ?rst motive ?uid supply for expansion in arranged to conduct motive ?uid from said com~
said axial ?ow turbine.
‘bustion chamber to each of said turbines for ex—
pansion therein from substantially the same
2. A gas turbine system of the continuous com
30 bustion type including a double rotation radial initial pressure, and means including regulating
?ow turbine‘, an axial'?ow turbine independent of
said radial ?ow turbine with respect to speed of
operation, power output means driven by said
axial ?ow turbine, compressor means driven by
35 said radial ?ow turbine for compressing a gaseous
constituent of motive ?uid to be expanded in said
turbines, means providing a combustion cham
ber,‘ means for conducting the compressed gaseous
medium from said compressor means to said com
40 bustion chamber, means for supplying fuel to said
45
combustion chamber, means arranged to conduct
motive ?uid from said combustion chamber to
each of said turbines for expansion therein from
substantially the same initial pressure, and means
including regulating mechanisms operable inde~
pendently of each other and each operating
under the in?uence of the motive ?uid supplied
to a di?erent one of said turbines for separately
producing from the gaseous medium compressed
50 by said compressor means a ?rst motive ?uid
supply for expansion in said radial ?ow turbine
and a second motive ?uid supply of lower tem
perature than said ?rst motive ?uid supply for
expansion in said axial ?ow turbine.
ca on
‘
3. A gas turbine system of the continuous‘ com-'
bustion type including a double rotation radial
?ow turbine, an axial ?ow turbine independent
‘of said radial ?ow turbine with respectv to speed
of operation, power output means driven by said
axial ?ow turbine, compressor means driven by
said radial ?ow turbine for compressing a gaseous
constituent of motive ?uid to be expanded in said
turbines, means providing a combustion chamber,
means for conducting the compressed gaseous
medium from said compressor means to said com
bustion chamber, means for supplying fuel to said
combustion chamber, means arranged to conduct
motive ?uid from said combustion chamber to
each of said turbines for expansion therein from
substantially the same initial pressure, said tur
bines being arranged to expand motive ?uid
through substantially the same pressure range
from substantially the same initial pressure to
substantially the same exhaust pressure, and
75 means including regulating mechanisms operable
mechanisms operable independently of each other 30
and each operating under the in?uence of the
motive ?uid supplied to a different one of said
turbines for separately producing from the
gaseous medium compressed by said compressor
means a first motive ?uid supply for expansion 35
in said radial flow turbine and a second motive
?uid supply of lower temperature than said ?rst
motive ?uid supply for expansion in said axial
?ow turbine.
5. A gas turbine system of the continuous com
bustion type including a double rotation radial 40
?ow turbine, an axial ?ow turbine independent
of said radial ?ow turbine with respect to speed
of operation, power output means driven by said
axial ?ow turbine, compressor means driven by
said radial ?ow turbine for compressing a gaseous 45
constituent of motive ?uid to be expanded in said
turbines, means providing a combustion chamber,
means for conducting the compressed gaseous
medium from said compressor means to said com
bustion chamber, means for supplying fuel to said 50
combustion chamber, means for conducting mo
tive ?uid from said combustion chamber to each
of said turbines, said turbines and the last men
tioned means being arranged to provide'for ?ow
of motivev?uid to said turbines and expansion
of the motive ?uid therein in parallel, and means
including regulating mechanisms operable inde
pendently of each other and each operating under
the in?uence of the motive ?uid supplied to a dif
GO
ferent one of said turbines for separately pro—
ducing from the gaseous medium compressed by
said compressor means a ?rst motive ?uid sup-,
ply for expansion in said radial ?ow turbine and
a second motive ?uid supply of lower temperature
than said ?rst motive ?uid supply for expansion
in said axial flow turbine.
’
6: A gas turbine system of the continuous com- 7
bustion type including a. double rotation radial
?ow turbine, an axial ?ow turbine independent of 70
said radial ?ow turbine with respect to speed
of operation,_ power output means driven by- said
axial ?ow turbine, compressor means driven by
said radial ?ow turbine for compressing air,
means providing a combustion chamber, means 75
2,181,781
for conducting the compressed air from said
compressor means to said combustion chamber,
means for supplying fuel to the combustion
chamber, means for conducting motive ?uid from
the combustion chamber to said radial ?ow tur
bine, means for conducting motive ?uid from the
combustion chamber to said axial ?ow turbine,
and regulating means for supplying a governed
quantity of compressed air to the motive ?uid
10 delivered from the combustion chamber to said
axial ?ow turbine.
7. A gas turbine system of the continuous type
including a double rotation radial ?ow turbine, an
axial ?ow turbine independent of said radial ?ow
15 turbine with respect to speed of operation, power
output means driven by said axial ?ow turbine,
compressor means driven by said radial ?ow tur
bine for compressing air, means providing a com
bustion chamber, means for conducting the com
pressed air from said compressor means to said
combustion chamber, means for supplying fuel to
the combustion chamber, means for conducting
motive fluidv from, the combustion chamber to
said radial ?ow turbine, means for regulating the
fuel supply in response to variations in the tem
perature of the motive ?uid as supplied to said
radial ?ow turbine, means for conducting mo
by said axial ?ow turbine, compressor means
driven by said radial ?ow turbine for compressing
air, means providing a ?rst combustion chamber,
a conduit for conducting air from said compressor
means to said combustion chamber, means for
supplying fuel to said combustion chamber, a
conduit for conducting motive ?uid from said
combustion chamber to said axial ?ow turbine,
means for regulating the fuel supply to said com
bustion chamber in response to variations in the 10
temperature of the motive ?uid as supplied to
said axial ?ow turbine, conduit means including
a second combustion chamber for conducting
motive ?uid from said ?rst combustion chamber
to said radial ?ow turbine, means for supplying 15
fuel to said second combustion chamber to in
crease the temperature of the motive ?uid sup
plied to said radial ?ow turbine as compared with
the temperature of the motive ?uid delivered by
said ?rst combustion chamber, and means for
regulating the fuel supply to said second com
bustion chamber in response to variations in the.
temperature of the motive ?uid as supplied to said
radial flow turbine, the last mentioned means
being adjusted to maintain the temperature of
the motive ?uid delivered to the radial flow tur
bine at a higher value than the temperature of
tive ?uid from the combustion chamber to said _ the motive ?uid supplied to the axial ?ow turbine.
axial ?ow turbine, means for supplying com
pressed air to the motive ?uid delivered from
the combustion chamber to said axial ?ow tur
bine, and means for regulating the compressed
air supply in response to variations in the tem
perature of the motive ?uid as supplied to said
axial ?ow turbine.
-
8. A gas turbine system of the continuous com
bustion type including a double rotation radial
?ow turbine, an axial ?ow turbine independent
of said radial ?ow turbine with respect to speed
of operation, power output means driven by said
axial ?ow turbine, compressor means driven by
said radial ?ow turbine for compressing , air,
means providing a combustion chamber, means
for conducting the compressed air from said com
pressor means to said combustion chamber, means
for supplying fuel to the combustion chamber, a
conduit for conducting motive ?uid from said
combustion chamber to said radial ?ow turbine,‘ a
second conduit for conducting motive ?uid from
said combustion chamber to said axial flow tur
bine, regulating means responsive to the tempera
ture of motive ?uid in the ?rst-mentioned con
duit for regulating the supply of fuel to the com
bustion chamber, a by-pass conduit for by
65 passing air from said compressor means to the
second-mentioned conduit, and regulating means
responsive to the temperature of motive ?uid in
the second-mentioned conduit for controlling the
?ow of air through said by-pass conduit.
9. A gas turbine , system of the continuous
combustion type including a double rotation
radial ?ow turbine, an axial flow turbine inde
pendent of said radial ?ow turbine with respect
to speed of operation, power output means driven
10. A gas turbine system of the continuous com
bustion type including a double rotation radial
flow turbine, an axial ?ow turbine independent of
said radial ?ow turbine with respect to speed of
operation, power output means driven by said
axial flow turbine, compressor means driven by
said radial ?ow turbine for compressing a111,
means providing a first combustion chamber, a
conduit for conducting air from said compressor
means to said combustion chamber, means for
supplying fuel to said combustion chamber, means
arranged to conduct motive ?uid from said com
bustion chamber to each of said turbines for ex
40
pansion therein from substantially the same
initial pressure, the last mentioned means includ
ing a second combustion chamber arranged in
the path of ?ow of motive ?uid between said ?rst 45
combustion chamber and said radial ?ow turbine
for increasing the temperature of the motive ?uid
delivered from said first combustion chamber, a
?rst regulating mechanism operating under the
in?uence of the motive ?uid as supplied to said 50
axial turbine for regulating the fuel supplied to
said ?rst combustion chamber, means for supply
ing fuel to said second combustion chamber, and
a second regulating mechanism operating under
the in?uence of the motive ?uid as supplied to 55
said radial ?ow turbine for regulating the fuel
supply to said second combustion chamber, said
second regulating mechanism being adjusted to
maintain the temperature of the motive ?uid de
livered to the radial ?ow turbine at a higher value
than the temperature of the motive ?uid supplied
to the axial ?ow turbine.
ALF LYSHOLM.
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