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Патент USA US2131930

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Oct. 4, 1938.
K, c. APPLEYARD ET-AL
2,131,930
APPARATUS FOR SEPARATING' MIXED MATERIALS HAVING
_
DIFFERENT ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITIES
Filed April 22, 1957
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Oct. 4, 1938.
K C. APPLEYARD ET
'AL
2,131,930
Filed April 22, 1937
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2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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APPARAT US FORv
SEPARATING MIXED MA TE RIA LS HAVING
D IFF ERENT ELECTRICAL CONDUCTI VITIES
Patented Oct. 4, 1938. ‘
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“ ‘ 5' ",ZAPPARATU‘S ‘For: SEPARATING MIXED ‘MA:
TERIALS HAVING DIFFERENT ELECTRICAL .
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"1 "i i-‘Ken'elm' Charles Appleyard, Birtley, and Stanley‘
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.; -."-Dallas Pollitt, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England,‘ '
. assignors of one-third toThe BirtleylCompany ‘ x
Limited, Birtley, England
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" ‘Application April 22, 1937, ‘Serial No. 138,454"
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In Great Britain April 18, 1936
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4 Claims.‘ (01. 209-491)v
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“ This invention relates "to'the separation,“into
ber‘ employing‘a plate, like member and a hinged
‘classes according to their‘electrical"properties,
and helical ‘spring controlled resilient mounting.
of ‘mixed ‘materials, such as coal withjshale or
other refuse and ,m‘ore‘particularly to automatically resetting devices" for making temporary
electricalfcontact withindividual pieces 'of' the
‘material whilst the ‘latter ‘are moved ‘past the
According toFigures 1- to 4' of the drawings,
pieces ‘i of the material ‘to be tested are fed in
single pieces at ‘spaced intervals to an electri- 5
cally conductive conveyor belt 2 upon which they
are conveyed pasttwo‘ contact‘ devices 3 and 4
contact devices. '
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‘ Coal ‘separating machines‘utilizing such devices
*10 are describedun‘ Britishfpatent speci?cation No'.
7 ‘respectively and delivered to a chute 5 and thence
to a selecting device not shown; but operated in
accordance ‘with the eiiect‘ upon an “electrical 10
“llv2_l’,él0il"whj_erein pieces of coal and stone are
circuit associated with‘the contact‘devices 3 and
fcaus‘edto pass lone cr‘more‘ sets‘ of resilient con-
4 ofjeach piece of, material as it passes them.
‘tact making ‘jjédBVlC‘ByS V_ in the‘ form of brushes,
‘combs“or'?ngersj’operating sometimes in‘jcon‘"15 junction with a conveyor belt orzthehlik'e of conductivefm'ateri’alt
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" The contact device 3 comprises a brush like
member having a ‘stock portion 6 and a set of
?exible conductive Wires ‘1, and the above men- 15
ftioned
electrical ‘circuit is.‘ completed
when
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- ‘In such cases the free ‘length of the wires constituting the brush must bewkept as small 'as
piece of. material passes beneath the member _3 V
and‘connects, in a more or less conductive man
possible in order to reduceas‘far‘as‘possible the
ner, according‘ to its U electrical resistance the
.20 ‘overall size of the apparatus},
‘ ‘Reduction, of
the
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length’ ‘of "wire, projecting
member 3 with the conductive belt‘2'as shown'20
in'Figurel 3.
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from the’ rigid .stock entails the‘ risk that a large
The contact device '4' comprises a‘_ pair of mem
‘piece pi": ‘material passing‘ b'etween'themw may .bers similar to the'lmember 3, but arranged as
fbend them 'to'such an extent as to‘ cause a perma3 “nentset in them.
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y if Pieces ‘of material may also. strike the ‘wires
vshown in. Figures 1 and 2v in‘ such a waythat the
?exible wires‘? ‘are, disposed inua vertical plane ‘25
but in a horizontal direction towards ‘one an
’close to1_‘the r‘oot‘or anchoring point and thus
otheiz' jI‘hese brushes vll are hereinafter referred
vbadlytdénnagethem.
to as the horizontal brushes.
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v"'I‘he main‘ objectof‘ the invention isyto‘ over- 7 ' The two sets of wires ‘I approach one another
‘30 come :this disadvantage Fand other objects. and ‘ at their freeends but do not touch and the pieces 3 30
._ advantages‘ ‘with appearinthe following descrip- of ‘materialuare conveyed ‘on ‘the belt 2 so- as ‘to
tion. “The ‘invention.will'___be‘pointed out ‘in ‘the ‘bridge’ the gap 8, between them. “
accompanyingclaims'
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“Each of the elements ‘L making ,up' a. Contact
'Il'heiinvention will?now, be described by way
35 of “ example, “with1 referenceoto‘ the accompanying
drawingsin which:—
Figure
‘conveyor
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Figure
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Figure
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1 is a general view in elevation of a
belt and two sets of contact members.
2 is an end elevation of Figure 1.
3 is an end elevation of Figure 1 with
brush 3 or 4 is connected, as shown in Figure 4,.
to the common root or, stock 6 by‘. way, of a resil- 35
ient spiral part 9‘ which is protected against
damage from the travelling pieces of material!
by being shielded by thestock of the brush. The
material is caused to pass from right to left in
Figures 1 and 4. Should a piece of material be 40
the foremost set of contact members removed.
Figure 4 is a plan View of the foremost con-
so wide as to reach close to the stock or be
travelling in such a direction as to strike against
tact members in Figure l drawn to a larger scale
to show the resilient springing of the ?ngers.
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Figure 5 is a general elevational view‘similar
to Figure 1 but showing a conveyor belt which is
rendered conductive only from face to face by
a plurality of inset conductors.
the stock, then the spiral part 9 unwinds and
takes the bending stress oiT the root of the ele
ment 1.
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In the form of ‘the invention shown in Figure
5 the elements of'the brushes 4 are ?exible in
planes which include the vertical with the result
Figures 6, 7 and 8 are a plan and sectional
that the lower elements of these brushes may 7 ‘
50 views respectively of the conveyor belt 01. Figure 5 to an enlarged scale.
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Figure 9 is a modi?ed form of resilient mounting for the contact members.
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Figures 10 and 11 are elevational views at right
‘55 angles of another modi?ed form of contact-mem-
touch the belt, and effect undesirable results if 50
the belt is completely conductive.
In order to avoid these results and to allow
of setting the horizontal brushes 4 close to the
belt, in this form of the invention the conveyor
belt 20 is made of rubber, vulcanized cloth or 55
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2,131,930
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other suitably strong electrically insulating ma
materials according to the electrical conductivi
terial. Set into the belt are small hardened
steel staples, rivets or studs of conductive ma
ties of the pieces of material, a conveyor belt de
or faced with non-conductive material such as
directed contact member, and means for making
continuous electrical contact with an area of the
vice having electrically conductive elements
terial 2|, each electrically insulated from the spaced therealong and extending from face to
other by'the material of the belt, and-resulting faeethrough thethickness of-thebelt and upon
in a series of closely spaced contacts each ‘mak
which the pieces of material. are adapted to be
ing an electrical circuit through the belt, and conveyed singly in series, a downwardly directed
each electrically insulated from the other. ‘relatively ?xed but resilient contact member, a
This construction is shown in detail in, Figures pair of laterally disposed contact members spaced
apart and-‘arranged valong the conveyor in a
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10 6, 'I and 8.
spaced relation. with respect to the downwardly
The drum over which the belt passes'is'made
rubber so as not to short-circuit all the contact
points 2! of the belt as it passes over the drum;
Underneath the belt 20, directly underneath the
vertical brush 3, a series of brushes 22 are ?xed
so as to make contact over a considerable area
of the belt.
These brushes are so‘ arranged that
they make contact with the conductive staples 2|
on the underside of the belt, suf?ciently far on
either side of the vertical brush asto include the
length of the largest piece of .material passing
through the apparatus.
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A circuit is thus completed vertically through
any piece of material via the vertical brush, the
piece of material, the conductive studs and the
bottom brush. By the time a point of the belt
20 reaches the horizontal brushes 4 which suc
ceed the vertical one 3, it has left the'zone of
'30 contact of the bottom brushes 22. It is therefore
possible .to set the horizontal brushes 4 down as
close to the belt 20 as is desired because the studs
immediately below them are insulated from earth
and contact between the horizontal brush and
the belt is of no consequence.
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underside of the conveyor belt device immediately
beneath said downwardly directed contact mem
ber.
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2. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein
the downwardly directed and the laterally dis
posed contact members each comprise a stock
portion and an electrically conductive member 20
projecting beyond the-stock portion. and lying in
the path of the pieces of» material, and resilient
electricallyv conductive meansv connecting said
conductive member and said stock portion posi
tioned behind said stock portion so as to. be 25
shielded thereby from passing pieces of material.
3. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein
the downwardly directed and the laterally dis
posed. contact members each comprise a stock
portion and an electrically conductive member 30
projecting beyond the stockportionv and lying-in
the path of. the pieces of material, and resilient
electrically conductive‘ means connecting said
conductive member and said stock portionposi
tioned behind saidstock portion 'so as to be 35
Figure 9 shows a zigzag or serpentine attach
shielded thereby from passing pieces‘ of material,
ment 9 which may be used‘ instead of the spiral
form of resilient attachment shown in Figure 4.
In the form of the invention shown in Figures
10 and 11 the contacting membercorresponding
and said resilient electricallyconductive means
being of convoluted form. and integral with said
to 3 above comprises a single de?ectable element
1 in the form of a thin sheet of steel, aluminium
or other suitable metal, hinged to the stockpart
6 on a horizontal axis l?’by pivots ll so that it
can swing forward and return under the action
of the tension spring I2 on the tail piece I3.
The member ‘I in this case may be formed as
shown in Figures 10 and 11 of a replaceable
wearing part I4, a permanent part I5 and the
tail piece l3.
In a further modi?cation the parts ‘I in Figures
4 and 9 may be regarded as end views of a single
sheet of conductive material provided with re
silient means shown in Figures 4 and 9.
We claim:—
1. In apparatus for the separation of ‘mixed
projecting member.
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4. Apparatus as claimed in claim. 1 wherein‘ 40
the downwardly-directed and the laterallydis
posed contact members each comprise a stock
portion and an electrically conductive member
projecting beyond the stock portion .and lying
in the path of the pieces of material, resilient
electrically conductive means connecting said
conductive member and .said stock portion posi
tioned behind said stock portion so as to be
shielded thereby from passing pieces of material,
said resilient electrically conductive means com
prising a convoluted wire integral with the pro
jecting member, .and ,the convolutions of said
wire being arranged in a single plane.
KENELIVI CHARLES APPLEYARD.
STANLEY DALLAS POLLITT.
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