Патент USA US2131930код для вставки
Oct. 4, 1938. K, c. APPLEYARD ET-AL 2,131,930 APPARATUS FOR SEPARATING' MIXED MATERIALS HAVING _ DIFFERENT ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITIES Filed April 22, 1957 ‘ bit? @iw %/@ Z éérgi I 78? ’’ - 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 , A > @r mm '75 .5 a ' 2 ' 1% @méi p 4 _ 21 Y 9 .20 6 6;. ?fgi w. " 20 I 57 a/a/ / W4? kapl/oég/ijig Oct. 4, 1938. K C. APPLEYARD ET 'AL 2,131,930 Filed April 22, 1937 ’ 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 ' APPARAT US FORv SEPARATING MIXED MA TE RIA LS HAVING D IFF ERENT ELECTRICAL CONDUCTI VITIES Patented Oct. 4, 1938. ‘ v ‘a ‘ ‘3 * 'T "r ' r v ‘ I 2,131,930 ‘r ‘ ‘ ‘H v “ ‘ 5' ",ZAPPARATU‘S ‘For: SEPARATING MIXED ‘MA: TERIALS HAVING DIFFERENT ELECTRICAL . 7 v. -..CQNDUQTI"ITIES . o .< - . r , .3 "1 "i i-‘Ken'elm' Charles Appleyard, Birtley, and Stanley‘ > .; -."-Dallas Pollitt, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England,‘ ' . assignors of one-third toThe BirtleylCompany ‘ x Limited, Birtley, England j. ‘ . . I, L ‘ " ‘Application April 22, 1937, ‘Serial No. 138,454" a In Great Britain April 18, 1936 - > ‘ 4 Claims.‘ (01. 209-491)v Ui “ This invention relates "to'the separation,“into ber‘ employing‘a plate, like member and a hinged ‘classes according to their‘electrical"properties, and helical ‘spring controlled resilient mounting. of ‘mixed ‘materials, such as coal withjshale or other refuse and ,m‘ore‘particularly to automatically resetting devices" for making temporary electricalfcontact withindividual pieces 'of' the ‘material whilst the ‘latter ‘are moved ‘past the According toFigures 1- to 4' of the drawings, pieces ‘i of the material ‘to be tested are fed in single pieces at ‘spaced intervals to an electri- 5 cally conductive conveyor belt 2 upon which they are conveyed pasttwo‘ contact‘ devices 3 and 4 contact devices. ' ‘ V ' " ‘ ; l‘ H V I V ‘ Coal ‘separating machines‘utilizing such devices *10 are describedun‘ Britishfpatent speci?cation No'. 7 ‘respectively and delivered to a chute 5 and thence to a selecting device not shown; but operated in accordance ‘with the eiiect‘ upon an “electrical 10 “llv2_l’,él0il"whj_erein pieces of coal and stone are circuit associated with‘the contact‘devices 3 and fcaus‘edto pass lone cr‘more‘ sets‘ of resilient con- 4 ofjeach piece of, material as it passes them. ‘tact making ‘jjédBVlC‘ByS V_ in the‘ form of brushes, ‘combs“or'?ngersj’operating sometimes in‘jcon‘"15 junction with a conveyor belt orzthehlik'e of conductivefm'ateri’alt ‘W t‘ g ‘ , ‘ ‘ ‘ " The contact device 3 comprises a brush like member having a ‘stock portion 6 and a set of ?exible conductive Wires ‘1, and the above men- 15 ftioned electrical ‘circuit is.‘ completed when a - ‘In such cases the free ‘length of the wires constituting the brush must bewkept as small 'as piece of. material passes beneath the member _3 V and‘connects, in a more or less conductive man possible in order to reduceas‘far‘as‘possible the ner, according‘ to its U electrical resistance the .20 ‘overall size of the apparatus}, ‘ ‘Reduction, of the ‘I v . length’ ‘of "wire, projecting member 3 with the conductive belt‘2'as shown'20 in'Figurel 3. I ‘ ‘ l, . ' from the’ rigid .stock entails the‘ risk that a large The contact device '4' comprises a‘_ pair of mem ‘piece pi": ‘material passing‘ b'etween'themw may .bers similar to the'lmember 3, but arranged as fbend them 'to'such an extent as to‘ cause a perma3 “nentset in them. p “ h V ‘_ " ‘ ' ' y if Pieces ‘of material may also. strike the ‘wires vshown in. Figures 1 and 2v in‘ such a waythat the ?exible wires‘? ‘are, disposed inua vertical plane ‘25 but in a horizontal direction towards ‘one an ’close to1_‘the r‘oot‘or anchoring point and thus otheiz' jI‘hese brushes vll are hereinafter referred vbadlytdénnagethem. to as the horizontal brushes. ') p j ' “ ‘ ‘ i ,_l , ‘ v"'I‘he main‘ objectof‘ the invention isyto‘ over- 7 ' The two sets of wires ‘I approach one another ‘30 come :this disadvantage Fand other objects. and ‘ at their freeends but do not touch and the pieces 3 30 ._ advantages‘ ‘with appearinthe following descrip- of ‘materialuare conveyed ‘on ‘the belt 2 so- as ‘to tion. “The ‘invention.will'___be‘pointed out ‘in ‘the ‘bridge’ the gap 8, between them. “ accompanyingclaims' '‘ " . ’ “Each of the elements ‘L making ,up' a. Contact 'Il'heiinvention will?now, be described by way 35 of “ example, “with1 referenceoto‘ the accompanying drawingsin which:— Figure ‘conveyor V Figure ‘40 Figure " ‘ ‘ 1 is a general view in elevation of a belt and two sets of contact members. 2 is an end elevation of Figure 1. 3 is an end elevation of Figure 1 with brush 3 or 4 is connected, as shown in Figure 4,. to the common root or, stock 6 by‘. way, of a resil- 35 ient spiral part 9‘ which is protected against damage from the travelling pieces of material! by being shielded by thestock of the brush. The material is caused to pass from right to left in Figures 1 and 4. Should a piece of material be 40 the foremost set of contact members removed. Figure 4 is a plan View of the foremost con- so wide as to reach close to the stock or be travelling in such a direction as to strike against tact members in Figure l drawn to a larger scale to show the resilient springing of the ?ngers. 45 Figure 5 is a general elevational view‘similar to Figure 1 but showing a conveyor belt which is rendered conductive only from face to face by a plurality of inset conductors. the stock, then the spiral part 9 unwinds and takes the bending stress oiT the root of the ele ment 1. 45 In the form of ‘the invention shown in Figure 5 the elements of'the brushes 4 are ?exible in planes which include the vertical with the result Figures 6, 7 and 8 are a plan and sectional that the lower elements of these brushes may 7 ‘ 50 views respectively of the conveyor belt 01. Figure 5 to an enlarged scale. a Figure 9 is a modi?ed form of resilient mounting for the contact members. ‘ Figures 10 and 11 are elevational views at right ‘55 angles of another modi?ed form of contact-mem- touch the belt, and effect undesirable results if 50 the belt is completely conductive. In order to avoid these results and to allow of setting the horizontal brushes 4 close to the belt, in this form of the invention the conveyor belt 20 is made of rubber, vulcanized cloth or 55 2.: 2,131,930 > other suitably strong electrically insulating ma materials according to the electrical conductivi terial. Set into the belt are small hardened steel staples, rivets or studs of conductive ma ties of the pieces of material, a conveyor belt de or faced with non-conductive material such as directed contact member, and means for making continuous electrical contact with an area of the vice having electrically conductive elements terial 2|, each electrically insulated from the spaced therealong and extending from face to other by'the material of the belt, and-resulting faeethrough thethickness of-thebelt and upon in a series of closely spaced contacts each ‘mak which the pieces of material. are adapted to be ing an electrical circuit through the belt, and conveyed singly in series, a downwardly directed each electrically insulated from the other. ‘relatively ?xed but resilient contact member, a This construction is shown in detail in, Figures pair of laterally disposed contact members spaced apart and-‘arranged valong the conveyor in a . 10 6, 'I and 8. spaced relation. with respect to the downwardly The drum over which the belt passes'is'made rubber so as not to short-circuit all the contact points 2! of the belt as it passes over the drum; Underneath the belt 20, directly underneath the vertical brush 3, a series of brushes 22 are ?xed so as to make contact over a considerable area of the belt. These brushes are so‘ arranged that they make contact with the conductive staples 2| on the underside of the belt, suf?ciently far on either side of the vertical brush asto include the length of the largest piece of .material passing through the apparatus. _ A circuit is thus completed vertically through any piece of material via the vertical brush, the piece of material, the conductive studs and the bottom brush. By the time a point of the belt 20 reaches the horizontal brushes 4 which suc ceed the vertical one 3, it has left the'zone of '30 contact of the bottom brushes 22. It is therefore possible .to set the horizontal brushes 4 down as close to the belt 20 as is desired because the studs immediately below them are insulated from earth and contact between the horizontal brush and the belt is of no consequence. ' underside of the conveyor belt device immediately beneath said downwardly directed contact mem ber. ' 2. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein the downwardly directed and the laterally dis posed contact members each comprise a stock portion and an electrically conductive member 20 projecting beyond the-stock portion. and lying in the path of the pieces of» material, and resilient electricallyv conductive meansv connecting said conductive member and said stock portion posi tioned behind said stock portion so as to. be 25 shielded thereby from passing pieces of material. 3. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein the downwardly directed and the laterally dis posed. contact members each comprise a stock portion and an electrically conductive member 30 projecting beyond the stockportionv and lying-in the path of. the pieces of material, and resilient electrically conductive‘ means connecting said conductive member and said stock portionposi tioned behind saidstock portion 'so as to be 35 Figure 9 shows a zigzag or serpentine attach shielded thereby from passing pieces‘ of material, ment 9 which may be used‘ instead of the spiral form of resilient attachment shown in Figure 4. In the form of the invention shown in Figures 10 and 11 the contacting membercorresponding and said resilient electricallyconductive means being of convoluted form. and integral with said to 3 above comprises a single de?ectable element 1 in the form of a thin sheet of steel, aluminium or other suitable metal, hinged to the stockpart 6 on a horizontal axis l?’by pivots ll so that it can swing forward and return under the action of the tension spring I2 on the tail piece I3. The member ‘I in this case may be formed as shown in Figures 10 and 11 of a replaceable wearing part I4, a permanent part I5 and the tail piece l3. In a further modi?cation the parts ‘I in Figures 4 and 9 may be regarded as end views of a single sheet of conductive material provided with re silient means shown in Figures 4 and 9. We claim:— 1. In apparatus for the separation of ‘mixed projecting member. ' 4. Apparatus as claimed in claim. 1 wherein‘ 40 the downwardly-directed and the laterallydis posed contact members each comprise a stock portion and an electrically conductive member projecting beyond the stock portion .and lying in the path of the pieces of material, resilient electrically conductive means connecting said conductive member and .said stock portion posi tioned behind said stock portion so as to be shielded thereby from passing pieces of material, said resilient electrically conductive means com prising a convoluted wire integral with the pro jecting member, .and ,the convolutions of said wire being arranged in a single plane. KENELIVI CHARLES APPLEYARD. STANLEY DALLAS POLLITT.